Shrewsbury School

Last updated
Shrewsbury School
King Edward VI School at Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury School COA.svg
Address
Kingsland

, ,
SY3 7BA

England
Coordinates 52°42′14″N2°45′44″W / 52.7038°N 2.7622°W / 52.7038; -2.7622 Coordinates: 52°42′14″N2°45′44″W / 52.7038°N 2.7622°W / 52.7038; -2.7622
Information
Type Public school
Independent
day and boarding school
Motto Latin: Intus Si Recte Ne Labora
(If Right Within, Trouble Not)
Established1552 [1]
Founder King Edward VI
Department for Education URN 123608 Tables
Chairman of Governing BodyTim Haynes
HeadmasterLeo Winkley
Staffca. 100 (full-time teachers)
GenderCoeducational (originally all boys)
Age13to 18
Enrolmentca. 800
Colour(s)Royal blue & white         
PublicationThe Salopian
Former pupils Old Salopians
School SongCarmen Salopiense
Website

Shrewsbury School is an English co-educational independent school for pupils aged 13 to 18 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, founded by Edward VI in 1552 by Royal Charter. [1] The present campus, to which the school moved in 1882, is on the banks of the River Severn. [1]

Independent school (United Kingdom) fee-paying school in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older, expensive and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were then open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep (preparatory) schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to "prepare" them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools. Some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65 which marked the end of their state funding; others converted into comprehensive schools.

Shrewsbury County Town in England

Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England. The town is on the River Severn and the 2011 census recorded a town population of 71,715.

Shropshire County of England

Shropshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south. Shropshire Council was created in 2009, a unitary authority taking over from the previous county council and five district councils. The borough of Telford and Wrekin has been a separate unitary authority since 1998 but continues to be included in the ceremonial county.

Contents

Shrewsbury School is one of the original seven public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, and one of the 'great' nine identified by the Clarendon Commission of 1861. It was originally a boarding school for boys; girls have been admitted into the Sixth Form since 2008 and there are approximately 130 day pupils. [2] Since 2014 the school has been fully co-educational. Pupils are admitted at the age of 13 by selective examination, [2] and for approximately ten per cent of the pupils, English is a second or additional language. [1] The fees at Shrewsbury are up to £11,680 a term, with three terms per academic year in 2017/2018. [3]

Public school (United Kingdom) Type of independent school in England and Wales

A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC). Public refers to their origins as schools open to any public citizen who could afford to pay the fees; they are not funded from public taxes. Traditionally, English public schools were all-male boarding schools, but the term now also includes co-educational and girls' schools, while many accept day pupils as well as boarders.

Public Schools Act 1868 education-related UK parliament act of 1868

The Public Schools Act 1868 was enacted by the British Parliament to reform and regulate seven of the leading English boys' boarding schools of the time, most of which had grown out of ancient charity schools for the education of a certain number of poor scholars, but were then, as they are today, also educating many sons of the English upper and upper-middle classes on a fee-paying basis.

The Clarendon Commission was a royal commission established in 1861 to investigate the state of nine leading schools in England, in the wake of complaints about the finances, buildings, and management of Eton College. It sat until 1864, when its report was published with general recommendations on questions of curriculum and governance. The Clarendon Report gives a detailed picture of life in the nine schools. As a consequence of its publication, the Public Schools Act was passed in 1868.

The school's old boys or "Old Salopians" include naturalists, poets, academics, politicians, authors, sportsmen, actors, and military figures.

History

The school's original building now serves as Shrewsbury's town library Shrewsbury Library - geograph.org.uk - 915622.jpg
The school's original building now serves as Shrewsbury's town library

Following a petition in 1542 to Henry VIII from the townspeople of Shrewsbury for a free grammar school, Shrewsbury School was founded by charter in 1552 under King Edward VI by Adam Jones in three rented wooden buildings, which included Riggs Hall, built in 1450, and now the only remaining part of the original foundation. Originally, the curriculum was based on Continental Calvinism, under its first headmaster, Thomas Ashton (appointed 1561) and boys were taught the catechism of Calvin. The school attracted large numbers of pupils from Protestant families in Shrewsbury, Shropshire and North Wales, with 266 boys on its roll at the end of 1562. [4] It had few facilities so early pupils lodged with local families. Philip Sidney, who attended Shrewsbury between the ages of nine and thirteen, lodged with the family of George Leigh, Member of Parliament for Shrewsbury. Having achieved a reputation for excellence under Ashton, in 1571 the school was augmented by Queen Elizabeth I. Although Ashton had resigned from his headmastership in 1568, he returned to Shrewsbury in 1578 to help draw up the ordinances governing the school, which were in force until 1798; under them, the borough bailiffs (mayors after 1638) had power to appoint masters, with Ashton's old St John's College, Cambridge having an academic veto. [5] Shrewsbury has retained links with the College, with the continued appointment of Johnian academics to the Governing Body, and the historic awarding of 'closed' Shrewsbury Exhibitions. [6]

Grammar school type of school in the United Kingdom and some other countries

A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic secondary modern schools.

Edward VI of England 16th-century Tudor King of England

Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, and England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a regency council because he never reached his majority. The council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (1547–1549), and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick (1550–1553), who from 1551 was Duke of Northumberland.

Calvinism Protestant branch of Christianity

Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

The stone buildings on Castle Gates, including a chapel, dormitories, library and classrooms were completed by 1630 and the school continued in these, until it was relocated in 1882. Subsequently, the premises were converted to a public Free Library and Museum by the Shrewsbury Borough Council, opening in their new role in 1885. [7] In the 20th century the library purpose gradually took over the building. After a period of structural deterioration, followed by extensive restoration work, the buildings were re-opened entirely as Shrewsbury Public Library in 1983. [8] [9]

Shrewsbury Library public library in Shrewsbury

Shrewsbury Library is housed in a Grade 1 listed building situated on Castle Gates near Shrewsbury Castle. The site was the home of Shrewsbury School from 1550 until 1882. The buildings were handed over to the town in 1882 and a free library and museum were opened by The Corporation of Shrewsbury on the site in 1885. The library was moved temporarily to Raven Meadows in 1976 while the site on Castle Gates underwent extensive restorations. The library was re-opened in 1983 by Princess Margaret.

Early graffiti in the former school building Shrewsbury Library 06.jpg
Early graffiti in the former school building

The reputation of the school declined in the following centuries. Samuel Butler became headmaster in 1798. [10] The school had just three headmasters during the 19th century. Butler was succeeded by his pupil Benjamin Hall Kennedy (of Latin Primer fame) in 1836, [10] who in turn gave way to Henry Whitehead Moss in 1866. Under Butler and Kennedy, Shrewsbury was one of three provincial schools among the nine studied by the Clarendon Commission of 186164. [11]

Samuel Butler (schoolmaster) English classical scholar and schoolmaster

Samuel Butler FRS was an English classical scholar and schoolmaster of Shrewsbury, and Bishop of Lichfield. His grandson was Samuel Butler (1835–1902), noted author of the novel Erewhon.

Benjamin Hall Kennedy English classical scholar and schoolmaster

Benjamin Hall Kennedy was an English scholar and schoolmaster, known for his work in the teaching of the Latin language. He was an active supporter of Newnham College and Girton College as Cambridge University colleges for women.

Henry Whitehead Moss was an English scholar.

The school's main building, a former workhouse, on the Kingsland site, to which the school moved in 1882. Shrewsbury School 1.JPG
The school's main building, a former workhouse, on the Kingsland site, to which the school moved in 1882.

In 1882, Moss moved the school from its original town centre location to a new site of 150 acres (61 ha) in Kingsland, on the south bank of the River Severn overlooking the town. A legacy of this move can be seen in the school campus being referred to as "The Site". The school was set up in a building that had at different times housed a foundling hospital and the Shrewsbury workhouse; buildings have since grown up around the edge of the campus with sports pitches in the centre.

Moss was succeeded in 1908 by Cyril Alington, then Master in College at Eton. Alington, though a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, was a sportsman, evidenced by the 1914 appointment as his secretary of Neville Cardus, the future cricket journalist who had joined the school in 1912 as the school's assistant cricket professional. At the time of his appointment as Headmaster, Alington was younger than any of the masters on the staff, so to bring in new blood into the teaching staff, he recruited several former Collegers from Eton, most notably The Rev. Ronald Knox [See 'Ronald Knox' by Evelyn Waugh 1959 & 'The History of Shrewsbury School' by J.B.Oldham, 1952]. Alington revived attendance which had fallen away under Moss, and he was an energetic builder; the school hall is named after him.

Since the turn of the millennium, the school's site has seen investment. A new music school, The Maidment Building, was opened by Prince Charles in 2001. [12]

The Main School Building - originally an institutional building of 1765, remodeled by Sir Arthur Blomfield (whose other educational commissions include Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford University and Marlborough College) - saw renovation over several years, modernising all classrooms in the mid to late 2000s.

A new boarding house has been completed, as has a new world-class indoor cricket centre and a new swimming pool. In 2003 Shrewsbury International School, Bangkok was opened in Bangkok, Thailand, on the banks of the Chao Phraya River.

To mark the turn of the Millennium, Shrewsbury unveiled a monument to its most famous alumnus - Charles Darwin. Shrewsbury School 4.JPG
To mark the turn of the Millennium, Shrewsbury unveiled a monument to its most famous alumnus - Charles Darwin.

In 2005 Shrewsbury School was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents. [13] Each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. [14] Jean Scott, the head of the Independent Schools Council, said that independent schools had always been exempt from anti-cartel rules applied to business, were following a long-established procedure in sharing the information with each other, and that they were unaware of the change to the law (on which they had not been consulted). [15]

Sport

The main sport in the Michaelmas (autumn) term is football, in the Lent term fives and rugby, and in summer cricket. Rowing is another main sport which happens all year, and the Royal Shrewsbury School Boat Club (RSSBC) is one of the oldest school rowing clubs, having been founded in 1866. Since the boat club began rowing at Henley Royal Regatta in 1912, they have won 14 times, which is second only to Eton. [16] Admission of girls in 2014 has seen the introduction of field hockey, netball and lacrosse, with cricket and tennis played during the summer term.

Shrewsbury School viewed from The Quarry, with the school's boathouse in the foreground. Boating Club - geograph.org.uk - 142500.jpg
Shrewsbury School viewed from The Quarry, with the school's boathouse in the foreground.

The Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt (RSSH or "the Hunt") is the oldest cross-country club in the world, with written records (the Hound Books) going back to 1831 and evidence that it was established by 1819. [17] The sport of "the Hunt" or "the Hounds", now known as a Paper Chase, was formalised at the school around 1800. Two runners (the "foxes") made a trail with paper shreds and after a set time they would be pursued by the other runners (the "hounds"). The club officers are the Huntsman and Senior and Junior Whips. The hounds start most races paired into "couples" as in real fox hunting; the winner of a race is said to "kill". [18] In his 1903 semi-autobiographical novel The Way of All Flesh , Old Salopian Samuel Butler describes a school based on Shrewsbury where the main protagonist's favourite recreation is running with "the Hounds" so "a run of six or seven miles across country was no more than he was used to". [19] The first definite record of the Annual Steeplechase is in 1834, making it the oldest cross-country race of the modern era. [17] The main inter-house cross-country races are still called the Junior and Senior Paperchase, although no paper is dropped and urban development means the historical course can no longer be followed. Every October the whole school participates in a 3.5 mile run called "The Tucks", originally intended to prevent pupils attending a local horse race. [20] The school also lays claim to the oldest track and field meeting still in existence, which originated in the Second Spring Meeting first documented in 1840. This featured a series of mock horse races including the Derby Stakes, the Hurdle Race, the Trial Stakes and a programme of throwing and jumping events, with runners being entered by "owners" and named as though they were horses. [17]

Shrewsbury is one of only two public schools to have bumps races, the other being Eton, between the houses. They are rowed over four evenings at the end of term in July. There are usually three boats entered per house. On the fourth evening there are prizes for the leaders of the chart and the Leadbitter Cup for the boat which has made the most bumps over the four nights. The event is marshalled by senior rowers and rowing prefects, usually masters. The crew training is mainly pupil driven, though in preparation for Henley the school's First VIII rowers often do not take part, and therefore the boats are composed of other rowers and some non-rowers. Previously, races were run every day until there were no more bumps (i.e. until they were nominally in speed order). This historical set-up could lead to weeks of racing and it was therefore abandoned in favour of a four-day version more than 100 years ago. Otherwise, it is only Oxford and Cambridge that continue to have bumps. Shrewsbury and Eton both race bumps in fours whilst Oxford and Cambridge race in eights.

The school's site is intersected by shaded paths Footpath through Shrewsbury School grounds - geograph.org.uk - 1470032.jpg
The school's site is intersected by shaded paths

The school's original Castle Gates premises had little in way of provision for games. Under Dr Butler, there were two bat[ clarification needed ] fives courts and playgrounds in front of and behind the buildings, but after the arrival of Dr Kennedy football was permitted, for which the school acquired a ground in Coton Hill (north of Castle Gates). [9]

The present school buildings in Kingsland are arranged around the sports fields which have nine grass football pitches and one of Astroturf; almost all boys play football in the Michaelmas term. [21] Salopians were prominent in the early history of the organised game at Cambridge University, according to Adrian Harvey "Salopians formed a club of their own in the late 1830s/early 1840s but that was presumably absorbed by the Cambridge University Football Club that they were so influential in creating in 1846". [22] The school has an 1856 copy of the Cambridge rules of football, predating the 1863 rules of the FA.

The school's chapel Shrewsbury School 2.JPG
The school's chapel

Houses

There are eight boys' boarding houses, four girls' boarding houses and two for dayboys, each with its own housemaster or housemistress, tutor team and matron. Each house also has its own colours. In football, each house competes in four different leagues (two senior, two junior) and three knock-out competitions (two senior, one junior). A single house will hold around 60 pupils, although School House and each of the dayboy houses hold slightly more. Having about 90 pupils, School House used to be divided into Doctors (black and white) and Headroom (magenta and white) for most sporting purposes, whilst being one house in other respects, but this distinction was abolished in around 2000. The houses and their colours are:

Benjamin Hall Kennedy, headmaster of Shrewsbury for thirty years, from 1836 to 1866. Benjamin Hall Kennedy, by Walter William Ouless.jpg
Benjamin Hall Kennedy, headmaster of Shrewsbury for thirty years, from 1836 to 1866.
HouseColours Notes
Churchill's HallDark Blue & Light BlueRichard HudsonOpened in 1882, listed building
The GroveCornflower Blue and WhiteClare WilsonConverted to girls' house in summer 2014
Ingram's HallGreen & WhiteSam Griffiths
Moser's HallDeep Red & BlackJane PattendenOpened in 1884, listed building
Oldham's HallChocolate Brown & WhiteMarcus JohnsonOpened in 1911, listed building
Port HillGold & RedAndy BarnardFormerly merged as Dayboys Hall
RadbrookViolet & WhiteRichard Case
RidgemountRoyal Blue & Old GoldWill HughesOpened in 1926, listed building
Rigg's HallChocolate & GoldMatthew BarrettOpened in 1882, listed building
School HouseBlack, Magenta & WhiteHugo Besterman
Severn HillMaroon & French GreyDan NicholasFormerly known as Chances
Mary Sidney HallDark Blue & PinkNaomi PritchardOpened in September 2008
Emma Darwin HallWedgwood Blue & GreenKait WestonOpened in September 2011

School Arms

The Arms of the school are those of King Edward VI being The Arms of England (three lions passant) quartered with those of France (fleur-de-lys). [23]

Headmasters

Notable masters

Notable Old Salopians

Former pupils are referred to as Old Salopians (from the old name for Shropshire).

Contemporary Old Salopians include:

Victoria Cross holders

Two Old Salopians received the Victoria Cross, both in the First World War, 1914–18.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Ofsted Social Care report 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2010
  2. 1 2 Independent Schools Inspectorate report 2007 Retrieved 19 March 2010
  3. https://www.shrewsbury.org.uk/page/fees
  4. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 684. ISBN   0-19-861352-0.Article on Thomas Ashton by Martin R. Speight.
  5. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 2. pp. 684–685.
  6. "Governing Body Members' Details". Shrewsbury School. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  7. Beryl Copsey (April 1985). Read All About It! Grand Opening of Shrewsbury's free library 100 years ago. The Shropshire Magazine. p. 18–19.
  8. A plaque erected by The Rotary Club of Shrewsbury, commemorating the club's 60th anniversary in 1985, reads: Castle Gates Library erected by Edward VI in 1552, Shrewsbury School occupied this site until 1882. The stone buildings were built 15941630. Judge Jefferys and Charles Darwin were educated here. Re-opened as a library in 1983 after complete renovation.
  9. 1 2 Shrewsbury Library, Its History and Restoration. Shropshire Libraries. 1983. ISBN   0-903802-26-0.(Unpaginated)
  10. 1 2 Lee, Sidney (1886). "Butler, Samuel (1774-1839)"  . In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography . 8. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  11. Stray, Christopher (2005) Histories of the Nine Clarendon Schools: v. 1 Thoemmes Continuum ISBN   1-84371-108-7, ISBN   978-1-84371-108-7.
  12. "Shrewsbury School". TES. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  13. TimesOnline
  14. www.oft.gov.uk Archived 2 April 2014 at the UK Government Web Archive
  15. "Private schools send papers to fee-fixing inquiry". The Daily Telegraph. London. 1 March 2004. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  16. https://www.shrewsbury.org.uk/page/rowing-rssbc
  17. 1 2 3 Robinson, Roger (December 1998). "On the Scent of History". Running Times: 28.
  18. "History of The Tucks". Shrewsbury School. 2011.
  19. Butler, Samuel (1903). "39". The Way of All Flesh . Project Gutenberg.
  20. "The Tucks". Shrewsbury School. 2011.
  21. "Football". Shrewsbury School. 2011.
  22. Harvey, Adrian (2005). Football: The first hundred years. Routledge. p. 251.
  23. "Shrewsbury School coat of arms", The Victorian Web.
  24. 'Frank McEachran', obituary in Books and Bookmen, vol. 20 (Hanson Books, 1975), pp. 58–59.

Further reading