San religion

Last updated

The traditional religion and mythology of the San people is poorly attested due to their interactions with Christianity.

San people Members of various indigenous hunter-gatherer people of Southern Africa

The San or Saan peoples, also known as the "Bushmen", are members of various Khoesān-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa, and whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa. There is a significant linguistic difference between the northern peoples living between the Okavango River in Botswana and Etosha National Park in northwestern Namibia, extending up into southern Angola; the central peoples of most of Namibia and Botswana, extending into Zambia and Zimbabwe; and the southern people in the central Kalahari towards the Molopo River, who are the last remnant of the previously extensive indigenous Sān of South Africa.

Contents

Gods and mythical figures

ǀXam

The ǀXam prayed to the Sun and Moon. Many myths are ascribed to various stars.

ǀKaggen is Mantis, a demi-urge and folk hero of the ǀXam people of southern Africa. He is a trickster god who can shape shift, usually taking the form of a praying mantis but also a bull eland, a louse, a snake, and a caterpillar.

Mantis order of insects

Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families. The largest family is the Mantidae ("mantids"). Mantises are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. They have triangular heads with bulging eyes supported on flexible necks. Their elongated bodies may or may not have wings, but all Mantodea have forelegs that are greatly enlarged and adapted for catching and gripping prey; their upright posture, while remaining stationary with forearms folded, has led to the common name praying mantis.

Trickster literary archetype

In mythology, and in the study of folklore and religion, a trickster is a character in a story, which exhibits a great degree of intellect or secret knowledge, and uses it to play tricks or otherwise disobey normal rules and conventional behaviour.

Other

ǃXu is the Khoikhoi word ǃKhub 'rich man, master', which was used by some Christian missionaries to translate "Lord" in the Bible, and repeated by San people in reporting what the Khoikhoi told them. [2] It is used in Juǀʼhoan as the word for the Christian god. It has been misinterpreted as the "Bushman creator".

ǃXu, also ǃXu꞉ba and sometimes ǃXo or ǃXo꞉ba, is a San rendering of the Khoikhoi word ǃKhu 'rich' and its derivation ǃKhub 'rich man, master', which was used by some Christian missionaries to the Khoikhoi to translate the word "Lord" in the Bible. Bleek reports that the ǂKxʼaoǁʼae rendered the word as ǃXo and the Naro as ǃXu꞉ba or ǃXo꞉ba when repeating things what the Khoikhoi had told them. It has entered the Juǀʼhoan language as the name of the Christian god.

Juǀʼhoan, also known as Southern or Southeastern !Kung, is the southern variety of the !Kung dialect continuum, spoken in northeastern Namibia and the Northwest District of Botswana. Several regional dialects are distinguished: Epukiro, Tsumkwe, Rundu, Omatako and ǂKxʼauǁʼein, with Tsumkwe being the best described. The name "Juǀʼhoan" may be used specifically for the Tsumkwe dialect, though speakers of all dialects identify themselves as Juǀʼhoansi.

Trance

To enter the spirit world, trance has to be initiated by a shaman through the hunting of a tutelary spirit or power animal. [3] The eland often serves as power animal. [4] The fat of the eland is used symbolically in many rituals including initiations and rites of passage. Other animals such as giraffe, kudu and hartebeest can also serve this function.

Trance abnormal state of wakefulness or altered state of consciousness

Trance is an abnormal state of wakefulness in which a person is not self-aware and is either altogether unresponsive to external stimuli or is selectively responsive in following the directions of the person who has induced the trance. Trance states may occur involuntarily and unbidden.

Shamanism A practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world

Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

A tutelary is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation. The etymology of "tutelary" expresses the concept of safety, and thus of guardianship.

One of the most important rituals in the San religion is the great dance, or the trance dance. This dance typically takes a circular form, with women clapping and singing and men dancing rhythmically. Although there is no evidence that the Kalahari San use hallucinogens regularly, student shaman may use hallucinogens to go into trance for the first time. [5]

Psychologists have investigated hallucinations and altered states of consciousness in neuropsychology. They found that entoptic phenomena can occur through rhythmic dancing, music, sensory deprivation, hyperventilation, prolonged and intense concentration and migraines. [6] The psychological approach explains rock art through three trance phases. In the first phase of trance an altered state of consciousness would come about. People would experience geometric shapes commonly known as entoptic phenomena. These would include zigzags, chevrons, dots, flecks, grids, vortices and U-shapes. These shapes can be found especially in rock engravings of Southern Africa.

Hallucination Perception in the absence of external stimulation that has the qualities of real perception

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception. Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and are perceived to be located in external objective space. They are distinguishable from several related phenomena, such as dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness; pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception, and is accurately perceived as unreal; illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception; and imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary control. Hallucinations also differ from "delusional perceptions", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus is given some additional significance.

An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state. By 1892, the expression was in use in relation to hypnosis although an ongoing debate about hypnosis as an ASC based on modern definition exists. The next retrievable instance, by Dr Max Mailhouse from his 1904 presentation to conference, however, is unequivocally identified as such, as it was in relation to epilepsy, and is still used today. In academia, the expression was used as early as 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig and brought into common usage from 1969 by Charles Tart. It describes induced changes in one's mental state, almost always temporary. A synonymous phrase is "altered state of awareness".

Neuropsychology is the study and characterization of the behavioral modifications that follow a neurological trauma or condition. It is both an experimental and clinical field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders. Whereas classical neurology focuses on the pathology of the nervous system and classical psychology is largely divorced from it, neuropsychology seeks to discover how the brain correlates with the mind through the study of neurological patients. It thus shares concepts and concerns with neuropsychiatry and with behavioral neurology in general. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals. It has also been applied in efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells in higher primates.

During the second phase of trance people try to make sense of the entoptic phenomena. They would elaborate the shape they had 'seen' until they had created something that looked familiar to them. Shamans experiencing the second phase of trance would incorporate the natural world into their entoptic phenomena, visualising honeycombs or other familiar shapes.

In the third phase a radical transformation occurs in mental imagery. The most noticeable change is that the shaman becomes part of the experience. Subjects under laboratory conditions have found that they experience sliding down a rotating tunnel, entering caves or holes in the ground. People in the third phase begin to lose their grip on reality and hallucinate monsters and animals of strong emotional content. In this phase, therianthropes in rock painting can be explained as heightened sensory awareness that gives one the feeling that they have undergone a physical transformation. [6]

A San trance dance featuring the San of Ghanzi, Botswana appeared in BBC Television's Around the World in 80 Faiths on 16 January 2009.

Rock art

Pictographs can be found across Southern Africa in places such as the cave sandstone of KwaZulu-Natal, Free State and North-Eastern Cape, the granite and Waterberg sandstone of the Northern Transvaal, the Table Mountain sandstone of the Southern and Western Cape. [7] Images of conflict and war-making are not uncommon. [8] There are also often images of therianthrophic entities which have both human and animal traits and are connected to the notion of trancing, but these represent only a fraction of all rock art representations. [3] Most commonly portrayed are animals such as the eland, although grey rhebok and hartebeest are also in rock art in places such as Cederberg and Warm Bokkeveld. At uKhahlamba / Drakensberg Park there are paintings thought to be some 3,000 years old which depict humans and animals, and are thought to have religious significance.

See also

Related Research Articles

Wilhelm Bleek German linguist

Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek was a German linguist. His work included A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages and his great project jointly executed with Lucy Lloyd: The Bleek and Lloyd Archive of ǀxam and !kun texts. A short form of this eventually reached press with Specimens of Bushman Folklore, which Laurens van der Post drew on heavily.

ǀXam is an extinct Khoisan language of South Africa formerly spoken by the ǀXam-ka-ǃkʼe people of South Africa. It is part of the ǃUi branch of the Tuu languages and closely related to the moribund Nǁng language. Much of the scholarly work on ǀXam was performed by Wilhelm Bleek, a German linguist of the 19th century, who studied a variety of ǀXam spoken at Achterveld, and another spoken at Strandberg and Katkop while working with ǁKábbo, Diaǃkwāin, ǀAǃkúṅta, ǃKwéite̥n ta ǁKēn, ǀHaṅǂkassʼō and other speakers. The surviving corpus of ǀXam comes from the stories told by and vocabulary recorded from these individuals in the Bleek and Lloyd Collection.

Sympathetic magic, also known as imitative magic, is a type of magic based on imitation or correspondence.

ǃKung people

The ǃKung are a part of the San people who live mostly on the western edge of the Kalahari desert, Ovamboland, and Botswana. The name "ǃKung" was given to the tribe by people outside its group. The ǃKung people call themselves the Juǀʼhoansi. In ǃKung society men and women live together in a non-exploitative manner, displaying a striking degree of equality between the sexes. This band level society used traditional methods of hunting and gathering for subsistence into the 1970s. Today, the great majority of ǃKung people live sedentary lives in the villages of Bantu pastoralists and European ranchers.

<i>Specimens of Bushman Folklore</i> book by Wilhelm Bleek

Specimens of Bushman Folklore is a book by the linguist Wilhelm H. I. Bleek and Lucy C. Lloyd, which was published in 1911. The book records eighty-seven legends, myths and other traditional stories of the ǀXam Bushmen in their now-extinct language. The stories were collected through interviews with various narrators, chief among them ǀA!kunta, ǁKabbo, Diäǃkwain, ǃKweiten ta ǁken and ǀHanǂkasso.

Iziko South African Museum A South African national museum in Cape Town

The Iziko South African Museum is a South African national museum located in Cape Town. The museum was founded in 1825, the first in the country. It has been on its present site in the Company's Garden since 1897. The museum houses important African zoology, palaeontology and archaeology collections. Iziko is a Xhosa word meaning "hearth".

Lucy Lloyd British folklorist

Lucy Catherine Lloyd was the creator, along with Wilhelm Bleek, of the 19th-century archive of ǀXam and !Kung texts.

Ecstatic dance Dance leading to a trance and a feeling of ecstasy

Ecstatic dance is a form of dance in which the dancers, sometimes without the need to follow specific steps, abandon themselves to the rhythm and move freely as the music takes them, leading to trance and a feeling of ecstasy.

John Qace Hardbattle (1945-1996) was one of the best-known Bushman activists in Botswana. "Son of a half-Bushman mother, Khwa, and an English father, Tom Hardbattle",His father a retired policeman who traveled to South Africa and then Botswana. There he married "Kawi", John's mother. John Hardbattle co-founded and became leader of the First People of Kalahari (FPK).

David Lewis-Williams South African archaeologist

James David Lewis-Williams is a South African archaeologist. He is best known for his research on southern African San (Bushmen) rock art, of which it can be said that he found a 'Rosetta Stone'. He is the founder and previous director of the Rock Art Research Institute and is currently professor emeritus of cognitive archaeology at the University of the Witwatersrand (WITS). Lewis-Williams is recognised by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa as a leading international researcher, with an A1 rating.

In the culture of the San, an indigenous people of Botswana and Namibia, healers are said to have practiced all manner of medicinal strategies. These range from drinking oral remedies containing plant and animal material, to making cuts on the body and rubbing in 'potent' substances, inhaling smoke of smouldering organic matter like certain twigs or animal dung, wearing parts of animals or 'jewellery' that 'makes them strong.'

John Marshall (filmmaker) filmmaker

John Kennedy Marshall was an American anthropologist and acclaimed documentary filmmaker best known for his work in Namibia recording the lives of the Ju/'hoansi.

The ǀXam and ǂKhomani heartland tentative World Heritage Site, consists of regions located to the south and north of Upington, respectively, in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The ǀXam and ǂKhomani people were linguistically related groups of San (Bushman) people, their respective languages being part of the ǃKwi language group. Descendants of both the ǀXam and Nǁnǂe include Afrikaans-speaking ‘Coloured’ people on farms or in towns in the region amongst whom the precolonial languages are either entirely extinct or can be spoken by but a very few people.

Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre is a rock engraving site with visitor centre on land owned by the !Xun and Khwe San situated about 16 km from Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. It is a declared Provincial Heritage Site managed by the Northern Cape Rock Art Trust in association with the McGregor Museum. The engravings exemplify one of the forms often referred to as ‘Bushman rock art’ – or Khoe-San rock art – with the rock paintings of the Drakensberg, Cederberg and other regions of South Africa being generally better known occurrences. Differing in technique, the engravings have many features in common with rock paintings. A greater emphasis on large mammals such as elephant, rhino and hippo, in addition to eland, and an often reduced concern with depicting the human form set the engravings apart from the paintings of the sub-continent.

Lorna Marshall, born Lorna Jean McLean, was an anthropologist who in the 1950s, 60s and 70s lived among and wrote about the previously unstudied !Kung people of the Kalahari Desert.

Dorothea Bleek German anthropologist and philologist

Dorothea Frances Bleek was a South African-born German anthropologist and philologist known for her research on the Bushmen of southern Africa.

San rock art

I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANSI SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS I SMELL LIKE CAVE ART AND BUSHMANS

Patricia Joan Vinnicombe was a South African archaeologist and artist, known for identifying and copying San rock paintings in the valleys and foothills of the Drakensberg. Her work transformed the study of rock art into a science. She was also active in the preservation of Aboriginal art in Western Australia.

References

  1. Dorothea F. Bleek, Bushman Dictionary , p. 296, at Google Books
  2. Dorothea F. Bleek, Bushman Dictionary , p. 502, at Google Books. ISBN   9785882327261
  3. 1 2 Jolly, Pieter (2002). Therianthropes in San Rock Art "The South African Archaeological Bulletin", 57(176):85–103
  4. Lewis-Williams (1987). A Dream of Eland: An Unexplored Component of San Shamanism and Rock Art "World Archaeology", 19(2):165–177
  5. H. J. Deacon, Janette Deacon. Human Beginnings in South Africa: Uncovering the Secrets of the Stone Age. David Philip Publishers, 1999, p. 170.
  6. 1 2 Fagan, Brian M (1998). From Black Land to Fifth Sun: The Science of Sacred Sites. Basic Books ISBN   978-0-7382-0141-2
  7. Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa (1973)
  8. Campbell, C (1986). "Images of War: A Problem in San Rock Art Research "World Archaeology", 18(2):255–268

Sources