|Malabar Independent Syrian church|
|Classification||Independent Oriental Orthodox|
|Metropolitan||Hasyo Cyril Mar Baselios Metropolitan I|
|Founder||His Holiness Kattumanghattu Abraham Mor Koorilose I|
|Separated from||Malankara Syrian Church|
|Members||5,000[ citation needed ]|
|Other name(s)||Thozhyur Sabha |
The Malabar Independent Syrian Church, also known as the Thozhiyur Church, is a Christian church centred in Kerala, India. It is one of the churches of the Saint Thomas Christian community, which traces its origins to the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
This group split off from the main body of India's Malankara Church in 1772 and was confirmed as an independent church with its current name after a high court verdict in 1862.Although the church is independent under the Malankara umbrella, the church faith and traditions are strictly Oriental Orthodox, adhering to the West Syriac Rite and consistently using western Syriac and Malayalam during the Holy Qurbana (Qurbono Qadisho).
Today the church remains small, with about 5,000 members[ citation needed ], and maintains good relations with the other Malankara churches.
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|Saint Thomas · Thomas of Cana · Mar Sabor and Mar Proth · Tharisapalli plates · Synod of Diamper · Coonan Cross Oath|
|Crosses · Denominations · Churches · Syriac language · Music|
|Abraham Malpan · Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar · Kayamkulam Philipose Ramban · Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara · Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly · Mar Thoma I · Saint Alphonsa · Sadhu Kochoonju Upadesi · Kariattil Mar Ousep · Geevarghese Dionysius of Vattasseril · Geevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala · Geevarghese Ivanios · Euphrasia Eluvathingal · Thoma of Villarvattom|
| Margamkali · Parichamuttukali · Cuisine · Suriyani Malayalam |
The Saint Thomas Christians trace their origins to Thomas the Apostle, who according to tradition proselytized in India in the 1st century. By the 7th century they were part of the Church of the East, centred in Persia.The entire community remained united until the 17th century, when disputes with the Portuguese padroado in India led to the Coonan Cross Oath of 1653 and the division of the Saint Thomas Christians into Catholic and independent branches. The independent branch, known as the Malankara Church, forged a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch.
However, relations between the Syriac Orthodox hierarchy and the native clergy were sometimes strained. In 1772 Bishop Mar Gregorios, a representative of the Syriac Orthodox hierarchy from the Middle East, had grown dissatisfied with how the Metropolitan Mar Dionysius I had treated him. Against Dionysius' wishes, Gregorios consecrated as bishop a leading dissenter, the monk Kattumangatt Kurien, in a secret but canonically legitimate ceremony. The new bishop took the name Mar Cyril (Koorilos), and he was designated Gregorios' sole heir.
Cyril claimed authority over the parishes of Cochin, and initially received the support of the Raja of Cochin. However, Dionysus saw him as a threat to his power, and in 1774 he appealed to the Raja and to the British authorities in India to suppress the rival bishop.Cyril left for Thozhiyoor, Kerala outside their jurisdiction, and established what would become an independent church. This was the first of several groups to split from the Malankara Church.
Cyril's church was always small, but maintained stability by attracting devoted priests and emphasizing regularity in the ecclesiastical order. In 1794 Cyril consecrated his brother Geevarghese as bishop; Geevarghese succeeded Cyril as Mar Cyril II in 1802, and the succession has proceeded unbroken since.
As a result of an 1862 court case, the Madras High Court confirmed the Thozhiyur church was an independent Malankara church, and it has subsequently been known as the Malabar Independent Syrian Church.
The Malabar Independent Syrian Church maintains good relations with the other Malankara churches especially its relationship with Marthoma Syrian church. Despite its small size, it has had a significant impact on the history of the Saint Thomas Christian community. On several occasions Thoziyur bishops have stepped in to consecrate bishops for the other churches when the episcopal succession, and therefore the churches themselves, were in danger.Mar Philoxenos II Kidangan (1811–1829) of the Thozhiyur Church consecrated three successive bishops in the Malankara Orthodox Church: Mar Dionysius II on 22 March 1816, Mar Dionysius III on 19 October 1817, and Mar Dionysius IV on 27 August 1825. In 1894 Mar Athanasius and Mar Koorilose V consecrated Titus I Mar Thoma for the Reformed Syrians, later known as the Mar Thoma Church. On subsequent occasions when the Thozhiyur Metropolitan has died without consecrating a successor, the Metropolitan and bishops of the Mar Thoma Church had performed the consecration. Thozhiyur bishops have taken part in all Mar Thoma Church episcopal ordinations up to the present.
Malabar Independent Syrian Church is a member of the Christian Conference of Asia, the Council of Churches in India, and the Kerala Council of Churches. Other ecumenical links have been developed, not least with the Anglican and Lutheran Churches. This has been facilitated through a support group based in England, which is a registered charitable trust.
In July 2006 Mar Koorilose IX and Mar Basilios participated in the episcopal ordination of Paul Hunt and John Fenwick as bishops of the Free Church of England.
The Metropolitans of the Malabar Independent Syrian Church:
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (MOSC) also known as the Malankara Church and the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous (independent) church based in Kerala, India. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the oldest Christian communities in Asia. The church serves India's Saint Thomas Christian population. According to tradition, the church originated during the first-century AD missions of Thomas the Apostle. The autocephalous Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan, enthroned on the Apostolic Throne of St. Thomas, is the primate of the church. It employs the Malankara Rite, an Indian form of the West Syriac liturgical rite.
The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, also known as the Malankara Syrian Catholic Church, is an Eastern Catholic, autonomous, particular church, in full communion with the Pope and the worldwide Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. It is part of the Major Archiepiscopal Churches of the Catholic Church that are not distinguished with a patriarchal title. It is headed by Major Archbishop Baselios Cardinal Cleemis Maphrian of the Major Archdiocese of Trivandrum based in Kerala, India.
The Mar Thoma Church, often shortened from Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, is an Oriental Indian church, based in Kerala, India. The church employs a reformed variant of the West Syriac Rite Divine Liturgy of Saint James. The Mar Thoma Church believes that they are the successors of the Saint Thomas Christian community of Malankara, which originated from the missionary activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. The term "Mar Thoma" literally means "Saint Thomas" in reference to Thomas the Apostle and Christians of Malankara were called as Christians of Saint Thomas or Marthoma Nazranees. The church in Malankara flourished under various ecclesiastical faith streams from time to time.
Malankara Metropolitan was a legal title given to the head of the Malankara Church Puthenkoor Christians, by the Government of Travancore and Cochin in South India. This title was awarded by a proclamation from the King of Travancore and the King of Cochin. The Prime jurisdiction regarding the temporal, ecclesiastical and spiritual administration of the Malankara Church is vested in the Malankara Metropolitan. Malankara Metropolitan is believed to reign it faithful from the Apostolic See of Saint Thomas.
Mar Thoma V was born in Pakalomattom family, one of the oldest families in Kerala and he was known as Ousep. He was the Malankara Metropolitan from 1728 to 8 May 1765. During his tenure a number of bishops from Antioch arrived and he had to face a lot of problems from them. Some of these bishops were banished from the country and had to return.
Titus II Mar Thoma Metropolitan was the head of the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church with its center in Kerala state in south-western India. He was known as Thithoos Dwitheeyan Mar Thoma Metropolitan among his people.
Titus I Mar Thoma Metropolitan was known as Thithoos Mar Thoma Metropolitan was the first Marthoma Metropolitan (1893–1909) after the formation of the Marthoma Syrian church.
Mar Dionysius I, also known as Mar Thoma VI, was the Metropolitan of the Malankara Church from 1765 until his death. A member of the Pakalomattom family(Thazhmon,Ayroor)he was a shrewd administrator who appealed to outside authorities to assert his position as the sole leader of the Malankara Church and to attempt to reunite all the Saint Thomas Christians.
Mar Dionysius II, born Pulikkottil Joseph Ittoop was Malankara Metropolitan from 22 March 1815 until his demise. Despite the brevity of his reign he made lasting contributions to the Malankara Syrian Church.
The Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Christian Church also known as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, or the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, is an autonomous Oriental Orthodox Church based in the Indian state of Kerala, and is an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. It recognizes the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch Of Antioch and all the East, Ignatius Aphrem II seated in the Cathedral of Saint George, Bab Tuma, Damascus, Syria, as its Supreme Head. It functions as a largely autonomous unit within the church, under the authority of the Catholicos of India, Baselios Thomas I. Currently, this is the only church in Malankara which has a direct relationship with the Syriac Christians of Antioch, which has continued from after the schism and they continue to employ the West Syriac Rite Liturgy of Saint James.
Mar Dionysius III, also known as Punnathra Mar Dionysius and born Kurien was Malankara Metropolitan from 1817 until his death.
The Malankara Church is an apostolic church, according to tradition, that originated in the missions of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. The word "Malankara" is a combination of two words, 'Mala' which means mountains and 'Kara' which means land surface; and refers to the modern-day state of Kerala in India. This land had a historical trade connection with the Middle East nations from the ancient era and the traders from Egypt, Persia, and the Levant frequently visited this land for getting spices. These groups included Arabs, Jews and also Christians, and the Christians who visited here maintained contact with the Malankara Church. As such the Church in Malankara was in touch with other Eastern churches such as the Coptic and Persian churches. The Malankara Church was headed by the 'Malankara Moopan' who is the successor of Thomas the Apostle and also the heir of the Apostolic Throne of St Thomas in Malankara. The Malankara Church was unique and unanimous till the 16th century and later some rifts happened due to the colonization of the Latin Catholic Portuguese padroado missionaries. A group of people split off from the church in 1663 under the leadership of Palliveettil Mar Chandy Kathanar who joined with the Church of Rome; this split caused to the emergence of the first Uniate Rite in Malankara. Although in full communion with the Holy See of Rome, the Syro-Malabar Church employs the East Syriac Rite (Chaldean) liturgy of the Persian Church. The people who stood with the Malankara Moopan remained independent as Malankara Nasranis. With the arrival of Mar Gregorios Abdal Jaleel Bawa in 1665 from the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, he was able to re-establish ties between the Malankara Church and the Syriac Orthodox Church. And adopt over the Malankara Rite liturgy from the West Syriac liturgical rite of the Syriac Orthodox Church.
Saint Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril popularly known as Vattasseril Thirumeni, born Geevarghese was the 15 th Malankara Metropolitan (primate) of the Malankara Church. Vattasseril Geevarghese Mar Dionysius is popularly known as "Malankara Sabha Bhasuran", a title which the Church bestowed on him in recognition of his contribution to Malankara Church. Vattasseril Thirumeni was a man of prayer, determination and dynamism. He was the greatest advocate of sovereignty and autonomy of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church.
Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II Malankara Metropolitan, was born into the family of Pulikkottil (Kunnamkulam), an important family in the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. He was the 14th Malankara Metropolitan of the Malankara Church
Christianity is the third-most practised religion in Kerala, accounting for 18% of the population according to the Indian census. Although a minority, the Christian population of Kerala is proportionally much larger than that of India as a whole. A significant portion of the Indian Christian population resides in the state.
St. Mary’s Orthodox Cathedral, Puthencavu is one of the important churches in South India, located at a village named Puthencavu, Alappuzha district in Kerala state of India. The church is one of the oldest Christian churches in Central Travancore region of Kerala.
The Saint Thomas Christian denominations are traditional Christian denominations from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. They are also known as "Nasranis" as well. The Syriac term "Nasrani" is still used by St. Thomas Christians in Kerala.
Abraham Mar Koorilos I was the first primate and Metropolitan of the Malabar Independent Syrian Church in Kerala, India, although it was known initially as Thozhyur Sabha or Anjoor Church when established in 1772. The official name Malabar Independent Syrian Church was adopted in 1862. Mar Koorilos I remained primate for 30 years from 1772 to 1802 until his death on 10 July 1802. His brother succeeded him as primate of the church as Geevarghese Mar Koorilos II.
The following are Malayalam works: