Oriental Orthodox Churches

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Oriental Orthodox Churches
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Classification Non-Chalcedonian
Orientation Eastern Christianity
Theology Miaphysitism
Polity Episcopal
Structure Communion
Language Coptic, Classical Syriac, Ge'ez, Armenian, Malayalam, Koine Greek, local languages
Liturgy Alexandrian, West Syriac and Armenian
Founder Jesus Christ, according to sacred tradition
Separated from Roman state Church
Members50 million
Other name(s)Oriental Orthodoxy, Miaphysite churches, Oriental Orthodox Communion

The Oriental Orthodox Churches are Eastern Christian churches adhering to Miaphysite Christology, [1] [2] with approximately 50 million members worldwide. [3] [4] The Oriental Orthodox Churches adhere to the Nicene Christian tradition. Oriental Orthodoxy is one of the oldest branches in Christianity. [5]


As some of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Oriental Orthodox Churches have played a prominent role in the history and culture of Armenia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, Western Asia and the Malabar region of India. As autocephalous churches, their bishops are equal by virtue of episcopal ordination. Their doctrines recognize the validity of only the first three ecumenical councils. [6] [1]

The Oriental Orthodox communion is led by its standing conference in which six churches are constituent members: the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria; the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch and its constituent autonomous Malankara Syrian Church; the Armenian Apostolic Church; the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, and the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. [7] The mainstream Oriental Orthodox are generally autocephalous national churches, namely the Coptic Church; the Syriac Orthodox Church along with its constituent autonomous Malankara Syrian Church in India; the Armenian Apostolic Church, comprising the autocephalous Catholicosate of Etchmiadzin in Armenia and the Catholicosate of Cilicia in the Levant and of diaspora; the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church; [8] and also the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church in India. The Malabar Independent Syrian Church—based in India—and the British Orthodox Church in the UK are independent Oriental Orthodox churches, having formerly been part of one of the mainstream Oriental Orthodox churches. [9]

Oriental Orthodox Christians consider themselves to be the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, and that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. Three rites are practiced by the churches: the western-influenced Armenian Rite, the West Syriac Rite of the Syriac Church and the Malankara Syrian Church of India, and the Alexandrian Rite of the Copts, Ethiopians and Eritreans.

Oriental Orthodox Churches shared communion with the imperial Roman church before the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD, and with the Church of the East until the Council of Ephesus in AD 431, separating primarily over differences in Christology.

The majority of Oriental Orthodox Christians live in Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, India, Syria, Turkey and Armenia, with smaller Syriac communities in Western Asia decreasing due to persecution.[ unreliable source? ] There are also many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora, conversions, and missionary activity.

Name and characteristics

The name "Oriental Orthodox Churches" was formally adopted at the Conference of Addis Ababa in 1965. At the time there were five participating churches, the Eritrean Church not yet being autocephalous. [10]

Other names by which the churches have been known include Old Oriental, Ancient Oriental, Lesser Eastern, Anti-Chalcedonian, Non-Chalcedonian, Pre-Chalcedonian, Miaphysite or Monophysite, [11] although the Church of the East is equally pre-Chalcedonian. [10] [ better source needed ] The Roman Catholic Church has referred to these churches as "the Ancient Churches of the East". [12]

Theology and ecclesiology

The Oriental Orthodox Churches are distinguished by their recognition of only the first three ecumenical councils during the period of the State church of the Roman Empire: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Council of Ephesus in 431.

Oriental Orthodoxy shares much theology and many ecclesiastical traditions with the Eastern Orthodox Church; these include a similar doctrine of salvation and a tradition of collegiality between bishops, as well as reverence of the Theotokos and use of the Nicene Creed. [13] [14]

The primary theological difference between the two communions is the differing Christology. Oriental Orthodoxy rejects the Chalcedonian Definition, and instead adopts the miaphysite formula, [15] [16] believing that the human and divine natures of Christ are united. Historically, the early prelates of the Oriental Orthodox Churches thought that the Chalcedonian Definition implied a possible repudiation of the Trinity or a concession to Nestorianism.

The break in communion between the imperial Roman and Oriental Orthodox Churches did not occur suddenly, but rather gradually over two to three centuries following the Council of Chalcedon. [17] Eventually the two communions developed separate institutions, and the Oriental Orthodox did not participate in any of the later ecumenical councils.

The Oriental Orthodox Churches maintain ancient apostolic succession. [18] The various churches are governed by holy synods, with a primus inter pares bishop serving as primate. The primates hold titles such as patriarch, catholicos, and pope. The Alexandrian Patriarchate, the Antiochian Patriarchate along with Patriarchate of Rome, was one of the most prominent sees of the early Christian Church.

Oriental Orthodoxy does not have a magisterial leader like the Roman Catholic Church, nor does the communion have a leader who can convene ecumenical synods like the Eastern Orthodox Church. Meanwhile its ecumenical dialogues and internal church relations are led by the Standing Conference, which acts as the permanent representative council of its member churches.

Some Oriental Orthodox Churches such as the Coptic Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox, Eritrean Orthodox, places a heavier emphasis on Old Testament teachings than one might find in other Christian denominations, and its followers adhere to certain practices: following dietary rules that are similar to Jewish Kashrut, [19] require that their male members undergo circumcision, [20] and observes ritual purification. [21] [22]

Non-Chalcedonian Christology

The schism between Oriental Orthodoxy and the adherents of Chalcedonian Christianity was based on differences in Christology. The First Council of Nicaea, in 325, declared that Jesus Christ is God, that is to say, "consubstantial" with the Father. Later, the third ecumenical council, the Council of Ephesus, declared that Jesus Christ, though divine as well as human, is only one being, or person (hypostasis). Thus, the Council of Ephesus explicitly rejected Nestorianism, the Christological doctrine that Christ was two distinct persons, one divine (the Logos) and one human (Jesus), who happened to inhabit the same body.

Twenty years after Ephesus, the Council of Chalcedon reaffirmed the view that Jesus Christ was a single person, but at the same time declared that this one person existed "in two complete natures", one human and one divine.

At times, Chalcedonian Christians have referred to the Oriental Orthodox as being monophysites—that is to say, accusing them of following the teachings of Eutyches (c.380 – c.456), who argued that Jesus Christ was not human at all, but only divine. Monophysitism was condemned as heretical alongside Nestorianism, and to accuse a church of being monophysite is to accuse it of falling into the opposite extreme from Nestorianism. However, the Oriental Orthodox themselves reject this description as inaccurate, having officially condemned the teachings of both Nestorius and Eutyches. They define themselves as miaphysite instead, [15] [16] holding that Christ has one nature, but this nature is both human and divine. [23]

Modern alignments

Interior of St. Mary's Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Adama, Ethiopia (2010) SaintMaryAdama04.jpg
Interior of St. Mary's Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Adama, Ethiopia (2010)

Today, Oriental Orthodox Churches are in full communion with each other, but not with the Eastern Orthodox Church or any other churches; the Oriental Orthodox Churches, while in communion, do not form a single church. Like Catholics or Eastern Orthodox, the Oriental Orthodox Church includes several self-governing churches. Slow dialogue towards restoring communion between the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox groups [24] was renewed in the mid-20th century, [25] and dialogue is also underway between Oriental Orthodoxy and the Catholic Church and others. [26] In 2017, the mutual recognition of baptism was restored between the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and the Catholic Church. [27] Also baptism is mutually recognized between the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Catholic Church. [28] [29]

The Oriental Orthodox Churches are generally considered to be more conservative with regard to social issues as well as enthusiastic about ecumenical relations with non-Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches. All Oriental Orthodox Churches are members of the World Council of Churches. [30]


Post-Council of Chalcedon (AD 451)

To the hierarchs who would lead the Oriental Orthodox, the latter phrase was tantamount to accepting Nestorianism, which expressed itself in a terminology incompatible with their understanding of Christology. Nestorianism was understood as seeing Christ in two separate natures, human and divine, each with different actions and experiences; in contrast Cyril of Alexandria advocated the formula "One Nature of God the Incarnate Logos" [31] (or as others translate, "One Incarnate Nature of the Word" [32] ).

The Oriental Orthodox Churches were therefore often called "monophysite", although they reject this label, as it is associated with Eutychian monophysitism; they prefer the term "miaphysite". [15] [16]

In the years following Chalcedon the patriarchs of Constantinople intermittently remained in communion with the non-Chalcedonian Patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch (see Henotikon), while Rome remained out of communion with the latter and in unstable communion with Constantinople. It was not until 518 that the new Byzantine Emperor, Justin I (who accepted Chalcedon), demanded that the church in the Roman Empire accept the council's decisions. [33]

20th century

By the 20th century the Chalcedonian schism was not seen with the same importance, and from several meetings between the authorities of the Holy See and the Oriental Orthodoxy, reconciling declarations emerged in the common statement of Syriac Patriarch Mar Ignatius Zakka I Iwas and the Roman Pope John Paul II in 1984:

The confusions and schisms that occurred between their Churches in the later centuries, they realize today, in no way affect or touch the substance of their faith, since these arose only because of differences in terminology and culture and in the various formulae adopted by different theological schools to express the same matter. Accordingly, we find today no real basis for the sad divisions and schisms that subsequently arose between us concerning the doctrine of Incarnation. In words and life we confess the true doctrine concerning Christ our Lord, notwithstanding the differences in interpretation of such a doctrine which arose at the time of the Council of Chalcedon. [34]


Oriental Orthodox Christians, such as Copts, Syrians and Indians, use a breviary such as the Agpeya and Shehimo, respectively, to pray the canonical hours seven times a day while facing in the eastward direction towards Jerusalem, in anticipation of the Second Coming of Jesus; this Christian practice has its roots in Psalm 119:164, in which the prophet David prays to God seven times a day. [35] [ original research? ] Before praying, they wash their hands and face in order to be clean before and to present their best to God; shoes are removed in order to acknowledge that one is offering prayer before a holy God. [36] [37] In this Christian tradition, it is customary for women to wear a Christian headcovering when praying. [38]


Aswan Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Egypt Assouan cathedrale copte.jpg
Aswan Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Egypt

The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a communion of six autocephalous (that is, administratively completely independent) regional churches. [11]

Below is a list of the six autocephalous Oriental Orthodox churches forming the main body of Oriental Orthodox Christianity. Based on the definitions, the list is in the alphabetical order, with some of their constituent autonomous churches and exarchates listed as well.

There are a number of churches considered non-canonical, but whose members and clergy may or may not be in communion with the greater Oriental Orthodox communion. Examples include the Malabar Independent Syrian Church, the Celtic Orthodox Church, the Orthodox Church of the Gauls, the British Orthodox Church, and the Tigrayan Orthodox Tewahedo Church. These organizations have passed in and out of official recognition, but members rarely face excommunication when recognition is ended. The primates of these churches are typically referred to as episcopi vagantes or vagantes in short.


Distribution of Oriental Orthodox Christians in the world by country:
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Main religion (more than 75%)
Main religion (50-75%)
Important minority religion (20-50%)
Important minority religion (5-20%)
Minority religion (1-5%)
Tiny minority religion (below 1%), but has local autocephaly Oriental Orthodoxy by country.png
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox Christians in the world by country:
  Main religion (more than 75%)
  Main religion (50–75%)
  Important minority religion (20–50%)
  Important minority religion (5–20%)
  Minority religion (1–5%)
  Tiny minority religion (below 1%), but has local autocephaly

According to the Encyclopedia of Religion, Oriental Orthodoxy is the Christian tradition "most important in terms of the number of faithful living in the Middle East", which, along with other Eastern Christian communions, represent an autochthonous Christian presence whose origins date further back than the birth and spread of Islam in the Middle East. [40]

It is the dominant religion in Armenia (94%) and ethnically Armenian unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (95%). [41] [42]

Oriental Orthodoxy is a prevailing religion in Ethiopia (43.1%), while Protestants account for 19.4% and Islam – 34.1%. [43] It is most widespread in two regions in Ethiopia: Amhara (82%) and Tigray (96%), as well as the capital city of Addis Ababa (75%). It is also one of two major religions in Eritrea (40%). [44]

It is a minority in Egypt (<20%), [45] Syria (2–3% out of the 10% of total Christians), Lebanon (10% of the 40% of Christians in Lebanon or 200,000 Armenians and members of the Church of the East) and Kerala, India (7% out of the 20% of total Christians in Kerala). [46] In terms of total number of members, the Ethiopian Church is the largest of all Oriental Orthodox churches, and is second among all Orthodox churches among Eastern and Oriental Churches (exceeded in number only by the Russian Orthodox Church).

Also of particular importance are the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople in Turkey and the Armenian Apostolic Church of Iran. These Oriental Orthodox churches represent the largest Christian minority in both of these predominantly Muslim countries, Turkey and Iran. [47] [48]

Internal disputes

There are numerous ongoing internal disputes within the Oriental Orthodox Churches. These disputes result in lesser or greater degrees of impaired communion.

Armenian Apostolic

The least divisive of these disputes is within the Armenian Apostolic Church, between the Catholicosate of Etchmiadzin and the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia.

The division between the two sees intensified during the Soviet period. The Holy See of Etchmiadzin was seen as a captive Communist puppet by some Western bishops and clergy. Sympathizers of this established congregations independent of Etchmiadzin, declaring loyalty instead to the See based in Antelias in Lebanon. The division was formalized in 1956 when the Antelias (Cilician) See broke away from the Etchmiadzin See.


In 1992, following the abdication of Abune Merkorios and election of Abune Paulos, some Ethiopian Orthodox bishops in the United States maintained that the new election was invalid, and declared their independence from the Addis Ababa administration forming separate synod. [49] On 27 July 2018, representatives from both synods reached an agreement. According to the terms of the agreement, Abune Merkorios was reinstated as Patriarch alongside Abune Mathias (successor of Abune Paulos), who will continue to be responsible for administrative duties, and the two synods were merged into one synod, with any excommunications between them lifted. [50] [51]


Indians who follow the Oriental Orthodox faith belong to the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church and the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church. The two churches were united before 1912 and after 1958, but again separated in 1975. The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, also known as the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous church. It is headed by the Catholicos of the East and Malankara Metropolitan. The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church is an autonomous Maphrianate of the Syriac Orthodox Church in India.

The Malabar Independent Syrian Church also follows the Oriental Orthodox tradition, but is not in communion with other Oriental Orthodox churches.

Occasional confusions

The Assyrian Church of the East is sometimes [52] incorrectly described as an Oriental Orthodox church, [53] [54] though its origins lie in disputes that predated the Council of Chalcedon and it follows a different Christology from Oriental Orthodoxy. The historical Church of the East was the church of Greater Iran and declared itself separate from the state church of the Roman Empire in 424–27, years before the Ecumenical Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. Theologically, the Church of the East was affiliated with the doctrine of Nestorianism, and thus rejected the Council of Ephesus, which declared Nestorianism heretical in 431. The Christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in fact developed as a reaction against Nestorian Christology, which emphasizes the distinctness of the human and divine natures of Christ.

See also

Related Research Articles

The Chalcedonian Definition is a declaration of Christ's nature, adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451. Chalcedon was an early centre of Christianity located in Asia Minor. The council was the fourth of the ecumenical councils that are accepted by Chalcedonian churches which include the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican and Reformed churches.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coptic Orthodox Church</span> Oriental Orthodox Church

The Coptic Orthodox Church,, also known as the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria, is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt. The head of the church and the See of Alexandria is the pope of Alexandria on the Holy Apostolic See of Saint Mark, who also carries the title of Father of fathers, Shepherd of shepherds, Ecumenical Judge and the 13th among the Apostles. The See of Alexandria is titular. The Coptic pope presides from Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo. The church follows the Coptic Rite for its liturgy, prayer and devotional patrimony. Adherents of the Coptic Orthodox Church make up Egypt's largest and most significant minority population, and the largest population of Christians in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). They make up the largest percentage of approximately 20 million Christians in Egypt

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eastern Christianity</span> Christian traditions originating from Greek- and Syriac-speaking populations

Eastern Christianity comprises Christian traditions and church families that originally developed during classical and late antiquity in Western Asia, Asia Minor, Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, Northeast Africa, the Fertile Crescent and the Malabar coast of South Asia, and ephemerally parts of Persia, Central Asia and the Far East. The term does not describe a single communion or religious denomination.

Chalcedonian Christianity is a term referring to the branches of Christianity that accept and uphold theological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council, held in 451. Chalcedonian Christianity accepts the Christological Definition of Chalcedon, a Christian doctrine concerning the union of two natures in one hypostasis of Jesus Christ, who is thus acknowledged as a single person (prosopon). Chalcedonian Christianity also accepts the Chalcedonian confirmation of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, thus acknowledging the commitment of Chalcedonism to Nicene Christianity.

A catholicos is the head of certain churches in some Eastern Christian traditions. The title implies autocephaly and, in some cases, it is the title of the head of an autonomous church. The word comes from ancient Greek καθολικός, derived from καθ' ὅλου from κατά and ὅλος, meaning "concerning the whole, universal, general"; it originally designated a financial or civil office in the Roman Empire.

Miaphysitism is the Christological doctrine that holds Jesus, the "Incarnate Word, is fully divine and fully human, in one 'nature' (physis)." It is a position held by the Oriental Orthodox Churches and differs from the Chalcedonian position that Jesus is one "person" in two "natures", a divine nature and a human nature (dyophysitism).

Non-Chalcedonian Christianity comprises the branches of Christianity that do not accept theological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council, held in 451. Non-Chalcedonian denominations reject the Christological Definition of Chalcedon, for varying reasons. Non-Chalcedonian Christianity thus stands in contrast to Chalcedonian Christianity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Index of Eastern Christianity–related articles</span>

Alphabetical list of Eastern Christianity-related articles on English Wikipedia

The Second Council of Ephesus was a Christological church synod in 449 convened by Emperor Theodosius II under the presidency of Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria. It was intended to be an ecumenical council, and it is accepted as such by the miaphysite churches but was rejected by Chalcedonian Christians. It was explicitly repudiated by the next council, the Council of Chalcedon of 451, recognised as the fourth ecumenical council by Chalcedonian Christians, and it was named the Latrocinium by Pope Leo I; the Chalcedonian churches, particularly the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox communions, continue to accept this designation, while the Oriental Orthodox repudiate it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dyophysitism</span> Christological position

Dyophysitism is the Christological position that Jesus Christ is one person of one substance and one hypostasis, with two distinct, inseparable natures, divine and human. It is related to the doctrine of the hypostatic union. Those who insisted on the "two natures" formula were referred to as dyophysites.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Eastern Christianity</span>

Christianity has been, historically, a Middle Eastern religion with its origin in Judaism. Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in the Middle East, Egypt, Asia Minor, the Far East, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. It is contrasted with Western Christianity, which developed in Western Europe. As a historical definition the term relates to the earliest Christian communities and their long-standing traditions that still exist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coptic history</span> Aspect of the history of Egypt focusing on the history of the Copts

Coptic history is the part of the history of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the Roman period, and covers the history of the Copts to the present day. Many of the historic items related to Coptic Christianity are on display in many museums around the world and a large number is in the Coptic Museum in Coptic Cairo.

Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three ecumenical councils—the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus. They reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. Hence, these Churches are also called Old Oriental Churches or Non-Chalcedonian Churches.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">V. C. Samuel</span> 20th-century Indian theologian and priest

Vilakuvelil Cherian Samuel (1912–1998), called Samuel Achen was an Indian Christian philosopher, scholar, university professor, theologian, historian, polyglot and ecumenical leader. He was a priest of the Indian Orthodox Church. He was the author of many doctrinal books and papers including The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined: Historical Theological Survey.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Conference of Addis Ababa</span> 1965 Oriental Orthodox Churches meeting held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

The Conference of Addis Ababa was a meeting of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 15–21 January 1965. Hosted nominally by Abuna Basilios, but effectively by Abuna Theophilos, this meeting was momentous as there had been no such collective meeting of the various Non-Chalcedonian churches since the 5th century at Ephesus. The meeting was attended by Pope Cyril VI, Mor Ignatius Ya`qub III, Vazgen I, Khoren I, and Mar Baselios Augen I.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church</span> Oriental Orthodox Christian denomination from Eritrea

The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is one of the Oriental Orthodox Churches with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea. Its autocephaly was recognised by Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church, after Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993. Thus, the Eritrean Church accords a primacy of honor to the Coptic Church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oriental Orthodoxy in North America</span> Representing communities and institutions of Oriental Orthodox Christianity in North America

Oriental Orthodoxy in North America represents adherents, religious communities, institutions and organizations of Oriental Orthodox Christianity in North America, including the United States, Canada, Mexico and other North American states. Oriental Orthodox Christians in North America are traditionally organized in accordance with their patrimonial ecclesiastical jurisdictions, with each community having its own structure of dioceses and parishes. Most Oriental Orthodox Christians in North America belong to Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, Eritrean, Indian, Syriac and some other communities, representing religious majority or minority within a particular community. Oriental Orthodox jurisdictions are organized within the Standing Conference of Oriental Orthodox Churches.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oriental Orthodoxy by country</span> Overview of Oriental Orthodox churches and populations

Oriental Orthodox Churches are the churches descended from those that rejected the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Despite the similar name, they are therefore a different branch of Christianity from the Eastern Orthodox. Oriental Orthodoxy consists of several autocephalous and autonomous jurisdictions holding a single set of beliefs and united in full communion. However, they each have their own separate rites, and there are significant differences between their respective practices. Thus, there is more internal diversity of practice among the Oriental Orthodox than among the Eastern Orthodox.

The Council of Manzikert met in 726 to reconcile the Armenian Apostolic and Syriac Orthodox churches. It was convoked by the Armenian catholicos John of Odzun and attended by many Armenian bishops and six bishops of the Syriac church sent by Patriarch Athanasius III. It took place in Manzikert (Manazkert).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tigrayan Orthodox Tewahedo Church</span> Autocephalous Oriental Orthodox Church in Ethiopia

The Tigrayan Orthodox Tewahedo Church is one of the Oriental Orthodox Churches with its headquarters in Axum, Tigray Region. It declared autocephaly on 7 May 2021, accusing the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church of not doing enough to speak out against the Tigray war, and for being too closely aligned with the Ethiopian government.


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