Royal Military College, Sandhurst

Last updated

Royal Military College, Sandhurst
RMAS18Je6-4685.jpg
New College Buildings at Sandhurst
Active1801–1939/1947
CountryFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
RoleOfficer training
Garrison/HQ Sandhurst, Berkshire
Commanders
Governors, Commandants List of Governors and Commandants of Sandhurst

The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, Berkshire, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies.

Contents

The RMC was reorganised at the outbreak of the Second World War, but some of its units remained operational at Sandhurst and Aldershot. In 1947, the Royal Military College was merged with the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, to form the present-day all-purpose Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.

History

The College at Great Marlow Royal Military College Great Marlow, 1810.jpg
The College at Great Marlow
The RMC cricket field, c. 1895 Royal Military College cricket grounds, Sandhurst, Camberley, Surrey, England, ca. 1895.jpg
The RMC cricket field, c. 1895
Old College building at Sandhurst RMAS18Je6-4617.jpg
Old College building at Sandhurst

Pre-dating the college, the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, had been established in 1741 to train artillery and engineer officers, but there was no such provision for training infantry and cavalry officers. [1]

The Royal Military College was conceived by Colonel John Le Marchant, whose scheme for establishing schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow first met strong resistance on the grounds of cost. [2]

There were already some small private military academies for aspiring infantry and cavalry officers in existence, notably one which had been operated at Chelsea by Lewis Lochée from about 1770 until he wound it up in 1790. But none of them had any formal approval by the British government. [3]

In 1799, Le Marchant established a school for staff officers at High Wycombe. [4] In 1801, Parliament voted a grant of £30,000 for his more ambitious proposals, [2] and in 1801 the school for staff officers at High Wycombe became the Senior Department of the new Military College. [4] In 1802, having been appointed as the first Lieutenant Governor of the College, Le Marchant opened its Junior Department at a large house called Remnantz in West Street, Great Marlow, [5] [6] to train gentleman cadets for the infantry and cavalry regiments of the British Army and for the presidency armies of British India. [7] [4] 1802 was the same year as the founding of the French Army's Saint-Cyr [8] and of West Point in the United States. [9] General Sir William Harcourt was appointed as the first Governor of the Royal Military College at Great Marlow [10] and continued in post until 1811. [11]

In January 1809, the East India Company established its own East India Military Seminary at Addiscombe to train officers for its armies. [12]

In 1812, the College's Junior Department moved from Great Marlow into purpose-built buildings at Sandhurst designed by James Wyatt, [13] and was soon joined there by the Senior Department, migrating from High Wycombe. In 1858 this became a separate institution, the Staff College. [4]

On the outbreak of the Second World War, many of the cadets and staff of the Royal Military College were mobilised for active service, but the buildings at Sandhurst remained the home of the RMC's 161 Infantry Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1942, this unit moved to Mons Barracks, Aldershot, and for the rest of the war the Sandhurst campus was used as a Royal Armoured Corps Officer Cadet Training Unit. [14]

In 1947, a new Royal Military Academy Sandhurst was formed on the site of the Royal Military College, merging the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich (which had trained officers for the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers from 1741 to 1939) and the Royal Military College (1802 to 1942), with the objective of providing officer training for all arms and services. [15]

Governors and Commandants

See List of Governors and Commandants of Sandhurst

The Royal Military College was originally led by a Governor, who was a figurehead, often non-resident, a Lieutenant Governor, who had actual day-to-day command of the college, and a Commandant, who was the officer in charge of the cadets. In 1812, the posts of Lieutenant Governor and Commandant were merged into the role of Commandant. In 1888 the two remaining senior posts, Governor and Commandant, were merged into the single appointment of Governor and Commandant, which in 1902 was retitled as "Commandant". [16]

Notable cadets

The most notable cadets of RMC Sandhurst include:

Related Research Articles

Royal Military Academy Sandhurst British Army officer initial training centre

The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academies of the United Kingdom and is the British Army's initial officer training centre. It is located in the town of Sandhurst, Berkshire, though its ceremonial entrance is in Camberley, Surrey, southwest of London. The academy's stated aim is to be "the national centre of excellence for leadership". All British Army officers, including late-entry officers who were previously Warrant Officers, as well as other men and women from overseas, are trained at the academy. Sandhurst is the British Army equivalent of the Britannia Royal Naval College and the Royal Air Force College Cranwell.

Royal Military Academy, Woolwich Military academy in Woolwich, in south-east London

The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It later also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was commonly known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal.

Royal Military College, Duntroon Australian Army training establishment

The Royal Military College, Duntroon, also known simply as Duntroon, is the Australian Army's officer training establishment. It was founded at Duntroon, in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, in 1911 and is at the foot of Mount Pleasant near Lake Burley Griffin, close to the Department of Defence headquarters at Russell Hill. It is comparable to the United Kingdom's Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and the United States Military Academy at West Point. Duntroon is adjacent to the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA), which is Australian Defence Force's tri-service military academy that provides military and tertiary academic education for junior officers of the Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force and the Royal Australian Navy.

Commandant is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military training establishment or academy. This usage is common in English-speaking nations. In some countries it may be a military or police rank. It is also often used to refer to the commander of a military prison or prison camp.

Royal Military College Paladins

The RMC Paladins are the athletic teams that represent Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Its facilities include the Kingston Military Community Sport Centre (KMCSC) with seating for 3737, the Navy Bay fields with seating for 800 and Constantine Arena with seating for 1500 and the Birchall Pavilion.

A King commissioned Indian officer (KCIO) was an Indian officer of the British Indian Army who held a full King's commission after training in the United Kingdom, either at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst for infantry officers, Woolwich for artillery officers, and Chatham and Woolwich for engineer officers. They had full command over British and Indian troops and officers. In contrast, the Indian commissioned officers (ICOs), who were trained at the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun, and the Viceroy's commissioned officers (VCOs), only had authority over Indian troops and officers. KCIOs were introduced in the early 20th century under the Indianisation process. They were equivalent in every way to the British officers holding a King's commission. In essence, they were commissioned by the King himself at a special induction ceremony. They held the same ranks and privileges as British officers. In fact, most KCIOs served on attachment to a British unit for a year or two early in their careers.

John Le Marchant (British Army officer, born 1766)

Major-General John Gaspard Le Marchant was one of the finest British cavalry commanders of his generation; he was also an intellectual soldier who had a great influence on the efficient functioning of the army he served in. He was instrumental in the process which produced the first British military academy and staff college; and he saw active service in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Peninsular War until his death at the Battle of Salamanca.

Rashtriya Indian Military College Military college in India

The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC) is a military school for boys and girls situated in Doon Valley, Dehradun in India. The RIMC is a feeder institution for the National Defence Academy, Indian Naval Academy and subsequently the Indian Armed Forces. Rimcollians, the name by which alumni of the RIMC are usually denoted, have gone on to hold the highest ranks in the Army, Navy and the Air Force of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Col Ajay Kumar is the current Commandant of the RIMC.

Indian Military Academy Military academy in Dehradun, India

The Indian Military Academy (IMA) is the oldest Military Academy in India, and trains officers for the Indian Army. Located in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, it was established in 1932 following a recommendation by a military committee set up under the chairmanship of General Sir Philip Chetwode. From a class of 40 male cadets in 1932, IMA now has a sanctioned capacity of 1,650. Cadets undergo a training course varying between 3 and 16 months depending on entry criteria. On completion of the course at IMA cadets are permanently commissioned into the army as Lieutenants.

Australian Army officers receive a commission from the Monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, of Australia, signed by the Governor-General of Australia, acting on her behalf. Rank insignia for commissioned officers is identical to that of the British Army, with the addition of a band containing the word "Australia" beneath the insignia.

John Le Marchant (British Army officer, born 1803) British Army general and colonial administrator

Lieutenant General Sir John Gaspard Le Marchant (1803–1874) was a British Army officer and governor of Newfoundland from 1847 to 1852. He later became the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia (1852–1858) and Governor of Malta (1858-1864).

K. M. Cariappa Indian Field Marshal and diplomat (1899–1993)

Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa was the first Indian Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the Indian Army. He led Indian forces on the Western Front during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army in 1949. He is one of only two Indian Army officers to hold the Five-star rank of Field Marshal; the other being Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw.

Staff College, Camberley Staff college for the British Army

Staff College, Camberley, Surrey, was a staff college for the British Army and the presidency armies of British India. It had its origins in the Royal Military College, High Wycombe, founded in 1799, which in 1802 became the Senior Department of the new Royal Military College. In 1858 the name of the Senior Department was changed to "Staff College", and in 1870 this was separated from the Royal Military College. Apart from periods of closure during major wars, the Staff College continued to operate until 1997, when it was merged into the new Joint Services Command and Staff College. The equivalent in the Royal Navy was the Royal Naval Staff College, Greenwich, and the equivalent in the Royal Air Force was the RAF Staff College, Bracknell.

Royal Military College (Malaysia)

Royal Military College is an all-boys military school established to train young Malaysians for service in the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF). RMC is an elite and prestigious College in Malaysia. It is sometimes dubbed "the Malaya's Sandhurst". On 9 December 1966, in a ceremony held at the college, HM Ismail Nasiruddin of Terengganu, the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong, conferred the "Royal" title to the FMC. This was a great honour for the college as RMC the only educational institution in the history of this nation has the "Royal" title bestowed upon it. Hence since 1966, the former Federation Military College came to be known as the Royal Military College.

Addiscombe Military Seminary East India Company military academy

The East India Company Military Seminary was a British military academy at Addiscombe, Surrey, in what is now the London Borough of Croydon. It opened in 1809 and closed in 1861. Its purpose was to train young officers to serve in the East India Company's own army in India.

General Sir John Antony Jervis Read, was a senior British Army officer who served as Quartermaster-General to the Forces from 1969 to 1973. He was awarded the Military Cross for gallantry during the campaign against the Italian army in East Africa in 1941 and the Distinguished Service Order for his leadership and gallantry whilst in command of 1 Gambia Regiment in Burma in March 1945, during the Second World War.

Mons Officer Cadet School was a British military training establishment for officer cadets in Aldershot from 1942 to 1972, when it was closed and all officer training concentrated at Sandhurst.

Major General Sir Gerald Charles Kitson was a British Army officer who became Commandant of the Royal Military College Sandhurst.

Alexander Hope (British Army officer) British Army general (1769–1837)

General Sir Alexander Hope GCB was a British Army officer and the last Governor of the Royal Military College while it was at Great Marlow and the first Governor after its move to Sandhurst.

References

  1. Cathy Downes, Special Trust and Confidence: The Making of an Officer (2013), p. 13
  2. 1 2 Major-General John Gaspard Le Marchant (1766–1812) Archived 2012-03-23 at the Wayback Machine at da.mod.uk/colleges (Defence Academy web site)
  3. J. E. O. Screen, “The 'Royal Military Academy' of Lewis Lochée“ in Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research Vol. 70, No. 283 (Autumn 1992), pp. 143-156
  4. 1 2 3 4 Sovereign's Parade Programme (RMA Sandhurst, April 2012)
  5. R. H. Thoumine, Scientific Soldier, a Life of General Le Marchant, 1766–1812 (Oxford University Press, 1968), pp. 61–79
  6. Marlow Tour at marlowsociety.org.uk (Marlow Society web site)
  7. RMAS: The story of Sandhurst Archived 2012-05-05 at the Wayback Machine at army.mod.uk, accessed 6 July 2009
  8. Ecoles de Saint-Cyr at st-cyr.terre.defense.gouv.fr, accessed 6 July 2009
  9. Stephen Ambrose, Duty, Honor, Country: A History of West Point (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966, ISBN   0-8018-6293-0), p. 22
  10. "No. 15377". The London Gazette . 20 June 1801. p. 691.
  11. Visitation of England and Wales, volume 12,p. 29, accessed 2011-07-20; archived 2012-03-30 at archive.org
  12. Haileybury College and Addiscombe military seminary (1822), p. 10
  13. Sandhurst – Royal Berkshire History at berkshirehistory.com
  14. Training Archived 2012-05-05 at the Wayback Machine at army.mod.uk
  15. Facilities in Sandhurst – 1937
  16. Conference Room Archived 2011-03-14 at the Wayback Machine at sandhurstcollection.org.uk (Sandhurst Collection web site)
  17. C. H. Currey, “Denison, Sir William Thomas (1804–1871)”, in Australian Dictionary of Biography , archived 18 February 2011
  18. Robson, Brian (2008). "Roberts, Frederick Sleigh, first Earl Roberts (1832–1914)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35768 . Retrieved 25 February 2009.
  19. 'Death of the King of Spain' in The Times , 26 November 1885, p. 7
  20. "No. 25105". The London Gazette . 9 May 1882. p. 2157.
  21. Gerard De Groot, Douglas Haig 1861–1928 (Unwin Hyman, 1988, ISBN   978-0044401926), p. 29
  22. Roy Jenkins, Churchill: a Biography (2001, ISBN   978-0-374-12354-3), p. 20
  23. G. E. Cokayne et al., The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, vol. XIII (Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000) p. 258
  24. "No. 27311". The London Gazette . 7 May 1901. p. 3130.
  25. Tony Heathcote, The British Field Marshals 1736–1997 (Barnsley: Pen & Sword, 1999, ISBN   0-85052-696-5), p. 213
  26. Robert Skidelsky, Oswald Mosley (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975, ISBN   9780030865800)
  27. "General K.M Cariappa Biography – General K.M Cariappa Profile, Childhood, Life, Timeline". I Love India. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  28. 'Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester' in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2007)
  29. Karl J. Newman, Pakistan unter Ayub Khan, Bhutto und Zia-ul-Haq ( ISBN   3-8039-0327-0), p. 21
  30. Ben Macintyre, For Your Eyes Only (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2008, ISBN   978-0-7475-9527-4), p. 33
  31. Pace, Eric (30 July 1983). "David Niven Dead at 73". Obituary. The New York Times . Retrieved 11 July 2018.

Coordinates: 51°28′30″N0°3′27″E / 51.47500°N 0.05750°E / 51.47500; 0.05750