Glossary of Christianity

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This is a glossary of terms used in Christianity.

























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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Christianity and Judaism</span> Comparison of Christianity and Judaism

Christianity began as a movement within Second Temple Judaism, but the two religions gradually diverged over the first few centuries of the Christian Era. Today, differences of opinion vary between denominations in both religions, but the most important distinction is Christian acceptance and Jewish non-acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah prophesized in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish tradition. Early Christianity distinguished itself by determining that observance of halakha was not necessary for non-Jewish converts to Christianity. Another major difference is the two religions' coneptions of God. The Christian God consists of three persons of one essence, with the doctrine of the incarnation of the Son in Jesus being of special importance. Judaism emphasizes the Oneness of God and rejects the Christian concept of God in human form. While Christianity recognizes the Hebrew Bible as part of its scriptural canon, Judaism does not recognize the Christian New Testament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Epistle to the Hebrews</span> Book of the New Testament

The Epistle to the Hebrews is one of the books of the New Testament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New Testament</span> Second division of the Christian biblical canon

The New Testament (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. The New Testament's background, the first division of the Christian Bible, is called the Old Testament, which is based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible; together they are regarded as sacred scripture by Christians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Resurrection of Jesus</span> Christian belief that God raised Jesus after his crucifixion

The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian belief that God raised Jesus on the third day after his crucifixion, starting – or restoring – his exalted life as Christ and Lord. According to the New Testament writing, Jesus was firstborn from the dead, ushering in the Kingdom of God. He appeared to his disciples, calling the apostles to the Great Commission of forgiving sin and baptizing repenters, and ascended to Heaven.

Propitiation is the act of appeasing or making well-disposed a deity, thus incurring divine favor or avoiding divine retribution. While some use the term interchangeably with expiation, others draw a sharp distinction between the two. The discussion here encompasses usage only in Judaism and in the Christian tradition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Messianic Judaism</span> Modern Christian religious movement

Messianic Judaism is a modernist and syncretic movement of Protestant Christianity that incorporates some elements of Judaism and other Jewish traditions into evangelicalism.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pauline Christianity</span> Form of Christianity developed from the doctrines of the Apostle Paul

Pauline Christianity or Pauline theology, otherwise referred to as Gentile Christianity, is the theology and form of Christianity which developed from the beliefs and doctrines espoused by the Hellenistic-Jewish Apostle Paul through his writings and those New Testament writings traditionally attributed to him. Paul's beliefs were rooted in the earliest Jewish Christianity, but deviated from this Jewish Christianity in their emphasis on inclusion of the Gentiles into God's New Covenant, and his rejection of circumcision as an unnecessary token of upholding the Mosaic Law.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jewish Christian</span> Pre-Christian breakaway Jewish movement

Jewish Christians were the followers of a Jewish religious sect that emerged in Judea during the late Second Temple period. The Nazarene Jews integrated the belief of Jesus as the prophesied Messiah and his teachings into the Jewish faith, including the observance of the Jewish law. The name may derive from the city of Nazareth, or from prophecies in Isaiah and elsewhere where the verb occurs as a descriptive plural noun, or from both. Jewish Christianity is the foundation of Early Christianity, which later developed into Christianity. Christianity started with Jewish eschatological expectations, and it developed into the worship of a deified Jesus after his earthly ministry, his crucifixion, and the post-crucifixion experiences of his followers. Modern scholarship is engaged in an ongoing debate as to the proper designation for Jesus' first followers. Many see the term Jewish Christians as anachronistic given that there is no consensus on the date of the birth of Christianity. Some modern scholars have suggested the designations "Jewish believers in Jesus" or "Jewish followers of Jesus" as better reflecting the original context.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New Covenant</span> Biblical interpretation

The New Covenant is a biblical interpretation which was originally derived from a phrase which is contained in the Book of Jeremiah, in the Hebrew Bible.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Law of Christ</span> Phrase found in Galatians 6:2

"The law of Christ" is a New Testament phrase. The related Bible verses are in the Pauline epistles at Galatians 6:2 and parenthetically at 1 Corinthians 9:21.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The gospel</span> Religious message of salvation or thanks

The gospel or good news is a theological concept in several religions. In the historical Roman imperial cult and today in Christianity, the gospel is a message about salvation by a divine figure, a savior, who has brought peace or other benefits to humankind. In Ancient Greek religion, the word designated a type of sacrifice or ritual dedication intended to thank the gods upon receiving good news.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dual-covenant theology</span> School of thought in Christianity

Dual-covenant or two-covenant theology is a school of thought in Christian theology regarding the relevance of the Hebrew Bible, which Christians call the Old Testament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hebrew Roots</span> Biblical religious movement

The Hebrew Roots movement is a religious movement that advocates adherence to the Torah and believes in Yeshua as the Messiah.

Biblical law refers to the legal aspects of the Bible, the holy scriptures of Judaism and Christianity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Christian views on the Old Covenant</span> Dispute and controversy in Christianity

The Mosaic covenant or Law of Moses – which Christians generally call the "Old Covenant" – played an important role in the origins of Christianity and has occasioned serious dispute and controversy since the beginnings of Christianity: note for example Jesus' teaching of the Law during his Sermon on the Mount and the circumcision controversy in early Christianity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Christianity in the 1st century</span> Christianity-related events during the 1st century

Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity from the start of the ministry of Jesus to the death of the last of the Twelve Apostles and is thus also known as the Apostolic Age. Early Christianity developed out of the eschatological ministry of Jesus. Subsequent to Jesus' death, his earliest followers formed an apocalyptic messianic Jewish sect during the late Second Temple period of the 1st century. Initially believing that Jesus' resurrection was the start of the end time, their beliefs soon changed in the expected Second Coming of Jesus and the start of God's Kingdom at a later point in time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Christianity</span> Overview of and topical guide to Christianity

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Christianity:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Christian theology</span> Study of Christian belief and practice

Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Theologians may undertake the study of Christian theology for a variety of reasons, such as in order to:


  1. Marty, Martin (2008). The Christian World: A Global History. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN   978-1-58836-684-9.
  2. See : dictionary, "Christendom"
  3. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX, Monotheism Archived 2008-01-02 at the Wayback Machine ; William F. Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity; H. Richard Niebuhr;, Monotheistic Religion resources; Jonathan Kirsch, God Against the Gods; Linda Woodhead, An Introduction to Christianity; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Monotheism; The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, monotheism Archived December 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ; New Dictionary of Theology, Paul Archived 2018-07-04 at the Wayback Machine pp. 496-99; David Vincent Meconi, "Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity" in Journal of Early Christian Studies pp. 111–12
  4. BBC, BBC - Religion & Ethics – Christianity
  5. Book of Isaiah Book of Isaiah, Chapter 53.
  6. Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 1995.
  7. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 31a
  8. Matthew 7:12
  9. Daniel G. Reid et al., Dictionary of Christianity in America (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1990)
  10. This definition of covenant is from O. Palmer Robertson's book The Christ of the Covenants. It has become an accepted definition among modern scholars. See this summary of his book Archived 2007-11-13 at the Wayback Machine by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon.
  11. 1 Chronicles 22:2
  12. Exodus 12:48; 20:10; 22:21
  13. "Strong's G4339". Archived from the original on 2009-09-03. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  14. "Strong's H1616". Archived from the original on 2009-09-05. Retrieved 2008-01-08.
  15. McKim, Donald K (2014-04-09). The Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms, Second Edition: Revised and Expanded. Presbyterian Publishing Corporation. pp. 261–. ISBN   9781611643862 . Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  16. Chopra, editor, Ramesh (2005). Encyclopaedic dictionary of religion: Q-Z. Delhi: Isha Books. p. 638. ISBN   81-8205-203-3 . Retrieved 6 April 2015.{{cite book}}: |first1= has generic name (help)
  17. Catholic Encyclopedia: Chronology of the Life of Jesus Christ: "At an early age He must have learned the so called Shema (Deuteronomy 6:4), and the Hallel, or Psalms 113-118 (Hebrew)"