Local government in Wales

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Principal Areas of Wales
Awdurdodau unedol Cymru (Welsh)
Wales Principal Areas Map.svg
Map of the 22 principal areas of Wales
Category Unitary authorities
Location Wales
Created
  • 1 April 1999
Number22 (as of 2021)
Possible types
  • County
  • City
  • County Borough
Government
  • County / County borough Council
Subdivisions

Since 1 April 1996, Wales has been divided into 22 single-tier principal areas (Welsh: Awdurdodau unedol) for local government purposes. [1] The elected councils of these areas are responsible for the provision of all local government services, including education, social work, environmental protection, and most highways. Below these there are also (in most, but not all, parts of the principal areas) elected community councils to which responsibility for specific aspects of the application of local policy may be devolved. The last set of local elections in Wales took place in 2017, with the next due to take place in 2022.

Contents

The queen appoints a Lord Lieutenant to represent her in each of the eight preserved counties of Wales, which are combinations of principal areas retained for ceremonial purposes.

Subdivisions of Wales created for such purposes as the organisation of the National Health Service and the provision of police and emergency services are made up of combinations of principal areas. For example, the Dyfed–Powys Police force operates in the area covered by the principal areas of Pembrokeshire, Ceredigion, and Carmarthenshire as well as in Powys – the former three constituting the preserved county of Dyfed.

Cities

There are six cities in total in Wales: in addition to the three principal areas with city status (Cardiff, Swansea and Newport), the communities of Bangor, St Davids and St Asaph also have the status. City status is granted by letters patent.

St Asaph, as the seat of a bishopric, was historically referred to as a city, and was described as such in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. The status was, however, not officially recognised for many years. When city status was restored to St Davids in 1994, St Asaph town council submitted a petition for the same purpose. The petition was refused as, unlike St Davids, there was no evidence of any charter or letters patent in the past conferring the status. Applications for city status in competitions in 2000 and 2002 were unsuccessful. [2] However, city status was finally granted to St Asaph in 2012 as part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations: [3] St Asaph was selected "to recognise its wealth of history, its cultural contribution and its metropolitan status as a centre for technology, commerce and business".

Principal areas of Wales

There are 22 principal areas in Wales. They came into being on 1 April 1996 by virtue of the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 (1994 c. 19). Eleven are named as counties, including the Cities and Counties of Cardiff and Swansea (marked *), and eleven are styled as county boroughs (marked †). [4] In 2002 Newport was granted city status, and the county borough is now styled as the "City of Newport". [5] [6] Welsh language forms are given in parentheses, except where there is no English equivalent.

Locations of each council headquarters are indicated by yellow markers.

Wales Administrative Map 2009.png
Areas are Counties, unless marked * (for Cities) or † (for County Boroughs). Welsh-language forms are given in parentheses, where they differ from the English.

Name changes

The current names of certain unitary authority areas are different from those specified in the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994. The following changes took place, all with effect from 2 April 1996: [7]

Governance

Like councils throughout the UK, Welsh councils are made up of elected councillors. Exceptionally, because of political in-fighting and a history of poor performance, the executive functions of the Isle of Anglesey Council were temporarily taken over by commissioners appointed by the Welsh Government. [8] Elections planned for 2012 were delayed until 2013. [9]

Local government elections normally take place every four years, though the Wales Act 2017 prevented local government elections from taking place in the same year as elections to the Senedd (Welsh Parliament; Welsh : Senedd Cymru). Hence the Local Authorities (Change to the Year of Ordinary Elections (Wales) Order 2019 postponed the date of the May 2021 local elections to May 2022. [10]

Preserved counties of Wales

For ceremonial purposes of Lieutenancy and Shrievalty, Wales is divided into eight preserved counties which are based on the counties created by the Local Government Act 1972 and used for local government and other purposes between 1974 and their abolition in 1996.

Historic counties of Wales

The historic counties of Wales are ancient subdivisions of Wales, used for various functions for several hundred years. Pembrokeshire was formed as a county palatine in 1138. In the south east, Norman advancement led to the creation of marcher lordships, such as Glamorgan, which served as semi-autonomous administrative divisions, although these were not counties in the true sense as they lacked the formal structure. Some towns within these areas did, however, receive charters which outlined rights and duties in much the same way as a borough. Counties in the strict sense first appeared with the establishment of Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire in the 1240s. In 1284 the Principality of Gwynedd was divided into three counties: Anglesey, Caernarvonshire and Merionethshire. Before the end of the century, Flintshire had also become a county, and thus nearly half the territory of Wales was under the rule of the English Crown. While the arrangement did not officially bring the marcher lordships in the South directly under the King's control, many such lordships were held by the King personally, although some remained under the semi-autonomous control of powerful local families. The formation of counties was completed under the Laws in Wales Act 1535, which created Montgomeryshire, Denbighshire, Radnorshire, Brecknockshire and Monmouthshire, many from existing marcher lordships now recreated as counties proper.

These 13 counties were the main administrative subdivisions of Wales from 1536 until the implementation in 1974 of the Local Government Act 1972, although the definition and role of the smaller county boroughs within the counties during that period saw considerable change, as it did across the United Kingdom.

Communities

At the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Wales are the communities, into which each principal area is subdivided. They may have elected community councils which perform a number of roles, such as providing local facilities, and representing their communities to larger local government bodies. Community councils are the equivalent of English parish councils. A community council may call itself a "town council" if it so wishes. The councils of three communities with city status – Bangor, St Asaph, and St Davids – are known as "city councils". Communities which are too small to have a council may have a community meeting instead: an example of direct democracy. The communities in the urban areas of the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport do not have community councils. [11] [12] [13]

Police and fire services

Police forces

There are four police forces in Wales. These are:

Wales Police Numbered.png
  1. North Wales Police (Heddlu Gogledd Cymru)
  2. Dyfed-Powys Police (Heddlu Dyfed-Powys)
  3. South Wales Police (Heddlu De Cymru)
  4. Gwent Police (Heddlu Gwent)

Fire and rescue services

There are three fire and rescue services in Wales. The present Welsh fire services date from 1996. Each covers a number of principal areas. These are:

Wales fire services numbered.png
  1. North Wales Fire and Rescue Service (Gwasanaeth Tân ac Achub Gogledd Cymru)
  2. Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service (Gwasanaeth Tân ac Achub Canolbarth a Gorllewin Cymru)
  3. South Wales Fire and Rescue Service (Gwasanaeth Tân ac Achub De Cymru)

City-regions

City regions are partnerships between local several authorities. As of April 2021, there are four statutory city region agreements in Wales:

Eurostat NUTS

In the Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), Wales is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKL", which is subdivided as follows:

NUTS 1CodeNUTS 2CodeNUTS 3Code
WalesUKL West Wales and The Valleys UKL1 Isle of Anglesey UKL11
NUTS 3 regions of Wales map.svg Gwynedd UKL12
Conwy and Denbighshire UKL13
South West Wales (Ceredigion, Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire)UKL14
Central Valleys (Merthyr Tydfil, Rhondda Cynon Taff)UKL15
Gwent Valleys (Blaenau Gwent, Caerphilly, Torfaen)UKL16
Bridgend and Neath Port Talbot UKL17
Swansea UKL18
East Wales UKL2 Monmouthshire and Newport UKL21
Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan UKL22
Flintshire and Wrexham UKL23
Powys UKL24

History

Proposals to reform

Williams Commission

In April 2013, it was announced that a major review was to be undertaken into local government organisation in Wales, with a Commission on Public Service Governance and Delivery being established, to be chaired by Sir Paul Williams. First Minister Carwyn Jones said: "Since public sector budgets are likely to continue to tighten, and demand pressures grow, there is a clear need to examine how services can be sustained and standards of performance raised, so that people in Wales can continue to receive and influence the public services they need and value." [14]

The Commission reported on 20 January 2014. It recommended that the number of councils be reduced, through mergers rather than through boundary changes, from 22 to 10, 11 or 12; and suggested that the cost of merging the councils would be met through savings made within about two years. [15]

Wales' First Minister Carwyn Jones said: "This report addresses many issues that are critical at a time when the need for public services is outstripping the resources available to provide them. I have always been clear that the status quo is not an option. Change is inevitable and essential so that our public services can become more efficient, effective, accessible and responsive." Janet Finch-Saunders AM, shadow minister for local government, said: "What matters to the vast majority of hardworking families is not the intricate structures of local government, but knowing that services will be delivered in an efficient and cost effective way.... We believe that public services are best delivered locally so taxpayers can hold local representatives to account for what happens in their community." Rhodri Glyn Thomas, for Plaid Cymru, commented: "The weight of evidence presented to the Williams Commission shows that if the people of Wales are going to get the services they need and deserve then there has to be a radical improvement in the way public services are delivered." [15]

Draft Local Government (Wales) Bill

In response to recommendations made by the Williams Commission, the Welsh Government published a draft local government bill in November 2015. [16] The draft bill contained two proposals, one for eight local authorities and one for nine local authorities. The only difference between the two proposals related to North Wales. The bill did not propose names for the local authorities, only listing them by number as a combination of existing principal areas. Powys was not affected by either proposal. The changes were planned to take effect in April 2020. [17]

Eight local authorities model

Proposed 8 local authorities model Welsh 8 local authorities proposal.png
Proposed 8 local authorities model
Proposed local authorityProposed area
Area 1 Anglesey, Gwynedd, Conwy
Area 2 Denbighshire, Flintshire, Wrexham
Area 3 Ceredigion, Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire
Area 4 Swansea, Neath Port Talbot
Area 5 Bridgend, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Merthyr Tydfil
Area 6 Cardiff, Vale of Glamorgan
Area 7 Monmouthshire, Blaenau Gwent, Caerphilly, Torfaen and Newport
Powys Powys

Nine local authorities model

Proposed 9 local authorities model Welsh 9 local authorities proposal.png
Proposed 9 local authorities model
Proposed local authorityProposed area
Area 1 Anglesey, Gwynedd
Area 2 Conwy, Denbighshire
Area 3 Flintshire, Wrexham
Area 4 Ceredigion, Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire
Area 5 Swansea, Neath Port Talbot
Area 6 Bridgend, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Merthyr Tydfil
Area 7 Cardiff, Vale of Glamorgan
Area 8 Monmouthshire, Blaenau Gwent, Caerphilly, Torfaen and Newport
Powys Powys

2016 redrafting and abandonment

Following the 2016 assembly elections, First Minister Carwyn Jones announced that the proposals for local government reform would be taken "back to the drawing board" and that a new consensus on how to reform local government in Wales would be sought. [18] The merger plans were formally dropped in January 2017, when the Welsh Government instead began a consultation on wider reform of local governance arrangements. The number of councils are to remain as they currently are, unless two or more local authorities wish to pursue a voluntary merger. [19]

2017 white paper

A white paper titled "Reforming Local Government: Resilient and Renewed" was published in January 2017. It proposed the formation of regional bodies to encourage better collaboration between existing local authorities and a possible change in the electoral system used in local elections from "first past the post" to the "Single transferable vote" system. [19]

2018 green paper

A new green paper, "Strengthening Local Government: Delivering for People", was published in 2018. [20] The paper makes the case for a reduction of the number of local authorities from 22 to 10 and suggested three possible approaches, a system of voluntary mergers, a phased approach with authorities merging in either 2022 or 2026 or a comprehensive system of mergers to occur in 2022. [21]

Proposed 10 authority model Wales proposed 10 authority model 2018.png
Proposed 10 authority model
Proposed local authorityProposed area
Area 1 Anglesey, Gwynedd
Area 2 Conwy, Denbighshire
Area 3 Flintshire, Wrexham
Area 4 Powys
Area 5 Ceredigion, Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire
Area 6 Swansea, Neath Port Talbot
Area 7 Bridgend, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Merthyr Tydfil
Area 8 Cardiff, Vale of Glamorgan
Area 9 Caerphilly, Newport
Area 10 Blaenau Gwent, Monmouthshire, Torfaen

Local Government and Elections (Wales) Act 2021

A bill was introduced by the Welsh Government in November 2019 to reform local government in Wales. The bill contains provisions to reduce the voting age from 18 to 16 for local elections in Wales and will extend the franchise to include eligible foreign nationals. It extends the term of local councillors from four years to five years. The bill will allow local councils to decide to continue to hold elections under first past the post system or to switch to the single transferable vote system. The bill does not include provisions to restructure local councils but does contain mechanisms that can allow for two or more authorities to merge on a voluntary basis. It also creates a framework for joint regional coordination between local authorities through the formation of "corporate joint committees". [22] The bill received Royal Assent in January 2021. [23] [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Vale of Glamorgan, often referred to as The Vale, is a county borough in Wales, bordering Bridgend, Cardiff, and Rhondda Cynon Taf. With an economy based largely on agriculture and chemicals, it is the southernmost unitary authority in Wales. Attractions include Barry Island Pleasure Park, the Barry Tourist Railway, Medieval wall paintings in St Cadoc's Church, Llancarfan, Porthkerry Park, St Donat's Castle, Cosmeston Lakes Country Park and Cosmeston Medieval Village.

Senedd Devolved unicameral legislature of Wales

The Senedd, formally known as the Welsh Parliament in English and Senedd Cymru in Welsh, is the devolved, unicameral legislature of Wales. A democratically elected body, it makes laws for Wales, agrees certain taxes and scrutinises the Welsh Government. It is a bilingual institution, with both Welsh and English being the official languages of its business. From its creation in May 1999 until May 2020, the Senedd was known as the National Assembly for Wales.

North Wales geographic region in Wales

North Wales, also known as the North of Wales, is a geographic region of Wales, encompassing its northernmost areas. It borders Mid Wales to the south, England to the east, and the Irish Sea to the north and west. The area is highly mountainous and rural, with Snowdonia National Park and the Clwydian Range, known for its mountains, waterfalls and trails, located wholly within the region. Its population is more concentrated in the north-east, and northern coastal areas of the region, whilst significant Welsh-speaking populations are situated in its western and rural areas. North Wales is imprecisely defined, lacking any defined defintion or administrative structure. For the public purposes of health, policing and emergency services, and for statistical, economic and cultural purposes, North Wales is commonly defined administratively as its six most northern principal areas, but other defintions of the geographic region exist, with Montgomeryshire historically considered to be part of the region.

Local Government Act 1972 United Kingdom legislation

The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974. It was one of the most significant Acts of Parliament to be passed by the Heath Government of 1970–74.

A community is a division of land in Wales that forms the lowest tier of local government in Wales. Welsh communities are analogous to civil parishes in England. There are 878 communities in Wales.

Geography of Wales

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and whose physical geography is characterised by a varied coastline and a largely upland interior. It is bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south. It has a total area of 2,064,100 hectares and is about 170 mi (274 km) from north to south and at least 60 mi (97 km) wide. It has a number of offshore islands, by far the largest of which is Anglesey. The mainland coastline, including Anglesey, is about 1,680 mi (2,704 km) in length. As of 2014, Wales had a population of about 3,092,000; Cardiff is the capital and largest city and is situated in the urbanised area of South East Wales.

Politics of Wales Political system

Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom (UK).

Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 United Kingdom legislation

The Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which amended the Local Government Act 1972 to create the current local government structure in Wales of 22 unitary authority areas, referred to as principal areas in the Act, and abolished the previous two-tier structure of counties and districts. It came into effect on 1 April 1996.

Transport in Wales Overview of the transportation system in Wales

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City and County of Swansea Council

The City and County of Swansea Council is the governing body for one of the Principal Areas of Wales covering Swansea, Gower and the surrounding area. The council consists of 72 councillors representing 36 electoral wards.

Cardiff Council Governing body for Cardiff, Wales

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Anglesey Airport

Anglesey Airport is an airport owned by the Isle of Anglesey County Council on land leased from the Defence Infrastructure Organisation. The airport is situated at Llanfair-yn-Neubwll in Anglesey, Wales. The leased site is part of RAF Valley.

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The history of local government Wales in a recognisably modern form emerged during the late 19th century. Administrative counties and county boroughs were first established in Wales in 1889. Urban and rural districts were formed in 1894. These were replaced in 1974 by a two-tier authority system across the country comprising eight counties and, within them, thirty-seven districts. This system was itself replaced by the introduction of 22 single-tier authorities in 1996.

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Outline of Wales Overview of and topical guide to Wales

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Local elections were held in Wales on Thursday 4 May 2017 to elect members of all 22 local authorities, including the Isle of Anglesey, which was last up for election in 2013 due to having its elections delayed for a year. The 2017 Welsh community council elections also took place on the same day. These local elections were held alongside local elections in Scotland and parts of England.

References

Citations

  1. Local Government (Wales) Act 1994
  2. Beckett, J V (2005). City Status in the British isles, 1830 – 2002. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 133–135. ISBN   0-7546-5067-7.
  3. "Three towns win city status for Diamond Jubilee". BBC NEWS. 2012-04-18. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2012-04-18.
  4. "Local Government (Wales) Act 1994". www.legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  5. "No. 56573". The London Gazette . 21 May 2002. p. 6160.
  6. "Newport City Council". Newport City Council. 4 December 2010. Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  7. "The Residuary Body for Wales (Levies) Regulations 1996". www.opsi.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 9 December 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  8. "Island council takeover to begin". 17 March 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2018 via www.bbc.co.uk.
  9. "Anglesey poll postponed for year". 8 May 2018. Archived from the original on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018 via www.bbc.co.uk.
  10. Ruth Mosalski (24 September 2019). "The date of the next council elections in Wales has moved". Wales Online . Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  11. "Community councils". Cardiff Council. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  12. "Community/Town Council contact details". City and County of Swansea. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  13. "Community council contact details". Newport City Council. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  14. Local councils in Wales could be cut after review Archived 2013-04-19 at the Wayback Machine , BBC News, 19 April 2013.
  15. 1 2 Williams Commission report calls for fewer councils Archived 2014-01-22 at the Wayback Machine , BBC News, 20 January 2014.
  16. "Consultations - beta.gov.wales". beta.gov.wales. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  17. http://gov.wales/docs/dsjlg/consultation/151124-lg-draft-bill-en.pdf%5B%5D
  18. "'Deeply unpopular' council merger plans scrapped". Monmouthshire Beacon.
  19. 1 2 "Welsh Government - Local Government Reform White Paper unveiled by Mark Drakeford". gov.wales. 31 January 2017. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  20. "Strengthening Local Government: Delivering for people". GOV.WALES.
  21. https://gov.wales/sites/default/files/consultations/2018-03/180320-strengthening-local-government-consultation-v1.pdf [ bare URL ]
  22. "Local Government and Elections (Wales) Bill". senedd.assembly.wales. November 18, 2019.
  23. "Local Government and Elections (Wales) Act 2021". Senedd . Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  24. "Local Government and Elections (Wales) Act 2021".

Sources