Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

Last updated
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Duchy of Lancaster-coa.png
Arms of the Duchy of Lancaster
Official portrait of Mr David Lidington.jpg
Incumbent
David Lidington

since 8 January 2018
Style The Right Honourable
Appointer The Sovereign
on advice of the Prime Minister
Inaugural holder Sir Henry de Haydock
Formation1361
Website www.duchyoflancaster.co.uk
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the United Kingdom
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdomportal

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is a ministerial office [1] in the Government of the United Kingdom that includes as part of its duties, the administration of the estates and rents of the Duchy of Lancaster. [2] The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. [3] [4]

Government of the United Kingdom central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is also commonly referred to as simply the UK Government or the British Government.

Duchy of Lancaster royal duchy in England

The Duchy of Lancaster is, since 1399, the private estate of the British sovereign as Duke of Lancaster. The principal purpose of the estate is to provide a source of independent income to the Sovereign. The estate consists of a portfolio of lands, properties and assets held in trust for the Sovereign and is administered separately from the Crown Estate. The duchy consists of 18,433 ha of land holdings, urban developments, historic buildings and some commercial properties across England and Wales, particularly in Cheshire, Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, Lancashire and the Savoy Estate in London. The Duchy of Lancaster is one of two royal duchies: the other is the Duchy of Cornwall, which provides income to the Prince of Wales.

Contents

The Chancellor is answerable to Parliament for the governance of the Duchy. [5] However, the involvement of the Chancellor in the running of the day-to-day affairs of the Duchy is slight, and the office is held by a senior politician whose main role is usually quite different. The position is currently held by David Lidington.

David Lidington British politician

David Roy Lidington is a British Conservative Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Aylesbury since 1992. On 8 January 2018, he assumed the roles of Minister for the Cabinet Office and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He has been frequently described as Theresa May's de facto deputy Prime Minister.

History

Originally, the Chancellor was the chief officer in the daily management of the Duchy of Lancaster and the County Palatine of Lancaster (a county palatine merged into the Crown in 1399), but that estate is now run by a deputy, leaving the Chancellor as a member of the Cabinet with little obligation in regard to the Chancellorship. The position has often been given to a junior Cabinet minister with responsibilities in a particular area of policy for which there is no department with an appropriate portfolio.

County palatine historical country subdivision, the ruler of which was granted an unusual degree of autonomy

In England, a county palatine or palatinate was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a kingdom or empire. The name derives from the Latin adjective palātīnus, "relating to the palace", from the noun palātium, "palace". It thus implies the exercise of a quasi-royal prerogative within a county, that is to say a jurisdiction ruled by an earl, the English equivalent of a count. A duchy palatine is similar but is ruled over by a duke, a nobleman of higher precedence than an earl or count.

Cabinet of the United Kingdom collective decision-making body of the British government

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

In 1491, the office of Vice-Chancellor of the County Palatine of Lancaster was created. The position is now held by a judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, who sits in the north west of England, and no longer appointed to that position as legal officer of the Duchy.

Vice-Chancellor of the County Palatine of Lancaster

The Vice-Chancellor of the County Palatine of Lancaster is an office of the Duchy of Lancaster. The vice-chancellor is appointed by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster after consultation with the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. Since 1987, the vice-chancellor has been a High Court judge of the Chancery Division with a term of approximately three years.

High Court of Justice one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales

The High Court of Justice in England is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales. Its name is abbreviated as EWHC for legal citation purposes.

Modern times

In recent times, the Chancellor's duties (administrative, financial, and legal) have been said to occupy an average of one day a week. Under the Promissory Oaths Act 1868, the Chancellor is required to take the oath of allegiance and the Official Oath. [6] The holder of the sinecure is a minister without portfolio; Oswald Mosley, for example, focused on unemployment after being appointed to the position in 1929 during the second MacDonald ministry. [7]

Oath of allegiance oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to the state

An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to monarch or country. In republics, modern oaths specify allegiance to the country in general, or to the country's constitution. For example, officials in the United States, a republic, take an oath of office that includes swearing allegiance to the United States Constitution. However, in a constitutional monarchy, such as in the United Kingdom, Australia and other Commonwealth realms, oaths are sworn to the monarch. Armed forces typically require a military oath.

A sinecure is an office – carrying a salary or otherwise generating income – that requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. The term originated in the medieval church, where it signified a post without any responsibility for the "cure [care] of souls", the regular liturgical and pastoral functions of a cleric, but came to be applied to any post, secular or ecclesiastical, that involved little or no actual work. Sinecures have historically provided a potent tool for governments or monarchs to distribute patronage, while recipients are able to store up titles and easy salaries.

A minister without portfolio is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry. The sinecure is particularly common in countries ruled by coalition governments and a cabinet with decision-making authority wherein a minister without portfolio, while he or she may not head any particular office or ministry, still receives a ministerial salary and has the right to cast a vote in cabinet decisions. In some countries where the executive branch is not composed of a coalition of parties and, more often, in countries with purely presidential systems of government, such as the United States, the position of minister without portfolio is uncommon.

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is entitled to a salary under the Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975, but section 3 of the Act provides that the salary "shall be reduced by the amount of the salary payable to him otherwise than out of moneys so provided in respect of his office". [8] The Office of the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is part of the Cabinet Office. [9]

Cabinet Office United Kingdom government ministerial department

The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom. It is composed of various units that support Cabinet committees and which co-ordinate the delivery of government objectives via other departments. It currently has just over 2,000 staff, most of whom work in Whitehall. Staff working in the Prime Minister's Office are part of the Cabinet Office.

From 1997 until 2009, the holder of the title also served as the Minister for the Cabinet Office. This applied in the case of Alan Milburn, who was given the title by Prime Minister Tony Blair in 2004 and at the same time rejoined the Cabinet. However, in the reshuffle of 5 June 2009, the Chancellorship went to the Leader of the House of Lords, the Baroness Royall. In David Cameron's first cabinet, announced on 12 May 2010, the Chancellorship remained with the Leader of the House of Lords.

The position is currently held by David Lidington following a Cabinet reshuffle on 8 January 2018. The previous holder of the post was Patrick McLoughlin who was given the post following Theresa May's appointment as Prime Minister. Before this the holder of the post was Oliver Letwin, who was appointed in July 2014 when he was also Minister for Government Policy (20102015); following the 2015 general election, he was also given overall responsibility for the Cabinet Office and made a full member of the Cabinet.

See also

Notes

  1. House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 c. 24, Schedule 2
  2. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster - Glossary page - UK Parliament Archived 6 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine .. Parliament.uk (21 April 2010). Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  3. FAQs, duchyoflancaster.co.uk. Archived 2009-09-01 on the Internet Archive.
  4. The Government, Prime Minister and Cabinet: Directgov - Government, citizens and rights Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine .. Direct.gov.uk. Retrieved on 30 September 2011.
  5. Vernon Bogdanor. The Monarchy and the Constitution. p. 188.. (Citing House of Commons Debates 17 November 1987 col 11, Standing Committee G.)
  6. Promissory Oaths Act 1868 section 5 and Schedule
  7. Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 363–364.
  8. Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975 sections 1 & 3 and Schedule 1
  9. Appropriation Act 2010 Schedule 2 Part 2

Related Research Articles

Chancellor of Germany (1949–present) head of government of Federal Republic of Germany 1949–present

The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany. Historically, the office has evolved from the office of chancellor that was originally established in the North German Confederation in 1867.

Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom position

The Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (DPM) is a senior member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. The office of the Deputy Prime Minister is not a permanent position, existing only at the discretion of the Prime Minister, who may appoint to other offices – such as First Secretary of State – to give seniority to a particular cabinet minister. Due to the two offices tending not to coincide, and both representing the Prime Minister's deputy, journalists will often refer to the First Secretary of State as the Deputy PM. More recently, the functions of this office have been exercised by the Minister for the Cabinet Office.

Leader of the House of Commons responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons

The Leader of the House of Commons is generally a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons.

Lord Privy Seal sinecure office of state in the UK

The Lord Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal until the use of such a seal became obsolete. The office is currently one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.

First Minister of Scotland position

The First Minister of Scotland is the leader of the Scottish Government. The First Minister chairs the Scottish Cabinet and is primarily responsible for the formulation, development and presentation of Scottish Government policy. Additional functions of the First Minister include promoting and representing Scotland, in an official capacity, at home and abroad and responsibility for constitutional affairs, as they relate to devolution and the Scottish Government.

Secretary of State for Justice United Kingdom government cabinet minister

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Justice is a senior position in the cabinet of the United Kingdom, held in conjunction with the office of Lord Chancellor since it was created in 2007, replacing the former post of Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs. On 9 May 2007, the Department for Constitutional Affairs was abolished, and a Ministry of Justice was created in its place. The Ministry of Justice is also responsible for certain functions transferred from the Home Office.

A parliamentary secretary is a member of a Parliament in the Westminster system who assists a more senior minister with his or her duties. In several countries the position has been re-designated as assistant minister.

Patrick McLoughlin British Conservative Party politician

Sir Patrick Allen McLoughlin is a British Conservative politician. He first became a member of parliament (MP) at the 1986 by-election in West Derbyshire. The constituency became the Derbyshire Dales for the 2010 general election; McLoughlin has remained the seat's MP. As a former miner, he is one of the few Conservative MPs to have been a manual worker before being elected to Parliament. On 4 September 2012, he was appointed Secretary of State for Transport. On 14 July 2016, he became Chairman of the Conservative Party and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, under the new administration of Conservative Prime Minister Theresa May. He resigned as chairman on 8 January 2018.

A Cabinet Secretary is usually a senior official who provides services and advice to a Cabinet of Ministers as part of the Cabinet Office. In many countries, the position can have considerably wider functions and powers, including general responsibility for the entire civil service.

First Secretary of State

First Secretary of State is an honorary title occasionally used in the Government of the United Kingdom. It implies seniority over all other Secretaries of State in terms of Cabinet rank, but has no specific powers or authority attached to it beyond that of any other Secretary of State. When no Deputy Prime Minister is in office, the post is de facto second in Government. If there is no First Secretary of State, the Chancellor of the Exchequer is typically de facto second in Government, although David Lidington as Minister for the Cabinet Office currently has a higher Cabinet rank than Chancellor Philip Hammond.

Minister for the Cabinet Office

The Minister for the Cabinet Office is a position in the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. The office has no statutory footing or recognition, and is unpaid. Every individual who has held the office has therefore also been appointed to a sinecure office to secure a seat at cabinet and a salary.

In the United Kingdom there are at least six Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, serving as a commission for the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer. The board consists of the First Lord of the Treasury, the Second Lord of the Treasury, and four or more junior lords to whom this title is usually applied.

Cabinet of Singapore

The Cabinet of Singapore forms the Government of Singapore together with the President of Singapore. It is led by the Prime Minister of Singapore who is the head of government. The Prime Minister is a Member of Parliament (MP) appointed by the President who selects a person that in his or her view is likely to command the confidence of a majority of the Parliament of Singapore. The other members of the Cabinet are Ministers who are Members of Parliament appointed by the President on the Prime Minister's advice. Cabinet members are prohibited from holding any office of profit and from actively engaging in any commercial enterprise.

Shadow Cabinet of Iain Duncan Smith

The UK Shadow Cabinet was appointed by Conservative Party leader Iain Duncan Smith. Following his initial appointments in September 2001 Smith managed three reshuffles before his resignation as leader in November 2003.

Brown ministry Government of the United Kingdom

Gordon Brown formed the Brown ministry after being invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government following the resignation of the previous Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, on 27 June 2007. He took office as Prime Minister, a title he would hold until his resignation on 11 May 2010. In his inaugural cabinet, Brown appointed the United Kingdom's first female Home Secretary, Jacqui Smith.

A person who is of Cabinet rank holds a ministerial position in a government. They sit in Cabinet and form the highest body of leadership in a government.

Cameron–Clegg coalition Government of the United Kingdom

David Cameron and Nick Clegg formed the Cameron–Clegg coalition, after the former was invited by Queen Elizabeth II to form a new government, following the resignation of Prime Minister Gordon Brown on 11 May 2010. It was the first coalition government in the UK since the Churchill war ministry and was led by Cameron with Clegg as Deputy Prime Minister, composed of members of both the Conservative Party and the Liberal Democrats.

First May ministry Government of the United Kingdom

Theresa May formed the first May ministry on 13 July 2016, after having been invited by Queen Elizabeth II to form a new government. Then the Home Secretary, May's appointment followed the resignation of then Prime Minister David Cameron. The ministry, a Conservative majority government, succeeded the second Cameron ministry which had been formed following the 2015 general election. Cameron's government was dissolved as a result of his resignation in the immediate aftermath of the June 2016 referendum on British withdrawal from the European Union.