Church in Wales

Last updated

Church in Wales
Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru
Coat of Arms of the Church in Wales.svg
Coat of arms of the Church in Wales
Classification Anglican (with various theological and doctrinal identities, including Anglo-Catholic, Liberal and Evangelical)
Orientation Anglican
Scripture Holy Bible
Theology Anglican doctrine
Polity Episcopal
Primate Andy John, Archbishop of Wales and Bishop of Bangor
Language Welsh and English
Headquarters Cardiff
Territory Wales with 1,500 congregations [1]
Independence1920 (Disestablishment)
Members42,441 (2018) [2]
Official website churchinwales.org.uk
Map of the dioceses in the Church in Wales Map of Church-in-Wales.svg
Map of the dioceses in the Church in Wales

The Church in Wales (Welsh : Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is an Anglican Communion church in Wales, composed of six dioceses. [3]

Contents

The Archbishop of Wales does not have a fixed archiepiscopal see, but serves concurrently as one of the six diocesan bishops. The position is currently held by Andy John, Bishop of Bangor, since 2021. [4]

Unlike the Church of England, the Church in Wales is not an established church. Disestablishment took place in 1920 under the Welsh Church Act 1914. [5]

As a province of the Anglican Communion, the Church in Wales recognises the Archbishop of Canterbury as a focus of unity but without any formal authority. [6] A cleric of the Church in Wales can be appointed to posts in the Church of England, including the See of Canterbury; a former Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, was from Wales and served as Archbishop of Wales before his appointment to Canterbury.

Official name

The Church in Wales (Welsh : Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) adopted its name by accident. The Welsh Church Act 1914 referred throughout to "the Church in Wales", the phrase being used to indicate the part of the Church of England within Wales. At a convention (of the Welsh Church) held in Cardiff in October 1917, Mr Justice Sankey said that, while the name "the Church of Wales" appealed to him, he advised that there were good legal reasons why the name "the Church in Wales" should be adopted, at least at first, in order to follow the wording in the act. The matter was therefore left at that convention for the second Governing Body to decide at its first session. [7]

History

Christianity in Wales can be traced back to the Romano-British period and an organised episcopal church has had continuous existence in Wales since that time. Wales became a refuge for other Britons following the pagan Anglo-Saxon invasion of what became England. The Welsh refused to co-operate with Augustine of Canterbury's mission to the Anglo-Saxons. However, a combination of other Celtic dioceses reconciling with the See of Rome and the English conquest of Wales meant that from the Middle Ages, the Welsh dioceses were part of the Province of Canterbury and also in communion with the See of Rome until the English Reformation. Afterward they were part of the Church of England until disestablishment in 1920. From the time of Henry VIII, Wales had been absorbed into England as a legal entity and the established church in Wales was the Church of England.

Disestablishment

F. E. Smith, later 1st Earl of Birkenhead, opposed disestablishment. Birkenhead by Spy0002.jpg
F. E. Smith, later 1st Earl of Birkenhead, opposed disestablishment.

During the 19th century, Nonconformist churches grew rapidly in Wales, and eventually the majority of Welsh Christians were Nonconformists, although the Church of England remained the largest single denomination. By the mid-19th century the failure to appoint a Welsh-speaking bishop to any Welsh diocese for 150 years caused real resentment; disestablishment was seen as a way to assert national and linguistic identity.

Under the influence of Nonconformist politicians such as David Lloyd George, the Welsh Church Act 1914 was passed by the Liberal Government to separate Anglicanism in Wales from the Church of England. The bill was fiercely resisted by members of the Conservative Party and blocked in the House of Lords, but it was eventually passed under the provisions of the Parliament Act 1911.

The opposition to disestablishment was led by the Conservative politician F. E. Smith, who characterised the disestablishment bill as "a Bill which has shocked the conscience of every Christian community in Europe." In response to this description, the writer G. K. Chesterton penned the satirical poem "Antichrist, or the Reunion of Christendom: An Ode" containing the memorable retort "Chuck It, Smith". [8]

The act both disestablished and disendowed the "Church in Wales", the term used to define the part of the Church of England which was to be separated. Disestablishment meant the end of the church's special legal status, and Welsh bishops were no longer entitled to sit in the House of Lords as Lords Spiritual. As the Church in Wales became independent of the state, tithes were no longer available to the church, leaving it without a major source of income.

Disendowment, which was even more controversial than disestablishment, meant that the endowments of the Church in Wales were partially confiscated, and redistributed to the University of Wales and local authorities. This process was carried out by the Welsh Church Commissioners in accordance with the principles set out in the Welsh Church Act 1914. Endowments before 1662 were to be confiscated; those of later date were to remain. [9] This was justified by the theory that the pre-1662 endowments had been granted to the national church of the whole population, and hence belonged to the people as a whole rather than to the Church in Wales; understandably, this reasoning was hotly contested. The date 1662 was that of the Act of Uniformity following the Restoration; it was after this point that Nonconformist congregations began to develop and the Church of England ceased to be a comprehensive national church. Although secularisation of the cathedrals had previously been suggested, [10] the Church in Wales retained all the ancient church buildings and the privilege of conducting legal marriages without reference to the civil registrar.

Due to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Suspensory Act 1914 was passed at the same time as the Welsh Church Act 1914, meaning that the act would not be implemented for the duration of the war. Disestablishment finally came into effect in 1920. The Church in Wales adopted a written constitution, which has been revised from time to time, [11] and elected a Governing Body which initially met once a year, [12] but now meets twice annually. The Governing Body has ultimate authority "to approve liturgies, review organizational structures, and secure firm fiscal resources for the mission and ministry of the church". The Church in Wales was one of the first members of the Anglican Communion to adopt synodical government. [13]

Since 1920

Parishes overlapping the border were allowed to vote either to accede to the Church in Wales or to continue in the Church of England; so the line of disestablishment is not the same as the border between the two countries. [14] A few districts in the former counties of Monmouthshire, Radnorshire and Flintshire remain attached to parishes in the Dioceses of Hereford and Chester and consequently they are part of the Church of England. A complete English rural deanery with the generalised name March containing Oswestry and areas to the north-west of Shrewsbury, was transferred from its historic setting in the Diocese of St Asaph to be consistent with the civil border there. The churches of St Mary, Caernarfon, and Llangadwaladr, Anglesey, were transferred from the Diocese of Chester to that of Bangor.

Today, the Church in Wales is fully independent of both the state and the Church of England. It is an independent member of the Anglican Communion, as are the Church of Ireland and the Scottish Episcopal Church.

In the first years of the 21st century, the Church in Wales has begun to engage in numerous debates. These particularly concern the appointment of women to the episcopate and the provincial recognition of the equal statuses of the Welsh and English languages in all aspects of church life.

Membership

Following disestablishment in 1920, the Church in Wales initially fared better than the Nonconformist churches, which suffered a decline during the late 20th century. In 1960 the Church claimed to have 182,854 communicants, an increase on the comparable figure of 155,911 for 1945, [15] :107 although a reduction on the figure of 196,389 Easter communicants in 1938. [15] :122 The Anglican Church does not have "a single definition of 'membership' in the Church in Wales." [16] In 2006 the average weekly attendance was recorded at 6,780 aged under 18 and 39,490 aged over 18. The highest attendance was at Easter, with 68,120 at worship (68,837 in 2007). [17] In 2014, the attendance in the Church in Wales was 52,021 at Easter: a decline of about 16,000 members since 2007, but an increase from 2013. Also, in 2014, nineteen churches were closed or made redundant. Overall, in 2014, the Church in Wales reported 152,000 attenders in its parishes and congregations, compared to 105,000 in 2013. [18] In 2018, the number of communicants during Easter was 46,163 and the number of persons on the Electoral Roll was 42,441. [2]

From 2015 statistics, when all "other major acts of worship" are included, the church reported having 206,000 total attenders. "Such additional services, which include civic services, family services, Remembrance, Carol and Christingle services, registered a total attendance of some 206,000 in 2015, compared with 152,000 in 2014." [19] [16] In 2017, "parishes recorded 210,000 people attending other types of traditional worship, which might include civic services, family services, Remembrance, Carol and Christingle services." [20]

In 2000, membership figures taken as a percentage of the population was 1.6%. [21] Between 1996 and 2016 the number of signed-up Church in Wales members dropped from 91,247 to 45,759 [22] or 1.5% out of a total population of 3,113,150 [23] [ original research? ] The number of Church in Wales members on the "Electoral Roll" dropped further to 42,441 by 2018 [2] [24] or 1.4% out of the total Welsh population of 3,187,203 [25] [26] [ original research? ] The Anglican church claims to be the largest denomination in Wales. [27]

Structure

Flag of the Church in Wales Church in Wales flag.svg
Flag of the Church in Wales

The polity of the Church in Wales is episcopal church governance, which is the same as other Anglican churches.

Prior to 1920, there were four dioceses in Wales, all part of the Province of Canterbury and each led by its own bishop:

Two additional dioceses were erected soon after the creation of the Church in Wales:

Monmouth was created from one of the archdeaconries of Llandaff diocese. Swansea and Brecon was created from the eastern part of the St Davids diocese, largely corresponding to the present day city and county of Swansea and the traditional counties of Breconshire and Radnorshire.

Each diocese is divided into two or three archdeaconries, with 15 of these in total. Each has an archdeacon, who is responsible to the bishop for its administration. The archdeaconries are further divided into deaneries.

Each diocese has its own cathedral, the "mother church" of the diocese and the seat of the bishop. In the cathedral are held important events such as the enthronement of a new bishop. Each cathedral has a dean, appointed to manage the cathedral, with the assistance of the chapter. Together with the archdeacons, the dean of the cathedral is one of the most prominent clerics of the diocese, after the bishop. The chapter is composed of the dean and a number of canons selected from among the clerics of the diocese.

Diocesan and episcopal coats of arms

The following episcopal coats of arms are those each bishop is privileged to carry whilst in office. The official diocesan coat of arms is identical to the episcopal version, however does not carry the mitre. With the introduction of the new logos for many of the diocese, their strict use has fallen away during recent years (generally since 2006 onwards), and as such, the coats of arms are often used synonymously.

Archbishop

Until 1920 the Welsh church was part of the Church of England and under the metropolitical jurisdiction of the archbishop of Canterbury. Since independence in 1920, the Church in Wales has been led by the Archbishop of Wales, who is both the metropolitan bishop and primate. The archbishop of Wales is elected from the currently seated diocesan bishops and continues as a diocesan after election. Although it is not necessary for every see in the Church in Wales to be filled before an archbishop may be elected, if the vacancy in a see is caused by the resignation of the archbishop, or it arises within 14 days thereafter, the vacant see must be filled before an archbishop can be elected. [28] In an archiepiscopal vacancy, the senior bishop by date of appointment is acting archbishop. [29]

A former Archbishop of Wales, Rowan Williams, became the first Welsh-born Archbishop of Canterbury. He was consecrated and enthroned as Bishop of Monmouth in 1992 and as Archbishop of Wales in 1999. He was appointed by the Queen (his appointment having been proposed by the Crown Appointments Commission) as Archbishop of Canterbury in July 2002.

Diocesan bishops

Unlike bishops in the Church of England, each bishop of the Church in Wales is elected by an "electoral college" which consists of all diocesan bishops of the church (including the archbishop), and clerical and lay representatives of all of the dioceses of the Church in Wales. The composition of the electoral college is weighted so that the diocese in which a vacancy occurs is entitled to twice the number of clerical and lay electors compared with other individual dioceses. [11] If no candidate who is considered by the electoral college obtains the support of the necessary two-thirds majority of the electors within the three consecutive days of deliberation which are allowed, the decision passes to the bench of bishops. [11] This has occurred on two of the last three occasions when a bishop has had to be chosen. [30] [31] [lower-alpha 1] In 2013 the Church in Wales officially agreed to the ordination of women as bishops, five years after a previous proposal for their ordination failed in 2008. [32]

In descending order of seniority, as of 26 February 2022 (after Lomas and Stallard's consecration), the bench of Welsh bishops consists of: [lower-alpha 2]

In addition, there is an Assistant Bishop of Bangor:

In cases where a see is vacant due to the death or translation of a bishop, episcopal acts such as ordinations and confirmations are carried out by the archbishop or by another bishop appointed for that purpose by the archbishop.

As of 2021, four of the bishops used the Welsh name of their See as their episcopal signature (Bangor, Llanelwy for St Asaph, Tyddewi for St Davids, [33] and Mynwy for Monmouth); [34] Landav derives from the Latin Landavensis and the most recent Bishop of Swansea and Brecon was Archbishop (who signs as Cambrensis, Latin for 'of Wales').

Assistant bishops

Assistant bishops may be appointed within the Church in Wales. Although there have been several assistant bishops in the diocese of Llandaff, in practice assistant bishops have been appointed in other dioceses only when the diocesan bishop is the archbishop for the time being, in order to assist them with diocesan episcopal functions. As archbishop, Barry Morgan had an Assistant Bishop of Llandaff: from April 2009 to April 2017 the post was held by David Wilbourne. [35] See also: Assistant Bishop of St Asaph. On 26 January 2022, it was announced that Mary Stallard had been appointed Assistant Bishop of Bangor, to assist Andy John in his diocesan duties while he also serves as Archbishop of Wales; her consecration is scheduled for 26 February 2022 at Bangor Cathedral. [36]

A provincial assistant bishop was appointed in 1996 to provide episcopal ministry to congregations which could not accept the ministry of bishops who ordained women. The role was analogous to the office of Provincial episcopal visitor in the Church of England. David Thomas held the position for twelve years, retiring in 2008. At that time the Bench of Bishops decided that it would not continue to appoint a specific bishop to minister to those who reject the ordination of women as priests. This point was reiterated by Barry Morgan at the Governing Body of the Church in Wales in September 2013, during the debate on whether or not the Church in Wales would ordain women to the episcopate.

Historically, there have been suffragan bishops both before and since disestablishment, including two Bishops of Swansea and one Bishop of Maenan. From 1946 until his death in 1953, Richard William Jones (Archdeacon of Llandaff and Rector of Peterston-super-Ely) was "Assistant Bishop of Wales". [37]

Representative Body

The Representative Body of the Church in Wales is responsible for the care of the church's property and for funding many of the activities of the church, including support for clergy stipends and pensions. Its somewhat misleading title - unlike the Governing Body, it is not a representative decision-making body - is derived from the fact that under the Welsh Church Act 1914 the bishops, clergy and laity were required to set up a body to "represent" them and to hold property which was transferred to them by the Welsh Church Commissioners. [38]

Governing Body

The Governing Body is responsible for decisions that affect the church's faith, order and worship. It also has powers to make regulations for the general management and good government of the church and its property and affairs. The Governing Body is the supreme legislature of the Church in Wales, broadly speaking the Parliament of the Church in Wales. It usually meets twice a year to receive reports and make decisions on matters brought before it. [39]

Worship and liturgy

The Church in Wales as a whole tends to be predominantly High Church, meaning that many of the traditions are inherited from the Oxford Movement in more rural dioceses such as St Davids and Bangor and especially in the industrial parishes of Llandaff and Monmouth. Although the province tends more toward liberal and Anglo-Catholic positions in theology and liturgy, it also has a tradition of evangelicalism, especially in the southern parts of Wales, and the university town of Aberystwyth. In the 1960s there was a revival of evangelicalism within the Church in Wales and the Evangelical Fellowship of the Church in Wales exists to support such members of the church.

Book of Common Prayer

The first Book of Common Prayer in Welsh published in 1567 Welsh Book of Common Prayer, 1567.jpg
The first Book of Common Prayer in Welsh published in 1567

An Act of Parliament passed in the year 1563, entitled "An Act for the Translating of the Bible and the Divine Service into the Welsh Tongue," ordered that the Old and New Testament, together with the Book of Common Prayer , were to be translated into Welsh. A translation by Richard Davies, bishop of St Davids and the scholar William Salesbury was published in 1567 [40] by Humphrey Toy as Y Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin. A new revision — based on the 1662 English prayer book and probably by George Griffith, Bishop of St Asaph  - was published in 1664. [41] The 1662 prayer book and its Welsh equivalent continued to be used,[ citation needed ] even after the Church in Wales was disestablished in 1920.

The Church in Wales began revising the Book of Common Prayer in the 1950s. The first material authorised for experimental use was a lectionary in 1956, followed by a baptism and confirmation service in 1958, an order for Holy Matrimony in 1960, and an order for the Burial of the Dead in 1962. These did not however enjoy widespread use. In 1966 an experimental order for the Holy Eucharist was authorised. This was the first to enjoy widespread use. Revision continued throughout the 60s and 70s, with an experimental version of morning and evening prayer in 1969. In 1971 a definitive version of baptism and confirmation was authorised, replacing the equivalent in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. This was followed in 1974 with a definitive order for the Burial of the Dead, and in 1975 with a definitive order for Holy Matrimony. It was hoped that a new Book of Common Prayer for the Church in Wales would be produced in 1981. However, in 1979 a definitive version of the Holy Eucharist failed to gain a two-thirds majority in the House of Clergy and the House of Laity at the Governing Body. A light revision of the 1966 experimental Eucharist was approved by the Governing Body, and the Book of Common Prayer for use in the Church in Wales was authorised in 1984. This Prayer Book is unique in that it is in traditional English. The Church in Wales first considered a modern language Eucharist in the early 70s but this received a lukewarm reception. A modern language Eucharist (The Holy Eucharist in modern language) was authorised alongside the new prayer book in 1984, but this did not enjoy widespread use. In 1990 new initiation services were authorised, followed in 1992 by an alternative order for morning and evening prayer [42] in 1994 by an alternative order for the Holy Eucharist, in 1995 by the alternative calendar lectionary and collects, and in 1998 an order for compline was produced. These enjoyed widespread use. In 2003 a new calendar and collects was made part of the Book of Common Prayer for use in the Church in Wales. This was followed in 2004 by an order for the Holy Eucharist, services for Christian initiation in 2006 and in 2009 by daily prayer. Experimental services continued, with an ordinal produced in 2004, Ministry to the Sick and Housebound in 2007, healing services in 2008, funeral services in 2009, and in 2010 marriage services which became part of the Book of Common Prayer in 2013. The ordinal was made part of the prayer book the following year. In 2017 prayers for a child were released, together with a Revised Order for Confirmation, the latter authorised for five years experimental use following the bench of Bishops' decision to admit unconfirmed children and adults to communion. [43] In 2018 Times and Seasons was released. All of these were published on line. [44] [45] The following year Funeral Services became part of the Book of Common Prayer, and additional prayers for different events in life were launched (Blessing of a home, prayers for victims of crime etc.).

Other publications

Discontinued publications which frequently provided articles of sub-academic quality were Province, Yr Haul â'r Gangell , and Y Llan . Bi-annual news from the Governing Body meeting is released in Highlights . News is predominantly circulated on the Church in Wales' provincial and diocesan websites, and in various diocesan magazines.

Doctrine and practice

Central to the teaching of the Church in Wales is the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The basic teachings of the church, or catechism, include:

The balance of Scripture, tradition and reason as authority for faith and practice is traced to the work of Richard Hooker, a sixteenth-century apologist. In Hooker's model, Scripture is the primary means of arriving at doctrine, and things stated plainly in Scripture are accepted as true. Issues that are ambiguous are determined by tradition, which is checked by reason. [46]

Ordination of women

A proposal to ordain women as priests was introduced and debated in 1995 after it had failed to secure a two-thirds majority in 1994. [47] The ordination of women to the priesthood was approved by the two-thirds majority in 1996. [48] The Church in Wales has ordained women as priests since 1997. [49] Prior to 1997, women were permitted to serve as deacons. [50] The first deaconess was consecrated in 1884. [51] In 2013, the church voted to allow women to serve as bishops. In 2016, Joanna Penberthy was elected the first woman bishop in the church. [52] Penberthy was enthroned as Bishop of St Davids on 11 February 2017. As of 2020, following the enthronement of Cherry Vann as Bishop of Monmouth, [53] there were three women bishops, and three men bishops, sitting on the Welsh Bench of Bishops. This situation was maintained in 2021, with John Lomas having been elected as Bishop of Swansea and Brecon following the resignation of John Davies. [54] In 2022, Stallard's consecration as Assistant Bishop of Bangor meant that a majority of the active bishops in the Church in Wales was female, a situation presumed to be a first in any Anglican church. [55] Although a Twitter feed suggested that Stallard had joined the "Bench" of bishops, this was a loose use of terminology, as the "Bench" consists of the Archbishop and the other diocesan bishops. [56]

Same-sex unions and LGBT clergy

Beginning in the 1980s, the Church in Wales embarked on an increasingly open stand on various issues including economic justice, the ordination of women and inclusion of homosexual people. In some areas, such as human sexuality, the church establishment has faced resistance from congregations. In 2005, the church allowed gay priests to enter into civil partnerships. [57] "In the wake of civil partnerships, the Welsh Bishops sought legal advice, and told gay partnered clergy that they were welcome, as well as gay ordination candidates." [58] Speaking on such partnerships, it was communicated that “The Church in Wales has no formal view on whether people in civil partnerships who are in a sexual relationship can serve as clergy. If the issue arises, it is up to the relevant Bishop to decide." [57] Therefore, the Welsh church does not require abstinence for clergy in civil unions. [59] Regarding transgender issues, an officer announced that the church believes transgender people "should be acknowledged and celebrated in their new gender." [60] Currently, "the Church has published prayers that may be said with a couple following the celebration of a [same-sex] civil partnership or civil marriage." [61]

Currently, "the Church in Wales is much more liberal on this issue [than the Church of England]" and is discussing the possibility of blessing or performing same-sex marriages. [62] In 2018, the Welsh Bishops released a statement saying it was "unjust" to not offer formal provision for same-sex marriages and civil partnerships. [63] Following the bishops' announcement, the General Synod voted in favour of requesting formal provision for same-sex couples. [64] The Welsh Church has decided to move forward with possibly offering same-sex marriage and blessing rites for same-sex unions. [65] The Diocese of St. Asaph provides a chaplaincy and services for LGBT people. [66] The Very Revd Jeffrey John, who is openly gay and in a civil union, was nearly elected bishop of Llandaff when he "won more than half of a Church in Wales electoral college, but fell short of the two-thirds majority required." [67] As of 2020, the Church in Wales has approved the consecration of a bishop, Bishop Cherry Vann, who is openly lesbian and in a civil partnership. [68] [69]

"The Anglican Church In Wales took the first steps towards allowing clergy to celebrate same sex marriage in its churches when more than half its Governing Body voted in favour of the move." [70] In the 2016 results, 52% of the Governing Body voted in favour of allowing same-sex marriages in church. [71] "Members of the Church in Wales Governing Body voted 61 in favour of gay marriages in church, nine in favour of blessing gay partnerships and 50 for making no change." [72] As a result of the majority support for same-sex couples, but not a two-thirds majority needed to create a same-sex marriage ceremony, the church's Bench of Bishops affirmed members in same-sex relationships and "published a series of prayers which may be said with a couple following the celebration of a civil partnership or civil marriage." [73] [74] [75] The service, in Form One, gives God thanks "for [the two people] who have found such love and companionship in each other, that it has led them to dedicate their lives in support of one another." [76] In September 2021, the Church in Wales voted to "formally bless same-sex couples" instead (by way of debate and compromise) - but still not legally recognising same-sex marriage within titles of the Church officially. [77] [78] [79]

Ecumenical relations

Following the similar step taken by the Church of England in 1932, and other Anglican provinces, the Church in Wales entered into intercommunion with the Old Catholics in 1937. [80] The Church in Wales has also been a member of the Porvoo Communion since September 1995. [81] Because of the Anglo-Catholic dominance, relations with the Free Churches (formerly known during establishment times as Nonconformists), ecumenical progress has been slower in Wales than in England.[ citation needed ] The Church in Wales is a member of the Covenanted Churches in Wales. [82] A covenant (with church unity as an ultimate goal) was signed by the Church in Wales, the Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church of Wales, the United Reformed Church, and some Baptist churches in 1982 under the title of Enfys ("rainbow").

See also

Notes

  1. The failure of the electoral college to elect a new Bishop of Swansea and Brecon in September 2021 brought about the unusual situation where the choice of a new bishop fell to a body with a majority of female members.
  2. Although Press Releases of the Church in Wales suggest that Mary Stallard is a member of the bench of Bishops, the Constitution of the Church in Wales (Chapter I; Part II - 7) clearly defines "Bench of Bishops" as meaning "the Archbishop and the other Diocesan Bishops"

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Church of England</span> Anglican state church of England

The Church of England is the established Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the 3rd century and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Church of Ireland</span> Anglican church in Ireland

The Church of Ireland is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second largest Christian church on the island after the Roman Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Pope.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Homosexuality and the Anglican Communion</span> Gay and lesbian sexuality and the Anglican Communion

Since the 1990s, the Anglican Communion has struggled with controversy regarding homosexuality in the church. In 1998, the 13th Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops passed a resolution "rejecting homosexual practice as incompatible with Scripture". However, this is not legally binding. "Like all Lambeth Conference resolutions, it is not legally binding on all provinces of the Communion, including the Church of England, though it commends an essential and persuasive view of the attitude of the Communion." "Anglican national churches in Brazil, South Africa, South India, New Zealand and Canada have taken steps toward approving and celebrating same-sex relationships amid strong resistance among other national churches within the 80 million-member global body. The Episcopal Church in the U.S. has allowed same-sex marriage since 2015, and the Scottish Episcopal Church has allowed same-sex marriage since 2017." "Church of England clergy have appeared to signal support for gay marriage after they rejected a bishops' report which said that only a man and woman could marry in church." The Church of England's 2019 General Synod was set to discuss a diocesan motion "to create a set of formal services and prayers to bless those who have had a same-sex marriage or civil partnership". At General Synod in 2019, the Church of England announced that same-gender couples may remain married and recognised as married after one spouse experiences a gender transition provided that the spouses identified as opposite genders at the time of the marriage.

The post of Archbishop of Wales was created in 1920 when the Church in Wales was separated from the Church of England and disestablished. The four historic Welsh dioceses had previously formed part of the Province of Canterbury, and so came under its Archbishop. The new Church became the Welsh province of the Anglican Communion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anglican Church of Australia</span> Church of the Anglican Communion

The Anglican Church of Australia, formerly known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania, is a Christian church in Australia and an autonomous church of the Anglican Communion. It is the second largest church in Australia after the Roman Catholic Church. According to the 2016 census, 3.1 million Australians identify as Anglicans. As of 2016, the Anglican Church of Australia had more than 3 million nominal members and 437,880 active baptised members. For much of Australian history the church was the largest religious denomination. It remains today one of the largest providers of social welfare services in Australia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jeffrey John</span> British Anglican priest

Jeffrey Philip Hywel John is a Church of England priest, who served as the Dean of St Albans from 2004 until 2021. He made headlines in 2003 when he was the first person to have openly been in a same-sex relationship to be nominated as a Church of England bishop. Owing to the consequent controversy he stepped down. In the years since, he has reportedly been considered for at least seven diocesan bishoprics across England, Wales and the Isle of Man.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anglican Church of Canada</span> Church organization in Canada

The Anglican Church of Canada is the province of the Anglican Communion in Canada. The official French-language name is l'Église anglicane du Canada. In 2017, the Anglican Church counted 359,030 members on parish rolls in 2,206 congregations, organized into 1,571 parishes. The 2011 Canadian Census counted 1,631,845 self-identified Anglicans, making the Anglican Church the third-largest Canadian church after the Catholic Church and the United Church of Canada. Like other Anglican churches, the Anglican Church of Canada's liturgy utilizes a native version of the Book of Common Prayer, the 1962 prayer book. A further revision, the 1985 Book of Alternative Services, has developed into the dominant liturgical book of the church.

The Anglican Church of Southern Africa, known until 2006 as the Church of the Province of Southern Africa, is the province of the Anglican Communion in the southern part of Africa. The church has twenty-five dioceses, of which twenty-one are located in South Africa, and one each in Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia and Saint Helena. In South Africa, there are between 3 and 4 million Anglicans out of an estimated population of 45 million.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bishop of Llandaff</span> Ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Llandaff

The Bishop of Llandaff is the ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of Llandaff.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barry Morgan (bishop)</span> Welsh clergyman

Barry Cennydd Morgan KStJ is a Welsh academic from Neath, Wales who, from 2003 to Jan 2017, was Archbishop of Wales. He was both Primate and Metropolitan of the Church in Wales; Morgan was the Bishop of Bangor from 1992 to 1999, and was the Bishop of Llandaff from 1999 until his retirement in January 2017. He was the longest serving archbishop in the entire Anglican Communion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anglican ministry</span> Leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion

The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. "Ministry" commonly refers to the office of ordained clergy: the threefold order of bishops, priests and deacons. More accurately, Anglican ministry includes many laypeople who devote themselves to the ministry of the church, either individually or in lower/assisting offices such as lector, acolyte, sub-deacon, Eucharistic minister, cantor, musicians, parish secretary or assistant, warden, vestry member, etc. Ultimately, all baptized members of the church are considered to partake in the ministry of the Body of Christ.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St Padarn's Institute</span> House / College in Cardiff, Glamorgan

St Padarn's Institute came into being in 2016. Until then the site belonged to St Michael's College, an Anglican theological college in Llandaff, Wales. St Michael's college was founded in Aberdare in 1892, and was situated in Llandaff from 1907 until 2016. Among its many alumni was the poet R. S. Thomas. The original building on the site was a house constructed for himself by John Prichard. After his death, that building was incorporated into the newly-founded St Michael's College, which was built mainly to the designs of F. R. Kempson between 1905-1907. In the late 1950s, a chapel was built by George Pace. The college had significant financial problems in the early 21st century and was eventually closed.

The Anglican realignment is a movement among some Anglicans to align themselves under new or alternative oversight within or outside the Anglican Communion. This movement is primarily active in parts of the Episcopal Church in the United States and the Anglican Church of Canada. Two of the major events that contributed to the movement were the 2002 decision of the Diocese of New Westminster in Canada to authorise a rite of blessing for same-sex unions, and the nomination of two openly gay priests in 2003 to become bishops. Jeffrey John, an openly gay priest with a long-time partner, was appointed to be the next Bishop of Reading in the Church of England and the General Convention of the Episcopal Church ratified the election of Gene Robinson, an openly gay non-celibate man, as Bishop of New Hampshire. Jeffrey John ultimately declined the appointment due to pressure.

Alwyn Rice Jones was Bishop of St Asaph from 1981 to 1999 and also Archbishop of Wales, the Welsh province of the Anglican Communion, from 1991 to 1999. During Rice Jones' tenure, the Church of Wales reformed its rules in order to ordain women priests, and to allow divorcees to remarry in church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anglican Church in North America</span> Anglican realignment denomination

The Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) is a Christian denomination in the Anglican tradition in the United States and Canada. It also includes ten congregations in Mexico, two mission churches in Guatemala, and a missionary diocese in Cuba. Headquartered in Ambridge, Pennsylvania, the church reported 30 dioceses and 1,037 congregations serving an estimated membership of 134,593 in 2017. In 2020, the denomination reported 972 congregations and 126,760 members. The first archbishop of the ACNA was Robert Duncan, who was succeeded by Foley Beach in 2014.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andy John</span> British bishop

Andrew Thomas Griffith John is the current Anglican Archbishop of Wales. He became the Bishop of Bangor in 2008 and was appointed archbishop in 2021.

The Representative Body of the Church in Wales is a registered charity, regulated by the Charity Commission for England and Wales, responsible for holding property and assets on behalf of the Church in Wales. It was set up in 1917 to oversee the financial arrangements of the new province of the Anglican Communion when the Church in Wales split off from the Church of England in 1920.

Joanna Susan Penberthy is a Welsh Anglican bishop. Since November 2016, she has served as the Bishop of St Davids in the Church in Wales. She was the first woman to become a bishop in the Church in Wales, when she was consecrated a bishop on 21 January 2017.

John Derrick Percy Lomas is an Anglican bishop in Wales, serving as the Bishop of Swansea and Brecon since 2021.

References

  1. "Representative Body". churchinwales.org.uk. Church in Wales. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 Church in Wales Membership & Finance 2018
  3. Y Catechism; Amelinelliad o'r Ffydd – The Catechism: An Outline of the Faith. Section III, clause 25, p. 7 (Caerdydd/Cardiff. Gwasg yr Eglwys yng Nghymru/Church in Wales Publications 1993)
  4. "New Archbishop of Wales elected". Archived from the original on 6 December 2021. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  5. "Welsh Church Act 1914". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  6. Except for residual roles — in ecclesiastical court to try the archbishop, as metropolitan; and the appointment of notaries, and the granting of Special Marriage Licences, s.6, Welsh Church (Temporalities) Act 1919. Both these functions formed part of the jurisdiction of the Papal Legate which were transferred to the Archbishop of Canterbury at the Reformation.
  7. Owen, Eluned E. (1961). The Later Life of Bishop Owen. Llandyssul: Gomerian Press. p. 349.
  8. "Antichrist, or the Reunion of Christendom: An Ode".
  9. "Welsh Church Act 1914". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  10. Welsh Disestablishment Bill 1894: see Morgan, Kenneth O. (1966). Freedom or Sacrilege? – A History of the Campaign for Welsh Disestablishment. Penarth: Church in Wales Publications. p. 18.
  11. 1 2 3 "Church in Wales: The Constitution" . Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  12. Green, Charles A.H. (1937). The Setting of the Constitution of the Church in Wales. London: Sweet and Maxwell. p. 365.
  13. Markham, Ian S.; Hawkins, J. Barney; Terry, Justyn; Steffensen, Leslie Nuñez (2013). The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to the Anglican Communion. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 521–523. ISBN   978-1-118-32086-0.
  14. Eighteen cross-border parishes remained in the Church of England and were exempt from disestablishment, The First Report of the Commissioners for Church Temporalities in Wales (1914–16) Cd 8166, p 5; Second Report of the Commissioners for Church Temporalities in Wales (1917–18) Cd 8472 viii 93, p 4
  15. 1 2 Norman Doe (5 March 2020). A New History of the Church in Wales: Governance and Ministry, Theology and Society. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1-108-49957-6.
  16. 1 2 "The Church in Wales Membership and Finances" (PDF). churchinwales.org.uk. 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  17. churchinwales.org.uk Archived 14 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  18. "Church in Wales Membership and Finances" (PDF). www.churchinwales.org.uk. Church in Wales. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  19. "Church in Wales: Membership and Finances 2015" (PDF). churchinwales.org.uk. Church in Wales. 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  20. "The Church in Wales Membership and Finances 2017" (PDF). churchinwales.org.uk. 2017.
  21. Figure 3 Anglican Church Membership as Percentage of Population
  22. Church in Wales
  23. "Statistics Wales National level population estimates by year". Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  24. Church in Wales annual report on membership and finance for 2018 page 4
  25. UK population Wales
  26. Membership Finance 2019
  27. Office, Anglican Communion. "Member Church – Wales". www.anglicancommunion.org. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  28. https://www.churchinwales.org.uk/en/clergy-and-members/constitution/chapter-v-regulations-relating-archbishop-and-diocesan-bishops/ Constitution of the Church in Wales, Chapter V (Regulations thereto), Regs 5.2, 5.3. (Accessed 2 June 2021)
  29. "Constitution of the Church in Wales - Chapter V: The Archbishop and the Diocesan Bishops - 7.1". Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  30. "June Osborne announced as new Bishop of Llandaff". BBC News. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  31. "Bishop of Swansea and Brecon - appointment process". Church in Wales. 13 September 2021. Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  32. "Female Bishops approved by Church in Wales", The Guardian, 12 September 2013.
  33. "Explanatory Memorandum" (PDF). Church in Wales. 26 November 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  34. "Amendments Proposed by Governing Body Members" (PDF). Church in Wales. 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  35. Bishops' biodata Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine , Church in Wales website
  36. "Assistant Bishop of Bangor announced". Church in Wales. 26 January 2022. Archived from the original on 26 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  37. "Jones, Richard William" . Who's Who . ukwhoswho.com. A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  38. "Welsh Church Act 1914, s. 13(2)". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  39. Wales, The Church in. "Governing Body". The Church in Wales.
  40. Procter, F; Frere, W H (1902). A New History of the Book of Common Prayer. St. Martin's Press. p. 125.
  41. Muss-Arnolt 1914, Ch VII.
  42. Wales, The Church in. "Morning & Evening prayer, an alternative order". The Church in Wales.
  43. "Confirmation: Revised Order for (2017)".
  44. Wales, The Church in. "Child – Prayers for a". The Church in Wales.
  45. Wales, The Church in. "Times and Seasons – vol 1 – Advent to Candlemas". The Church in Wales.
  46. Anglican Listening Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine goes into detail on how scripture, tradition, and reason work to "uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way".
  47. "Welsh plan for women priests". The Independent. 16 April 1995. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  48. Herd, George (2017). "Church marks 20 years of women priests". BBC News. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  49. "Church in Wales Celebrates Ten Years of Women Priests". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  50. "Welsh women deacons made priests". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  51. "'Crossing Thresholds' – history of women's ministry in Wales – The Church in Wales". The Church in Wales. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  52. "Canon Joanna Penberthy elected Wales' first woman bishop". BBC News. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  53. "New Bishop of Monmouth Cherry Vann enthroned in Newport". South Wales Argus. 1 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  54. "Former Navy aircraft engineer appointed Bishop". Church in Wales. 4 November 2021. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  55. Twitter — Church in Wales (Accessed 3 March 2022)
  56. "Constitution of the Church in Wales - Chapter I: General and definitions and interpretation; Part II: Definitions and interpretation - 7". Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  57. 1 2 "Church in Wales looks at pension rights for clerics' partners". 15 September 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  58. "Gay marriage in the Church in Wales; and the issue of bisexuality". www.churchtimes.co.uk. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  59. "Leading Gay Cleric Jeffrey John Narrowly Rejected As Bishop In Wales". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  60. Williamson, David (23 April 2009). "Funding sex change therapy in Wales is a life-saver, says transgender journalist" . Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  61. James, David (6 April 2016). "The Church in Wales has apologised to gay and lesbian people". walesonline. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  62. "Gay marriage: MP Bryant says church stance 'wrong'". 15 January 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  63. Williamson, David (12 September 2018). "Gay marriage in Welsh churches? Welsh bishops say it is 'unjust' not to". walesonline. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  64. "Provision explored for same sex couples". BBC News. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  65. Premier (13 September 2018). "Church in Wales to consider allowing gay marriage – Premier". Premier. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  66. "LGBTQIA chaplaincy – The Diocese of St. Asaph". The Diocese of St. Asaph. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  67. Shipton, Martin (9 March 2017). "Gay cleric 'rejected as Bishop of Llandaff' despite winning half the votes". walesonline. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  68. "New Bishop's consecration". Church in Wales. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  69. "Gay bishop will not push for same-sex marriage". BBC News. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  70. "Church in Wales shows support for same sex marriage". www.christiantoday.com. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  71. "The Welsh Church is now a 'more welcoming place'". www.churchtimes.co.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  72. Wightwick, Abbie (17 September 2015). "Church votes YES for gay marriage but it's a long way to real change". walesonline. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  73. "The UK's first LGBTQIA chaplaincy officially launched – The Diocese of St. Asaph". The Diocese of St. Asaph. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  74. Anna, Morrell. "Same-sex marriage statement". The Church in Wales. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  75. "Unofficial Blessings in Wales – The Living Church". www.livingchurch.org. 30 November 2001. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  76. Prayers that may be said with a couple following the Celebration of a Civil Partnership or Civil Marriage. Church in Wales. 2016. p. 1.
  77. "Church in Wales to give blessings for same-sex marriages". BBC News. 6 September 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  78. Sherwood, Harriet (6 September 2021). "Church in Wales votes to bless same-sex marriages". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  79. Alcindor, Nicole (8 September 2021). "Church in Wales to allow pastors to bless same-sex marriages, won't conduct gay weddings". The Christian Post. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  80. "Canons of the Church in Wales: Establishment of Intercommunion between the Church in Wales and the Old Catholics (30 September 1937)". Docest.com. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  81. "The Porvoo Communion - Statement". www.porvoocommunion.org. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  82. "Covenanted Churches within Cytun". www.oikoumene.org. World Council of Churches. Retrieved 28 March 2017.

Sources

Further reading