Royal Military Academy, Woolwich

Last updated

Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
2017-Woolwich, RMA - 3.jpg
The New Royal Military Academy, in use 1806 to 1939
CountryFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
RoleOfficer Training
Garrison/HQ Woolwich, London
Nickname(s)"The Shop"

The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It later also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was commonly known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal. [1]



Origins in the Royal Arsenal

The Old Royal Military Academy, in use 1741-1806. The cadets were taught in the left-hand half of the building, the right providing a Board Room for the Ordnance Board. Oldmilitaryacademywoolwich.jpg
The Old Royal Military Academy, in use 1741–1806. The cadets were taught in the left-hand half of the building, the right providing a Board Room for the Ordnance Board.

An attempt had been made by the Board of Ordnance in 1720 to set up an academy within its Arsenal (then known as the Warren) to provide training and education for prospective officers of its new Regiment of Artillery and Corps of Engineers (both of which had been established there in 1716). A new building was being constructed in readiness for the Academy and funds had been secured, seemingly, through investment in the South Sea Company; but the latter's collapse led to plans for the Academy being placed on hold. [2]

After this false start, the Academy was opened by authority of a Royal Warrant in 1741: it was intended, in the words of its first charter, to produce "good officers of Artillery and perfect Engineers". [3] Its 'gentlemen cadets' initially ranged in age from 10 to 30. To begin with they were attached to the marching companies of the Royal Artillery, but in 1744 they were formed into their own company, forty in number (enlarged to forty-eight, two years later) overseen by a Captain-Lieutenant. [4] To begin with the cadets were accommodated in lodgings in the town of Woolwich, but this arrangement was deemed unsatisfactory (the cadets gained a reputation for riotousness) so in 1751 a Cadets' Barracks was built just within the south boundary wall of the Warren and the cadets had to adjust to a more strict military discipline. (The Cadets' Barracks was demolished in the 1980s for road widening.) [5]

Education in the Academy focused at first on mathematics and the scientific principles of gunnery and fortification; French was also taught, for a small fee. In addition to their theoretical studies, the cadets shared (with all ranks of the Artillery) in what was called 'the Practice' of gunnery, bridge building, magazine technique and artillery work. While an Artillery officer attended each class to keep order, teaching in the Academy was provided by civilians: a First Master (later called Professor of Fortification and Gunnery), a Second Master (later Professor of Mathematics) and additional tutors in French, Arithmetic, Classics and Drawing. In 1764 the Royal Academy (as it had been known) had the word 'Military' added to its title, and at the same time a senior officer was appointed to serve as Lieutenant-Governor (de facto head of the institution). [4] Moreover, the institution was split: younger cadets entered the Lower Academy, where they were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, Latin, French and drawing. If they performed well in examinations they were allowed to proceed to the Upper Academy, where they learned military skills and sciences (as well as fencing and dancing – required skills for prospective officers). [5]

Relocation to Woolwich Common

The possibility of moving the Royal Military Academy out of the Warren was mooted as early as 1783, as it was fast outgrowing the available accommodation. At first costs precluded this possibility, but (with the Academy continuing to grow) James Wyatt, the Board of Ordnance Architect, was commissioned to design a new complex of buildings to stand, on a site facing the Royal Artillery Barracks, at the southern edge of Woolwich Common; it was built between 1796 and 1805 and opened for use the following year. [6]

One of the original accommodation blocks (left) with 1862 addition alongside (right). 2015 London-Woolwich, Royal Military Academy 01.JPG
One of the original accommodation blocks (left) with 1862 addition alongside (right).

Wyatt's Academy was built of yellow brick in the Tudor Gothic style. It consisted of a central block (reminiscent of the Ordnance Board's headquarters in the Tower of London) flanked by a pair of accommodation blocks, linked by arcaded walkways. The central block contained classrooms, a library and offices; the accommodation blocks housed officers in the three-storey central sections and cadets in the two-storey wings. Behind the central block Wyatt placed a large dining hall flanked by spacious quadrangles having service buildings around the sides. [2]

128 cadets moved to the new Academy: these comprised the four senior years. Of the younger cadets, sixty were kept at the Warren (by then renamed the Royal Arsenal) and another sixty were sent to a new college for junior cadets at Great Marlow. Practical teaching continued to be given in the working context of the Arsenal. In 1810, military cadets of the East India Company, who had previously been educated at the Academy, were moved to a new college at Addiscombe. [7]

During the years that followed the status of the cadets changed: rather than being considered (albeit junior) military personnel, as had previously been the case, they were removed from the muster roll and they (or their parents) began to be charged fees for attendance. In this way the Academy took on something of the ethos of an English public school. In 1844 the Academy was described by Edward Mogg as accommodating:

"about one hundred and thirty young gentlemen, the sons of military men, and the more respectable classes, who are here instructed in mathematics, land-surveying, with mapping, fortification, engineering, the use of the musket and sword exercise, and field-pieces; and for whose use twelve brass cannon, three-pounders, are placed in front of the building, practising with which they acquire a knowledge of their application in the field of battle. This department is under the direction of a lieutenant-general, an instructor, a professor of mathematics, and a professor of fortification; in addition to which there are French, German, and drawing masters". [8]

Following the demise of the Board of Ordnance in the wake of the Crimean War the Academy was inspected by a commission which recommended changes: the minimum age for cadets was raised to fifteen and more specialist training was added. [2] As part of these reforms the Academy complex was enlarged in the 1860s, with a view to accommodating all cadets on the same site (although some would remain in the Arsenal through to the 1880s): the frontage was extended with the addition of new pavilions at either end, in similar style to Wyatt's work but in red brick rather than yellow; William Jervois was the architect. [5] These contained new classrooms, with accommodation provided in similar new blocks behind. Sports facilities were also added along with gun batteries for training. In 1873 Wyatt's central block had to be entirely rebuilt following a devastating fire. [2]

Closure and aftermath

View from the north-west in 2015 London, Woolwich-Shooters Hill, former Royal Military Academy 07.jpg
View from the north-west in 2015

Following the demise of the Board of Ordnance, Parliament had explored the possibility of a merger between the Royal Military Academy and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst (which only trained officers for the Infantry and Cavalry); although senior Army officers rejected the idea at the time it persisted into the twentieth century. Arguments in favour of a merger gained momentum in the 1920s when the specialist and scientific training which had been Woolwich's preserve began to be outsourced to other locations. In 1936 it was decided that the merger should take place; but the Second World War intervened and in 1939 both institutions closed as their cadets were called up for active service. [11]

The Royal Military Academy Woolwich closed in 1939 and in 1947 the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst was formed on the site of the former Royal Military College with the objective of providing officer training for all arms and services. [12]

Refurbishment of the site underway in 2015 London, Woolwich-Shooters Hill, former Royal Military Academy 10.jpg
Refurbishment of the site underway in 2015

Thereafter, the old Academy site became part of Woolwich Garrison, housing troops of various types in the years that followed. The central block was taken over by the Royal Artillery Institution and housed a museum, archives and offices. The chapel (commissioned in 1902 by Commandant Richard Henry Jelf, commemorated by a brass plaque in the chapel) [13] became the Garrison Church (replacing the bombed out Garrison Church of St George). [14] In this way the old Academy continued in military use through the 20th century, but with the number of personnel based in Woolwich having steadily decreased, the site was in 2002 declared surplus to requirements. [5]

Sale and redevelopment

Durkan Group bought the Woolwich site by public tender in 2006 and redevelopment started in 2008. [6] The Woolwich buildings, several of which are grade II listed, [14] are now being converted and extended into 334 houses and apartments, including 150 for a housing association. In 2017 the scaffolding around the main facade has been removed and refurbishment is nearing completion. [6]

Since 2013 the RMA cricket field, one of the oldest in the UK, is being used again by the 3rd and 4th team of Blackheath Cricket Club. [15]


Education and training

Until 1870 prospective officers in the British Army had for the most part to purchase their commissions, and education or training was not seen as a requirement for the rôle. The Board of Ordnance's establishment of a Military Academy represented a very different approach, whereby training and education were obligatory for aspiring officers of its corps, and promotion was offered according to merit (those with highest achievement in their exams being given the first choice of opportunities). [11]


The main Academy buildings are described by Historic England as "an outstanding example of Wyatt's Gothick style, and one of the most important pieces of military architecture in the country". [14]


A phrase said to have entered common parlance from the Academy is "talking shop" (meaning "to discuss subjects not understood by others"). [11]

The name of the cue game "snooker" (reputedly invented by a former cadet of the Academy) is said to derive from a slang term for newly arrived cadets: the French term "les neux", which was later corrupted into "snooks". [11]


Commandants have included: [16]

Notable teachers

Notable teachers at Woolwich include (in alphabetical order by surname):

See also

Related Research Articles

Woolwich district in South East London, England

Woolwich is a district of southeast London, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich. It has been part of the London metropolitan area since the 19th century. In 1965, most of the former Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich became part of Greenwich Borough, of which it remains the administrative centre.

Royal Military Academy Sandhurst British Army officer initial training centre

The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academies of the United Kingdom and is the British Army's initial officer training centre. It is located in the town of Sandhurst, Berkshire, though its ceremonial entrance is in Camberley, southwest of London. The Academy's stated aim is to be "the national centre of excellence for leadership". All British Army officers, including late-entry officers who were previously Warrant Officers, as well as other men and women from overseas, are trained at The Academy. Sandhurst is the British Army equivalent of the Britannia Royal Naval College and the Royal Air Force College Cranwell. Some graduates of these military academies receive further education at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom.

Board of Ordnance

The Board of Ordnance was a British government body. Established in the Tudor period, it had its headquarters in the Tower of London. Its primary responsibilities were 'to act as custodian of the lands, depots and forts required for the defence of the realm and its overseas possessions, and as the supplier of munitions and equipment to both the Army and the Navy'. The Board also maintained and directed the Artillery and Engineer corps, which it founded in the 18th century. By the 19th century, the Board of Ordnance was second in size only to HM Treasury among government departments. The Board lasted until 1855, at which point it was disbanded.

Royal Military College, Sandhurst British Army military academy

The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, Berkshire, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies.

Royal Arsenal former arsenal in Woolwich in south-east London, England

The Royal Arsenal, Woolwich carried out armaments manufacture, ammunition proofing, and explosives research for the British armed forces at a site on the south bank of the River Thames in Woolwich in south-east London, England, United Kingdom. It was originally known as the Woolwich Warren, having begun on land previously used as a domestic warren in the grounds of a Tudor house, Tower Place. Much of the initial history of the site is linked with that of the Board of Ordnance, which purchased the Warren in the late 17th century in order to expand an earlier base at Gun Wharf in Woolwich Dockyard. Over the next two centuries, as operations grew and innovations were pursued, the site expanded massively; at the time of the First World War the Arsenal covered 1,285 acres (520 ha) and employed close to 80,000 people. Thereafter its operations were scaled down; it finally closed as a factory in 1967 and the Ministry of Defence moved out in 1994. Today the area, so long a secret enclave, is open to the public and is being redeveloped for housing and community use.

Olinthus Gregory British astronomer

Olinthus Gilbert Gregory was an English mathematician, author and editor.

Woolwich Common park in the United Kingdom

Woolwich Common is a common in Woolwich in southeast London, England. It is partly used as military land and partly as an urban park. Woolwich Common is a conservation area. It is part of the South East London Green Chain. It is also the name of a street on the east side of the common, as well as an electoral ward of the Royal Borough of Greenwich. The population of the ward at the 2011 Census was 17,499.

Royal Artillery Museum museum in Woolwich, England

The Royal Artillery Museum, one of the world's oldest military museums, was first opened to the public in Woolwich in south-east London in 1820. It told the story of the development of artillery through the ages by way of an unrivalled collection of artillery pieces from across the centuries.

Royal Artillery Barracks, Woolwich barracks in the Royal Borough of Greenwich in London, England

The Royal Artillery Barracks at Woolwich in the Royal Borough of Greenwich, London, was the home of the Royal Artillery from 1776 until 2007.

Royal Army Ordnance Corps

The Royal Army Ordnance Corps (RAOC) was a corps of the British Army. At its renaming as a Royal Corps in 1918 it was both a supply and repair corps. In the supply area it had responsibility for weapons, armoured vehicles and other military equipment, ammunition and clothing and certain minor functions such as laundry, mobile baths and photography. The RAOC was also responsible for a major element of the repair of Army equipment. In 1942 the latter function was transferred to the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) and the vehicle storage and spares responsibilities of the Royal Army Service Corps were in turn passed over to the RAOC. The RAOC retained repair responsibilities for ammunition, clothing and certain ranges of general stores. In 1964 the McLeod Reorganisation of Army Logistics resulted in the RAOC absorbing petroleum, rations and accommodation stores functions from the Royal Army Service Corps as well as the Army Fire Service, barrack services, sponsorship of NAAFI (EFI) and the management of staff clerks from the same Corps. On 5 April 1993, the RAOC was one of the corps that amalgamated to form The Royal Logistic Corps (RLC).

Henry Brackenbury British Army general

General Sir Henry Brackenbury, was a British Army officer who was assistant to Garnet Wolseley in the 1870s and became part of his 'Ring' of loyal officers. He also wrote several books of military history and memoirs.

Greenwich Heritage Centre

Greenwich Heritage Centre was a museum and local history resource centre in Woolwich, south-east London, England. It was established in 2003 by the London Borough of Greenwich and was run from 2014 by the Royal Greenwich Heritage Trust until the centre's closure in July 2018. The museum was based in a historic building in Artillery Square, in the Royal Arsenal complex, which was established in the 17th century as a repository and manufactory of heavy guns, ammunition and other military ware.

Royal Military College of Science

The Royal Military College of Science (RMCS) was a British postgraduate school, research institution and training provider with origins dating back to 1772.

General Sir John St. George was a British Army officer.

William Mudge English artillery officer and surveyor

William Mudge (1762–1820) was an English artillery officer and surveyor, born in Plymouth, an important figure in the work of the Ordnance Survey.

Stephen Payne Adye was an English brevet-major of the Royal Artillery.

Major-General James Murray Hadden was a British Army officer and surveyor-general of the ordnance.

Sir Henry James Alderson was a Canadian-British major-general in the Royal Artillery.

John Müller German-British mathematician and engineer

John Müller was a German mathematician and engineer.

Charles Booth Brackenbury was a British major general and military correspondent, part of a Lincolnshire family whose members fought in nearly all of Britain's wars of the 19th century. He saw service in the Crimean War, and was present at the Battle of Königgrätz (1866) and the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). He was one of the most extensive military writers in the mid to late 19th century.


  1. History of the Royal Military Academy
  2. 1 2 3 4 "The Royal Arsenal" (PDF). University College London. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  3. "Royal Engineers Museum – Articles – Royal Military Academy, Woolwich" . Retrieved 24 December 2008.
  4. 1 2 Hogg, Brigadier O.F.G. (1963). The Royal Arsenal Woolwich. Volume I. London: Oxford University Press.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Woolwich Common and Royal Military Academy Areas" (PDF). University College London. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  6. 1 2 3 Binney, Marcus (21 March 2008). "Royal Military Academy in Woolwich is turned into luxury apartments". The Times. London. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  7. Vibart 1894, p. 9
  8. Mogg, Edward. "Mogg's New Picture of London and Visitor's Guide to it Sights, 1844". Victorian London. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  9. Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1079070)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  10. Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1358937)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  11. 1 2 3 4 "The History of RMA Sandhurst" (PDF). British Army. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  12. Facilities in Sandhurst – 1937
  13. Historic England. "Church of St Michael and All Angels, Royal Military Academy (1390520)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  14. 1 2 3 Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1390520)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  15. "Grounds". Blackheath CC. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  16. Army Commands Archived 2015-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
  17. List of Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery from the Year 1716 to 1899 Accessed: 23 May 2014
  18. 1 2 "No. 27359". The London Gazette . 27 September 1901. p. 6295.
  19. Newsome, Sarah; Williams, Andrew (2009). An Archaeological Survey of Woolwich Common. English Heritage. p. 54. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  20. Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Sir Frederick Augustus Abel
  21. Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Peter Barlow
  22. MacTutor Biography: Peter Barlow
  23. Lance Day and Ian McNeil, Biographical dictionary of the history of technology, Routledge, 1995, page 42.
  24. Ingalls, James M. (1886), Exterior Ballistics in the Plane of Fire, New York: D. van Nostrand, p. 18
  25. Whittaker, Thomas (1886). "Bonnycastle, John"  . In Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography . 5. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  26. Lee, Sidney (1901). Dictionary of National Biography sup vol 1 Abbot-Childers. London: Elder Smith & Co.
  27. "Christie, Samuel Hunter (CHRY800SH)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  28. "Crawford, Adair"  . Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  29. Morgan William Crofton Biography, School of Mathematics and Statistics, St Andrew's University. Accessed 10 September 2014.
  30. Watson, K. D. "Cruickshank, William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . 14 (online ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 519–20. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/57592.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  31. Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : "Evans, Lewis (1755-1827)". Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  32. Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : "Evans, Thomas Simpson". Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  33. Engineering Timelines, Michael Faraday. Accessed 10 September 2014.
  34. Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : "Fielding, Thales". Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  35. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Alfred George Greenhill (October 2003).
  36. Grace's Guide, Olinthus Gilbert Gregory . Accessed 10 September 2014.
  37. Olinthus Gilbert Gregory Biography, School of Mathematics and Statistics, St Andrew's University. Accessed 10 September 2014.
  38. "Bicentenary of Dr. Charles Hutton, F.R.S". Nature. 140 (3537): 269. 1937. doi:10.1038/140269a0.
  39. mentioned in Grace's Guide entry for Charles Hutton Gregory. Accessed 10 September 2014.
  40. Sella, Andrea. "Marsh's Mirror". Chemistry World. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  41. "The Photographic Album of Richard Clement Moody, Royal British Columbia Museum" (PDF).
  42. Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : "Rutherford, William". Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  43. British Museum collection: Royal Military Academy and Prince Rupert's Tower, Woolwich Academy – curator's note
  44. South East History Boards, Henry Young Darracott Scott . Accessed 10 September 2014
  45. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Update September 2015.
  46. Editors, The (24 October 1945). "James Joseph Sylvester | English mathematician". Retrieved 22 September 2017.


Coordinates: 51°28′30″N0°3′27″E / 51.47500°N 0.05750°E / 51.47500; 0.05750