Criticism of Christianity

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Criticism of Christianity has a long history stretching back to the initial formation of the religion during the Roman Empire. Critics have challenged Christian beliefs and teachings as well as Christian actions, from the Crusades to modern terrorism. The intellectual arguments against Christianity include the suppositions that it is a faith of violence, corruption, superstition, polytheism, and bigotry.

Roman Empire Period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–476 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome, consisting of large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, North Africa and West Asia ruled by emperors. From the accession of Caesar Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, it was a principate with Italy as metropole of the provinces and its city of Rome as sole capital. The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided into a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when it sent the imperial insignia to Constantinople following the capture of Ravenna by the barbarians of Odoacer and the subsequent deposition of Romulus Augustus. The fall of the Western Roman Empire to Germanic kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

Crusades A series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period

The crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The best known crusades are the campaigns in the eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule. The term crusade is now also applied to other church-sanctioned and even non-religious campaigns. These were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early crusades, the word did not exist and it only became the leading descriptive term in English around the year 1760.

Christian terrorism comprises terrorist acts by groups or individuals who profess Christian motivations or goals. Christian terrorists justify their violent tactics through their interpretation of the Bible, in accordance with their own objectives and world view. These interpretations are typically different from those of established Christian denominations.


In the early years of Christianity, the Neoplatonic philosopher Porphyry emerged as one of the major critics with his book Against the Christians. Porphyry argued that Christianity was based on false prophecies that had not yet materialized. [1] Following the adoption of Christianity under the Roman Empire, dissenting religious voices were gradually suppressed by both governments and ecclesiastical authorities. [2] A millennium later, the Protestant Reformation led to a fundamental split in European Christianity and rekindled critical voices about the Christian faith, both internally and externally. With the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment, Christianity was criticized by major thinkers and philosophers, such as Voltaire, David Hume, Thomas Paine, and the Baron d'Holbach. [3] The central theme of these critiques sought to negate the historical accuracy of the Christian Bible and focused on the perceived corruption of Christian religious authorities. [3] Other thinkers, like Immanuel Kant, launched systematic and comprehensive critiques of Christian theology by attempting to refute arguments for theism. [4]

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

Neoplatonism Strand of Platonic philosophy that emerged in the 3rd century AD

Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy that emerged in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion. The term does not encapsulate a set of ideas as much as it encapsulates a chain of thinkers which began with Ammonius Saccas and his student Plotinus and which stretches to the sixth century AD. Even though neoplatonism primarily circumscribes the thinkers who are now labeled Neoplatonists and not their ideas, there are some ideas that are common to neoplatonic systems, for example, the monistic idea that all of reality can be derived from a single principle, "the One".

Porphyry (philosopher) Neoplatonist philosopher

Porphyry of Tyre was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire. He edited and published The Enneads, the only collection of the work of his teacher Plotinus. His commentary on Euclid's Elements was used as a source by Pappus of Alexandria.

In modern times, Christianity has faced substantial criticism from a wide array of political movements and ideologies. In the late eighteenth century, the French Revolution saw a number of politicians and philosophers criticizing traditional Christian doctrines, precipitating a wave of secularism in which hundreds of churches were closed down and thousands of priests were deported. [5] Following the French Revolution, prominent philosophers of liberalism and communism, such as John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, criticized Christian doctrine on the grounds that it was conservative and anti-democratic. Friedrich Nietzsche wrote that Christianity fostered a kind of slave morality that suppressed the desires contained in the human will. [6] The Russian Revolution, the Chinese Revolution, and several other modern revolutionary movements have also led to the criticism of Christian ideas.

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed, and equality before the law. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support limited government, individual rights, capitalism, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Yellow is the political colour most commonly associated with liberalism.

Communism socialist political movement and ideology

In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

The formal response of Christians to such criticisms is described as Christian apologetics. Philosophers like Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas have been some of the most prominent defenders of the Christian religion since its foundation.

Christian apologetics is a branch of Christian theology that defends Christianity against objections.

Augustine of Hippo Early Christian theologian, philosopher and Church Father

Augustine of Hippo was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and Neoplatonic philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of the Western Church and Western philosophy, and indirectly all of Western Christianity. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church for his writings in the Patristic Period. Among his most important works are The City of God, De doctrina Christiana, and Confessions.

Thomas Aquinas Dominican scholastic philosopher of the Roman Catholic Church

Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar, Philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He is an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio, Italy. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism; of which he argued that reason is found in God. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.


Biblical criticism

Biblical criticism, in particular higher criticism, covers a variety of methods used since the Enlightenment in the early 18th century as scholars began to apply to biblical documents the same methods and perspectives which had already been applied to other literary and philosophical texts. [7] It is an umbrella term covering various techniques used mainly by mainline and liberal Christian theologians to study the meaning of biblical passages. It uses general historical principles, and is based primarily on reason rather than revelation or faith. There are four primary types of biblical criticism: [8]

Age of Enlightenment European cultural movement of the 18th century

The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy".

Textual criticism

Within the abundance of biblical manuscripts exist a number of textual variants. The vast majority of these textual variants are the inconsequential misspelling of words, word order variations [10] and the mistranscription of abbreviations. [11] Text critics such as Bart D. Ehrman have proposed that some of these textual variants and interpolations were theologically motivated. [12] Ehrman's conclusions and textual variant choices have been challenged by some conservative evangelical reviewers, including Daniel B. Wallace, Craig Blomberg, and Thomas Howe. [13]

In attempting to determine the original text of the New Testament books, some modern textual critics have identified sections as probably not original. In modern translations of the Bible, the results of textual criticism have led to certain verses being left out or marked as not original. These possible later additions include the following: [14] [15]

In The Text Of The New Testament, Kurt and Barbara Aland compare the total number of variant-free verses, and the number of variants per page (excluding orthographic errors), among the seven major editions of the Greek NT (Tischendorf, Westcott-Hort, von Soden, Vogels, Merk, Bover and Nestle-Aland) concluding 62.9%, or 4999/7947, agreement. [16] They concluded, "Thus in nearly two-thirds of the New Testament text, the seven editions of the Greek New Testament which we have reviewed are in complete accord, with no differences other than in orthographical details (e.g., the spelling of names, etc.). Verses in which any one of the seven editions differs by a single word are not counted. This result is quite amazing, demonstrating a far greater agreement among the Greek texts of the New Testament during the past century than textual scholars would have suspected… In the Gospels, Acts, and Revelation the agreement is less, while in the letters it is much greater." [16]

With the discovery of the Hebrew Bible texts among the Dead Sea Scrolls, questions have been raised about the textual accuracy of the Masoretic text. That is, whether the Masoretic text which forms the basis of the Protestant Old Testament, or other translations such as the Septuagint, Syriac Peshitta, and Samaritan Pentateuch are more accurate.[ citation needed ]

Internal consistency

Inconsistencies have been pointed out by critics and skeptics, [17] presenting as difficulties the different numbers and names for the same feature and different sequences for what is supposed to be the same event. Responses to these criticisms include the modern documentary hypothesis, two-source hypothesis (in various guises), and assertions that the Pastoral Epistles are pseudonymous. Contrasting with these critical stances are positions supported by traditionalists, considering the texts to be consistent, with the Torah written by a single source, [18] [19] but the Gospels by four independent witnesses, [20] and all of the Pauline Epistles, except possibly the Hebrews, as having been written by Paul the Apostle.

While consideration of the context is necessary when studying the Bible, some find the accounts of the Resurrection of Jesus within the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, difficult to reconcile. E. P. Sanders concludes that the inconsistencies make the possibility of a deliberate fraud unlikely: "A plot to foster belief in the Resurrection would probably have resulted in a more consistent story. Instead, there seems to have been a competition: 'I saw him,' 'So did I,' 'The women saw him first,' 'No, I did; they didn't see him at all,' and so on." [21]

Harold Lindsell points out that it is a "gross distortion" to state that people who believe in biblical inerrancy suppose every statement made in the Bible is true (opposed to accurate). [22] He indicates there are expressly false statements in the Bible which are reported accurately [22] (for example, Satan is a liar whose lies are accurately reported as to what he actually said). [22] Proponents of biblical inerrancy generally do not teach that the Bible was dictated directly by God, but that God used the "distinctive personalities and literary styles of the writers" of scripture and that God's inspiration guided them to flawlessly project his message through their own language and personality. [23] :Art. VIII

Those who believe in the inspiration of scripture teach that it is infallible (or inerrant), that is, free from error in the truths it expresses by its character as the word of God. [24] However, the scope of what this encompasses is disputed, as the term includes 'faith and practice' positions, with some denominations holding that the historical or scientific details, which may be irrelevant to matters of faith and Christian practice, may contain errors. [25] Other scholars take stronger views, [26] but for a few verses these positions require more exegetical work, leading to dispute (compare the serious debate over the related issue of perspicuity , attracting biblical and philosophical discussion).

Infallibility refers to the original texts of the Bible, and all mainstream scholars acknowledge the potential for human error in transmission and translation; yet, through use of textual criticism modern (critical) copies are considered to "faithfully represent the original", [23] :Art. X and our understanding of the original language sufficiently well for accurate translation. The opposing view is that there is too much corruption, or translation too difficult, to agree with modern texts.

Unfulfilled prophecy

God reveals himself to Abraham in scripture and he is seen here with three angels. By Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Abrahamthreeangels.jpg
God reveals himself to Abraham in scripture and he is seen here with three angels. By Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.

Hundreds of years before the time of Jesus, Jewish prophets promised that a messiah would come. Judaism claims that Jesus did not fulfill these prophecies. Other skeptics usually claim that the prophecies are either vague or unfulfilled, [27] or that the Old Testament writings influenced the composition of New Testament narratives. [28] Christian apologists claim that Jesus fulfilled these prophecies, which they argue are nearly impossible to fulfill by chance. [29] Many Christians anticipate the Second Coming of Jesus, when he will fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy, such as the Last Judgment, the general resurrection, establishment of the Kingdom of God, and the Messianic Age (see the article on Preterism for contrasting Christian views).

The New Testament traces Jesus' line to that of David; however, according to Stephen L. Harris: [30]

Jesus did not accomplish what Israel's prophets said the Messiah was commissioned to do: He did not deliver the covenant people from their Gentile enemies, reassemble those scattered in the Diaspora, restore the Davidic kingdom, or establish universal peace (cf. Isa. 9:6–7; 11:7–12:16 , etc.). Instead of freeing Jews from oppressors and thereby fulfilling God's ancient promises—for land, nationhood, kingship, and blessing—Jesus died a "shameful" death, defeated by the very political powers the Messiah was prophesied to overcome. Indeed, the Hebrew prophets did not foresee that Israel's savior would be executed as a common criminal by Gentiles, making Jesus' crucifixion a "stumbling block" to scripturally literate Jews. ( 1 Cor.1:23 )

Christian preachers reply to this argument by stating that these prophecies will be fulfilled by Jesus in the Millennial Reign after the Great Tribulation, according to New Testament prophecies, especially in the Book of Revelation.

The 16th-century Jewish theologian Isaac ben Abraham, who lived in Trakai, Lithuania, penned a work called Chizzuk Emunah (Faith Strengthened) that attempted to refute the ideas that Jesus was the Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament and that Christianity was the "New Covenant" of God. He systematically identified a number of inconsistencies in the New Testament, contradictions between the New Testament and the Old Testament, and Old Testament prophesies which remained unfulfilled in Jesus' lifetime. In addition, he questioned a number of Christian practices, such as Sunday Sabbath. [31] Written originally for Jews to persuade them not to convert to Christianity, [32] the work was eventually read by Christians. While the well-known Christian Hebraist Johann Christoph Wagenseil attempted an elaborate refutation of Abraham's arguments, Wagenseil's Latin translation of it only increased interest in the work and inspired later Christian freethinkers. Chizzuk Emunah was praised as a masterpiece by Voltaire. [31]

On the other hand, Blaise Pascal believed that "[t]he prophecies are the strongest proof of Jesus Christ". He wrote that Jesus was foretold, and that the prophecies came from a succession of people over a span of four thousand years. [33] Apologist Josh McDowell defends the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy as supporting Christianity, arguing that prophecies fulfilled by Christ include ones relating to his ancestral line, birthplace, virgin birth, miracles, manner of death, and resurrection. He says that even the timing of the Messiah in years and in relation to events is predicted, and that the Jewish Talmud (not accepting Jesus as the Messiah, see also Rejection of Jesus) laments that the Messiah had not appeared despite the scepter being taken away from Judah. [34]

Prophecy of the Nazarene

Another example is Nazarene in Matthew 2:23 : "And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene." The website for Jews for Judaism claims that "Since a Nazarene is a resident of the city of Nazareth and this city did not exist during the time period of the Jewish Bible, it is impossible to find this quotation in the Hebrew Scriptures. It was fabricated." [35] [36] However, one common suggestion is that the New Testament verse is based on a passage relating to Nazirites , either because this was a misunderstanding common at the time, or through deliberate re-reading of the term by the early Christians. Another suggestion is "that Matthew was playing on the similarity of the Hebrew word nezer (translated 'Branch' or 'shoot' in Isaiah 11:1 and Jeremiah 23:5 ) with the Greek nazoraios, here translated 'Nazarene.'" [37] Christians also suggest that by using an indirect quotation and the plural term prophets, "Matthew was only saying that by living in Nazareth, Jesus was fulfilling the many Old Testament prophecies that He would be despised and rejected." [38] The background for this is illustrated by Philip's initial response in John 1:46 to the idea that Jesus might be the Messiah: "Nazareth! Can anything good come from there?" [37]

Virgin Birth and descent of Jesus

A fundamental principle of the Christian faith is that Jesus was born of Mary, a virgin. [39] Both Matthew and Luke trace the genealogy of Joseph back to David. According to Jewish tradition, the Messiah must be a descendant of David, but if Jesus was born of a virgin, he cannot be a descendant of David through Joseph. [40] Michael Martin asserts that Mary's virginity is a later addition to Christianity as indicated through Paul's letters. [41] Further, Martin notes that early Christian communities did not seem to have widely believed in the virgin birth. The confusion surrounding the virginity of Mary may result from Septuagint translation of both Hebrew : עַלְמָה, romanized: almah "young girl" and Hebrew : בְּתוּלָה, romanized: bethulah, "virgin" into Greek : παρθένος, romanized: parthenos, which usually means virgin. Relying on this translation, Matthew tried to show that Jesus's virgin birth was foretold in Isaiah 7:14—which refers to an almah in Hebrew. [42] [43] [44]

Selective interpretation

Critics argue that the selective invocation of portions of the Old Testament is hypocritical, particularly when those portions endorse hostility towards women and homosexuals, when other portions are considered obsolete. The entire Mosaic Law is described in Galatians 3:24-25 as a tutor which is no longer necessary, according to some interpretations, see also Antinomianism in the New Testament.

On the other hand, many of the Old Testament laws are seen as specifically abrogated by the New Testament, such as circumcision, [45] though this may simply be a parallel to Jewish Noahide Laws. See also Split of early Christianity and Judaism. On the other hand, other passages are pro-Law, such as Romans 3:31: "Do we then make void the law through faith? Certainly not! On the contrary, we establish the law." See also Pauline passages opposing antinomianism.


Translation has given rise to a number of issues, as the original languages are often quite different in grammar as well as word meaning. While the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy [23] states that inerrancy applies only to the original languages, some believers trust their own translation to be the accurate one. One such group of believers is known as the King-James-Only Movement. For readability, clarity, or other reasons, translators may choose different wording or sentence structure, and some translations may choose to paraphrase passages. Because some of the words in the original language have ambiguous or difficult to translate meanings, debates over the correct interpretation occur.

Criticisms are also sometimes raised because of inconsistencies arising between different English translations of the Hebrew or Greek text. Some Christian interpretations are criticized for reflecting specific doctrinal bias [35] or a variant reading between the Masoretic Hebrew and Septuagint Greek manuscripts often quoted in the New Testament.

Criticism of historical behavior

Certain interpretations of some moral decisions in the Bible are considered ethically questionable by many modern groups.[ who? ] Some of the passages most commonly criticized include colonialism, the subjugation of women, religious intolerance, condemnation of homosexuality, and support for the institution of slavery in both Old and New Testaments.


Christianity and colonialism are often closely associated because Catholicism and Protestantism were the religions of the European colonial powers [46] and acted in many ways as the "religious arm" of those powers. [47] Initially, Christian missionaries were portrayed as "visible saints, exemplars of ideal piety in a sea of persistent savagery". However, by the time the colonial era drew to a close in the last half of the twentieth century, missionaries became viewed as “ideological shock troops for colonial invasion whose zealotry blinded them.” [48]

Christianity is targeted by critics of colonialism because the tenets of the religion were used to justify the actions of the colonists. [49] For example, Michael Wood asserts that the indigenous peoples were not considered to be human beings and that the colonisers were shaped by "centuries of Ethnocentrism, and Christian monotheism, which espoused one truth, one time and version of reality." [50]


Catholic monks redeeming Christian slaves from North African slaveholders. 17th c. Purchase of Christian captives from the Barbary States.jpg
Catholic monks redeeming Christian slaves from North African slaveholders. 17th c.

Early Christian perspectives of slavery were formed in the contexts of Christianity's roots in Judaism, and as part of the wider culture of the Roman Empire. Both the Old and New Testaments recognize that the institution of slavery existed, with the latter sanctioning it within certain limits (Leviticus 25:39-46, Exodus 21:2-21).

Saint Paul the Apostle in addressing slavery in Ephesians 6:-8 [Eph. 6:5-8] neither condemns slavery nor condones it. Nothing in the passage affirms slavery as a naturally valid or divinely mandated institution. Rather, Paul’s discussion of the duties of Christian slaves and the responsibilities of Christian masters transforms the institution, even if it falls short of calling for outright abolition. St. Augustine thought slavery was a result of sin, but was part of the fallen world and so should be tolerated. However, others opposed it: John Chrysostom explicitly argued that slavery itself was a sin, but he did not advocate for its abolition; Origen called for the practice of manumission after six years as found in the Old Testament; others, such as Gregory of Nyssa, Acacius of Amida, and St. Patrick, called for the complete abolition of slavery. [51] On the other hand, others claim that Orthodox Christianity justified slavery on the ground that it was part of the divinely ordained hierarchical order. Not only there are passages in the Bible enjoining slaves to be submissive (Paul to Ephessians: "slaves, obey your masters with fear and trembling, in singleness of heart, as you obey Christ; not only while being watched, and in order to please them, but as slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart. and to Collosians "Slaves, obey your earthly masters [kyrioi] according to the flesh in everything, not only while being watched and in order to please them, but wholeheartedly, fearing the Lord [kyrios]") [52] but more to that, St. John Chrysostom wrote "The slave should be resigned to his lot, in obeying his master he is obeying God" while St. Augustine wrote: "...slavery is now penal in character and planned by that law which commands the preservation of the natural order and forbids disturbance". [53]

According to one view, today and from a human rights perspective, it is difficult to understand why early Christians did not object to the social institution of slavery. It is uncertain whether one can go so far as to criticise Early Christians, including Paul and other authors of Biblical texts, for their active or passive acceptance of slavery. [54] Peter Gruszka attributed the view of early Christian Fathers on slavery to their social environment. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, the most prominent fathers such as Clement, Tertullian, Cyprian, Origen and others emerged in Africa and Egypt, where slavery did not exist on large scale. Different was the social environment in Eastern Mediterranean, Syria, Palestine and especially Asia Minor, where slavery was a strong presence and therefore attracted the attention of the Cappadocian fathers of the 4th century. [55]

According to Jennifer Glancy, sexual exploitation of slaves in Roman Empire, was helped by Christian morality. Jesus urged his followers to act like slaves, implementing a slave morality. The early Christian theologians were unconcerned about slave morals. [56]

In the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), a shift in the view of slavery is noticed, which by the 10th century transformed gradually a slave-object into a slave-subject. [57]

Since the Middle Ages, the Christian understanding of slavery has been subjected to significant internal conflict and has endured dramatic change. Nearly all Christian leaders before the late 17th century recognised slavery, within specific biblical limitations, as consistent with Christian theology. The key verse used to justify slavery was Genesis 9:25-27: "Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers. He also said, 'Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem! May Canaan be the slave of Shem." which was interpreted to mean that Africans were the descendants of Ham, cursed with "the mark of Ham" to be servants to the descendants of Japheth (Europeans) and Shem (Asians). [58] In 1452, Pope Nicholas V instituted the hereditary slavery of captured Muslims and pagans, regarding all non-Christians as "enemies of Christ." [59]

The " Curse of Ham " along with Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, VI, 5-7 helped American slave owners to balance their beliefs with slavery. There are plenty other pro-slavery verses in the Old Testament that were often quoted[ which? ]. The New Testament was ignored except in reminding that Jesus never condemned slavery and the Epistle to Philemon in which a runaway slave was returned to his owner. [60]

William Wilberforce (1759-1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. Wilberforce john rising.jpg
William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.

Rodney Stark makes the argument in For the Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-Hunts, and the End of Slavery, [61] that Christianity helped to end slavery worldwide, as does Lamin Sanneh in Abolitionists Abroad. [62] These authors point out that Christians who viewed slavery as wrong on the basis of their religious convictions spearheaded abolitionism, and many of the early campaigners for the abolition of slavery were driven by their Christian faith and a desire to realize their view that all people are equal under God. [63] In the late 17th century, Anabaptists began to criticize slavery. Criticisms from the Society of Friends, Mennonites, and the Amish followed suit. Prominent among these Christian abolitionists were William Wilberforce and John Woolman. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote her famous book, Uncle Tom's Cabin , according to her Christian beliefs in 1852. Earlier, in Britain and America, Quakers were active in abolitionism. A group of Quakers founded the first English abolitionist organization, and a Quaker petition brought the issue before government that same year. The Quakers continued to be influential throughout the lifetime of the movement, in many ways leading the way for the campaign. John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, was instrumental in starting abolitionism as a popular movement. [64]

Many modern Christians are united in the condemnation of slavery as wrong and contrary to God's will. Only peripheral groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and other so-called Christian hate groups on the racist fringes of the Christian Reconstructionist and Christian Identity movements advocate the reinstitution of slavery. [58] Full adherents to reconstructionism are few and marginalized among conservative Christians. [65] [66] [67] With these exceptions, Christian faith groups now condemn slavery, and see the practice as incompatible with basic Christian principles. [58] [68]

In addition to aiding abolitionism, many Christians made further efforts toward establishing racial equality, contributing to the Civil Rights Movement. [69] The African American Review notes the important role Christian revivalism in the black church played in the Civil Rights Movement. [70] Martin Luther King, Jr., an ordained Baptist minister, was a leader of the American Civil Rights Movement and president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a Christian Civil Rights organization. [71]

Christianity and women

Joan of Arc led battles in the fight to free France from England. She believed that God had commanded her to do so. Upon capture, she was tried for heresy by an English-allied court and burned at the stake. She is now a saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church. Joan of Arc miniature graded.jpg
Joan of Arc led battles in the fight to free France from England. She believed that God had commanded her to do so. Upon capture, she was tried for heresy by an English-allied court and burned at the stake. She is now a saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church.

Many feminists have accused notions such as a male God, male prophets, and the man-centered stories in the Bible of contributing to a patriarchy. [73] Though many women disciples and servants are recorded in the Pauline epistles, there have been occasions in which women have been denigrated and forced into a second-class status. [74] For example, women were told to keep silent in the churches for "it is a shame for a woman to speak in the church". [1 Cor. 14:34-35] Suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton said in The Woman's Bible that "the Bible in its teachings degrades women from Genesis to Revelation". [75]

Elizabeth Clark cites early Christian writings by authors such as Tertullian, Augustine, and John Chrysostom as being exemplary of the negative view of women that has been perpetuated in church tradition. [76] Until the latter part of the 20th century, only the names of very few women who contributed to the formation of Christianity in its earliest years were widely known: Mary, the mother of Jesus; [77] Mary Magdalene, disciple of Jesus and the first witness to the resurrection; and Mary and Martha, the sisters who offered him hospitality in Bethany. [78]

Harvard scholar Karen King writes that more of the many women who contributed to the formation of Christianity in its earliest years are becoming known. Further, she concludes that for centuries in Western Christianity, Mary Magdalene has been wrongly identified as the adulteress and repentant prostitute presented in John 8 —a connection supposed by tradition but nowhere claimed in the New Testament. According to King, the Gospel of Mary shows that she was an influential figure, a prominent disciple and leader of one wing of the early Christian movement that promoted women's leadership.

King claims that every sect within early Christianity which had advocated women's prominence in ancient Christianity was eventually declared heretical, and evidence of women's early leadership roles was erased or suppressed. [78]

Classicist Evelyn Stagg and New Testament scholar Frank Stagg in their jointly authored book, Woman in the World of Jesus, document very unfavorable attitudes toward women that prevailed in the world into which Jesus came. They assert that there is no recorded instance where Jesus disgraces, belittles, reproaches, or stereotypes a woman. They interpret the recorded treatment and attitude Jesus showed to women as evidence that the Founder of Christianity treated women with great dignity and respect. [79] Various theologians have concluded that the canonical examples of the manner of Jesus are instructive for inferring his attitudes toward women. They are seen as showing repeatedly and consistently how he liberated and affirmed women. [80] However, Schalom Ben-Chorin argues that Jesus' reply to his mother in John 2:4 during the wedding at Cana amounted to a blatant violation of the commandment to honor one's parent. [Ex. 20:12] [81]

Christianity and violence

Many critics of Christianity have cited the violent acts of Christian nations as a reason to denounce the religion. Science-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke said that he could not forgive religions for the atrocities and wars over time. [82] Richard Dawkins makes a similar case in his book, The God Delusion . In the counterargument book The Dawkins Delusion?, Alister McGrath responds to Dawkins by suggesting that, far from endorsing "out-group hostility", Jesus commanded an ethic of "out-group affirmation". McGrath agrees that it is necessary to critique religion, but says that Dawkins seems unaware that it possesses internal means of reform and renewal. While Christians may certainly be accused of failing to live up to Jesus' standard of acceptance, it is there at the heart of the Christian ethic. [83]

The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants in 1572 La masacre de San Bartolome, por Francois Dubois.jpg
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants in 1572

Peace, compassion and forgiveness of wrongs done by others are key elements of Christian teaching. [84] However, Christians have struggled since the days of the Church fathers with the question of when the use of force is justified. [85] Such debates have led to concepts such as just war theory. Throughout history, biblical passages have been used to justify the use of force against heretics, [86] sinners [87] and external enemies. [88] Heitman and Hagan identify the Inquisitions, Crusades, wars of religion and antisemitism as being "among the most notorious examples of Christian violence". [89] To this list, J. Denny Weaver adds, "warrior popes, support for capital punishment, corporal punishment under the guise of 'spare the rod and spoil the child', justifications of slavery, world-wide colonialism in the name of conversion to Christianity, the systemic violence of women subjected to men". Weaver employs a broader definition of violence that extends the meaning of the word to cover "harm or damage", not just physical violence per se. Thus, under his definition, Christian violence includes "forms of systemic violence such as poverty, racism, and sexism". [90]

Christians have also engaged in violence against those that they classify as heretics and non-believers. In Letter to a Christian Nation , critic of religion Sam Harris writes that " inspires violence in at least two ways. First, people often kill other human beings because they believe that the creator of the universe wants them to do it... Second, far greater numbers of people fall into conflict with one another because they define their moral community on the basis of their religious affiliation..." [91]

Christian theologians point to a strong doctrinal and historical imperative within Christianity against violence, particularly Jesus' Sermon on the Mount, which taught nonviolence and love of enemies. Weaver says that Jesus' pacifism was "preserved in the justifiable war doctrine that declares all war as sin even when declaring it occasionally a necessary evil, and in the prohibition of fighting by monastics and clergy as well as in a persistent tradition of Christian pacifism". [92] Others point out sayings and acts of Jesus that do not fit this description: the absence of any censure of the soldier who asks Jesus to heal his servant, his overturning the tables and chasing the moneychangers from the temple with a rope in his hand, and through his Apostles, baptising a Roman Centurion who is never asked to first give up arms. [93]

Historically, prohibitions on fighting by monastics and clerics have often been discarded; the notion of military monasticism emerged in the 12th century, in large part because of the advocacy of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. Bernard - and, once the papacy gave sanction to the idea, the entire Catholic Church - believed that existing Christian methods of serving the Church's ends in war were inadequate, and that a group of dedicated warrior monks could achieve spiritual merit by waging war, rather than despite it. In this view, war against heretics justified means of waging war that fell outside the bounds of just war; for example, the Teutonic Order, which received papal sanction, made frequent use of massacres and violence to compel conversion during the Baltic Crusades. [94]


During the 19th century an interpretive model of the relationship between religion and science known today as the conflict theory developed, according to which interaction between religion and science almost inevitably leads to hostility and conflict. A popular example was the misconception that people from the Middle Ages believed that the Earth was flat, and that only science, freed from religious dogma, had shown that it was spherical. This thesis was a popular historiographical approach during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but most contemporary historians of science now reject it. [95] [96] [97]

The notion of a war between science and religion remained common in the historiography of science during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [98] Most of today's historians of science consider that the conflict thesis has been superseded by subsequent historical research. [99] The framing of the relationship between Christianity and science as being predominantly one of conflict is still prevalent in popular culture. [100]

The astronomer Carl Sagan, mentioned the dispute between the astronomical systems of Ptolemy (who thought that the sun and planets revolved around the earth) and Copernicus (who thought the earth and planets revolved around the sun). He states in Cosmos: A Personal Voyage that Ptolemy's belief was "supported by the church through the Dark Ages… [It] effectively prevented the advance of astronomy for 1,500 years." [101] Ted Peters in Encyclopedia of Religion writes that although there is some truth in this story, it has been exaggerated and has become "a modern myth perpetuated by those wishing to see warfare between science and religion who were allegedly persecuted by an atavistic and dogma-bound ecclesiastical authority". [102] In 1992, the Catholic Church's seeming vindication of Galileo attracted much comment in the media.

Medieval scholars sought to understand the geometric and harmonic principles by which God created the universe. God the Geometer.jpg
Medieval scholars sought to understand the geometric and harmonic principles by which God created the universe.


The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was a notable critic of the ethics of Christianity. See Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche#Christianity and morality.

Ethics in the Bible

The ethics in the bible have been criticized, such as the commands in the Old Testament by God to commit genocide, and to spare no one among enemy peoples. [104] The existence of evil has been argued as evidence of no omnipotent, omnibenevolent being, however skeptical theism suggests that humans do not have the understanding of the big picture to make an adequate assessment. However, a counter argument by Stephen Maitzen suggests that the ethical inconsistency in the bible that is not followed by most Christians or Jews today, such as the execution of homosexuals, blasphemers, disobedient children, or the punishment for mixing linen and cloth, ultimately undermines the skeptical theism argument. [105] Christian ethics have also been criticized for breeding intolerance (such as antisemitic views), and for having a repressive nature. Criticism has also been aimed at the core of Christian ethics, the threat of Hell. [106]

Christianity and politics

Some leftists and libertarians, including Christians who disavow the Religious Right, use the term Christian fascism or Christofascism to describe what some see as an emerging neoconservative proto-fascism or Evangelical nationalism and possible theocratic sentiment in the United States. [107]

Reverend Rich Lang of the Trinity United Methodist Church of Seattle gave a sermon titled "George Bush and the Rise of Christian Fascism", in which he said, "I want to flesh out the ideology of the Christian Fascism that Bush articulates. It is a form of Christianity that is the mirror opposite of what Jesus embodied." [108]

Christian right

Conservative Christians are often accused of being intolerant by secular humanists and liberal Christians, claiming that they oppose science that seems to contradict scripture (Creationism, use of birth control, abortion, research into embryonic stem cells, etc.), liberal democracy (separation of church and state), and progressive social policies (rights of people of other races and religions, of women, and of people with different sexual orientations). [109] [110] [111] [112]

United States

Gallup polling shows that within the US, trust in organized religion has declined since the 1970s. [113] Phil Zuckerman, a sociology professor, argues that political campaigning against same-sex marriage in churches “is turning off so many people from Christianity,” and responsible for a decline in the number of Christians in the United States. [114]

David Kinnaman, president of the Barna Institute, and Gabe Lyons of the Fermi Project published a study of attitudes of 16- to 29-year-old Americans towards Christianity. They found that about 38% of all those who were not regular churchgoers had negative impressions of Christianity, and especially evangelical Christianity, associating it with conservative political activism, hypocrisy, anti-homosexuality, authoritarianism, and judgmentalism. [115] About 17% had "very bad" perceptions of Christianity. [116] [117] [118]

Role of women

There are three major viewpoints within modern Christianity over the role of women. They are known respectively as Christian feminism, Christian egalitarianism and complementarianism.

Some Christians argue that the idea of God as a man is based less on gender but rather on the dominant Patriarchal society of the time in which men acted as leaders and caretakers of the Family. [123] Thus, the idea of God being "The Father" is with regards to his relationship with what are "his children", Christians.

Most mainline Christians claim that the doctrine of the Trinity implies that God should be called Father and not called Mother, in the same way that Jesus was a man and was not a woman. [124] Jesus tells His followers to address God as Father. [Mt. 6:9-13] He tells his disciples to be merciful as their heavenly Father is merciful. [Lk. 6:36] He says the Father will give the Holy Spirit to those who ask [Lk. 11:13] and that the Spirit of their Father will speak through them in times of persecution. [Mt. 10:20] On Easter Sunday, he directs Mary Magdalene to tell the other disciples, "I am going to my Father and your Father...." [Jn. 20:17] Mark Brumley points out that behind New Testament language of Divine Adoption and regeneration is the idea that God is our Father because He is the "source" or "origin" of our new life in Christ. He has saved us through Christ and sanctified us in the Spirit. Brumley claims this is clearly more than a metaphor; the analogy with earthly fatherhood is obvious. God is not merely like a father for Christ’s followers; he is really their Father. Among Christians who hold to this idea, there is a distinct sense that Jesus' treatment of women should imply equality in leadership and marital roles every bit as strongly as the definite male gender of Jesus should imply a name of Father for God. Rather than as antifeminist, they characterize alternative naming as unnecessary and unsupported by the words found in the Bible. [124]

In 2000, the Southern Baptist Convention voted to revise its "Baptist Faith and Message" (Statement of Faith), [125] opposing women as pastors. While this decision is not binding and would not prevent women from serving as pastors, the revision itself has been criticized by some from within the convention. In the same document, the Southern Baptist Convention took a strong position of the subordinating view of woman in marriage: "A wife is to submit herself graciously to the servant leadership of her husband. She has the God-given responsibility to respect her husband and to serve as his helper in managing the household and nurturing the next generation." [125] (Emphasis added)

The Eastern Orthodox Church does not allow female clergy. The Chaldean Catholic Church on the other hand continues to maintain a large number of deaconesses serving alongside male deacons during mass. [126]

In some evangelical churches, it is forbidden for women to become pastors, deacons or church elders. In support of such prohibitions, the verse 1 Timothy 2:12 is often cited: [127]

“But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.”



Philosopher David Hume argued against the plausibility of miracles: [128]

1) A miracle is a violation of the known laws of nature;
2) We know these laws through repeated and constant experience;
3) The testimony of those who report miracles contradicts the operation of known scientific laws;
4) Consequently no one can rationally believe in miracles.

The Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church reject Hume's argument against miracles outright with the teachings of St. Gregory Palamas, who postulated that Reason alone was not sufficient to understand God's energies (activities such as miracles) and essence, but faith was. [129] Of course, when no one would hear anything classified as Christianity but for the communications of other human beings, the question of just where faith has been placed arises.

Miraculous healings through prayers, often involving the "laying on of hands", have been reported. However, reliance on faith healing alone can indirectly contribute to serious harm and even death. [130] Christian apologists including C.S. Lewis, Norman Geisler and William Lane Craig have argued that miracles are reasonable and plausible. [131] [132] [133]


Celsus found it hard to reconcile Christian human God who was born and matured with his Jewish God who was supposed to be one and unchanging. He asked "if God wanted to reform humanity, why did he choose to descend and live on earth? How his brief presence in Jerusalem could benefit all the millions of people who lived elsewhere in the world or who had lived and died before his incarnation?" [134]

One classical response is Lewis's trilemma, a syllogism popularised by C. S. Lewis that intended to demonstrate the logical inconsistency of both holding Jesus of Nazareth to be a "great moral teacher" while also denying his divinity. The logical soundness of this trilemma has been widely questioned. [135]

Hell and damnation

Adam and Eve being driven from Eden due to original sin, portrayed by Gustave Dore. Adamandevesin.jpg
Adam and Eve being driven from Eden due to original sin, portrayed by Gustave Doré.

Christianity has been criticized as seeking to persuade people into accepting its authority through simple fear of punishment or, conversely, through hope of reward after death, rather than through rational argumentation or empirical evidence. [136] Traditional Christian doctrine dictates that, without faith in Jesus Christ or in the Christian faith in general, one is subject to eternal punishment in Hell. [137]

Critics regard the eternal punishment of those who fail to adopt Christian faith as morally objectionable, and consider it an abhorrent picture of the nature of the world. On a similar theme objections are made against the perceived injustice of punishing a person for all eternity for a temporal crime. Some Christians agree (see Annihilationism and Trinitarian Universalism). These beliefs have been considered especially repugnant [138] when the claimed omnipotent God makes, or allows a person to come into existence, with a nature that desires that which God finds objectionable. [139]

In the Abrahamic religions, Hell has traditionally been regarded as a punishment for wrongdoing or sin in this life, as a manifestation of divine justice. As in the problem of evil, some apologists argue that the torments of Hell are attributable not to a defect in God's benevolence, but in human free will. Although a benevolent God would prefer to see everyone saved, he would also allow humans to control their own destinies. This view opens the possibility of seeing Hell not as retributive punishment, but rather as an option that God allows, so that people who do not wish to be with God are not forced to be. C. S. Lewis most famously proposed this view in his book The Great Divorce , saying: "There are only two kinds of people in the end: those who say to God, 'Thy will be done,' and those to whom God says, in the end, 'Thy will be done.'"

Hell is not seen as strictly a matter of retributive justice even by the more traditionalist churches. For example, the Eastern Orthodox see it as a condition brought about by, and the natural consequence of, free rejection of God's love. [140] The Roman Catholic Church teaches that hell is a place of punishment [141] brought about by a person's self-exclusion from communion with God. [142] In some ancient Eastern Orthodox traditions, Hell and Heaven are distinguished not spatially, but by the relation of a person to God's love.

Some modern critics of the doctrine of Hell (such as Marilyn McCord Adams) claim that, even if Hell is seen as a choice rather than as punishment, it would be unreasonable for God to give such flawed and ignorant creatures as humans the awesome responsibility of their eternal destinies. [143] Jonathan Kvanvig, in his book, The Problem of Hell, agrees that God would not allow one to be eternally damned by a decision made under the wrong circumstances. For instance, one should not always honor the choices of human beings, even when they are full adults, if, for instance, the choice is made while depressed or careless. On Kvanvig's view, God will abandon no person until they have made a settled, final decision, under favorable circumstances, to reject God, but God will respect a choice made under the right circumstances. Once a person finally and competently chooses to reject God, out of respect for the person's autonomy, God allows them to be annihilated. [144]


Christian have sometimes been accused of idolatry, especially in regards in the iconoclastic controversy. [145] However, Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christian forbid worship of icons and relics as divine in themselves, while honouring those represented by them is accepted and philosophically justified by the Second Council of Constantinople.


The Roman Catholic Church teaches that baptism is a necessity. In the 5th century, St. Augustine concluded that infants who die without baptism were consigned to hell. [146] By the 13th century, theologians referred to the "limbo of infants" as a place where unbaptized babies were deprived of the vision of God, but did not suffer because they did not know of that which they were deprived, and moreover enjoyed perfect natural happiness. The 1983 Code of Canon Law (1183 §2) specifies that "Children whose parents had intended to have them baptized but who died before baptism, may be allowed church funeral rites by the local ordinary". [147] In 2007, the 30-member International Theological Commission revisited the concept of limbo. [148] [149] However, the commission also said that hopefulness was not the same as certainty about the destiny of such infants. [148] Rather, as stated in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1257, "God has bound salvation to the sacrament of Baptism, but he himself is not bound by his sacraments." [150] Hope in the mercy of God is not the same as certainty through the sacraments, but it is not without result, as demonstrated in Jesus' statement to the thief on the cross in Luke 23:42-43.

The concept of limbo is not accepted by the Orthodox Church or by Protestants. [151]


The idea of atonement for sin is criticized by Richard Dawkins on the grounds that the image of God as requiring the suffering and death of Jesus to effect reconciliation with humankind is immoral. The view is summarized by Dawkins: "if God wanted to forgive our sins, why not just forgive them? Who is God trying to impress?" [152] Oxford theologian Alister McGrath maintains that Dawkins is "ignorant" of Christian theology, and therefore unable to engage religion and faith intelligently. He goes on to say that the atonement was necessary because of our flawed human nature, which made it impossible for us to save ourselves, and that it expresses God's love for us by removing the sin that stands in the way of our reconciliation with God. [153] Responding to the criticism that he is "ignorant" of theology, Dawkins asks, "Do you have to read up on leprechology before disbelieving in leprechauns?" [154] and "[y]es, I have, of course, met this point before. It sounds superficially fair. But it presupposes that there is something in Christian theology to be ignorant about. The entire thrust of my position is that Christian theology is a non-subject." [155] Dinesh D'Souza says that Dawkins' criticism "only makes sense if you assume Christians made the whole thing up." He goes on to say that Christians view it as a beautiful sacrifice, and that "through the extremity of Golgotha, Christ reconciles divine justice and divine mercy." [156] Andrew Wilson argues that Dawkins misses the point of the atonement, which has nothing to do with masochism, but is based on the concepts of holiness, sin and grace. [157]

Robert Green Ingersoll suggests that the concept of the atonement is simply an extension of the Mosaic tradition of blood sacrifice and "is the enemy of morality". [158] [159] The death of Jesus Christ represents the blood sacrifice to end all blood sacrifices; the resulting mechanism of atonement by proxy through that final sacrifice has appeal as a more convenient and much less costly approach to redemption than repeated animal sacrifice—a common sense solution to the problem of reinterpreting ancient religious approaches based on sacrifice.

The prominent Christian apologist Josh McDowell, in More Than A Carpenter, addresses the issue through an analogy of a real-life judge in California who was forced to fine his daughter $100 for speeding, but then came down, took off his robe, and paid the fine for her from his billfold, [160] though as in this and other cases, illustrations are only cautiously intended to describe certain aspects of the atonement. [161]

Second Coming

Several verses in the New Testament contain Jesus' predictions that the Second Coming would take place within a century following his death. [162] Jesus appears to promise for his followers the second coming to happen before the generation he is preaching to vanishes. This is seen as an essential failure in the teachings of Christ by many critics such as Bertrand Russell. [163]

However, Preterists argue that Jesus did not mean his second coming [Matt. 16:28] but speaks about demonstrations of his might, formulating this as "coming in his kingdom", especially the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple 70 AD, which he foretold, and by which time not all of his disciples were still living. [164] According to this view Matthew 10:23 should be understood in the same way. [165]

Inconsistency with Old Testament conception of the afterlife

Most Christian traditions teach belief in life after death as a central and indispensable tenet of their faith. Critics argue that the Christian conception of the afterlife is inconsistent with that described in the Old Testament. George E. Mendenhall believes there is no concept of immortality or life after death in the Old Testament. [166] The presumption is that the deceased are inert, lifeless, and engaging in no activity. [166]

The idea of Sheol ("שׁאול") or a state of nothingness was shared among Babylonian and Israelite beliefs. "Sheol, as it was called by the ancient Israelites, is the land of no return, lying below the cosmic ocean, to which all, the mighty and the weak, travel in the ghostly form they assume after death, known as Rephaim. There the dead have no experience of either joy or pain, perceiving no light, feeling no movement." [167] Obayashi alludes that the Israelites were satisfied with such a shadowy realm of afterlife because they were more deeply concerned with survival. [167]

Before Christianity began in the 1st century, the belief in an afterlife was already prevalent in Jewish thinking [168] among the Pharisees [169] [170] and Essenes. [171] The themes of unity and Sheol which largely shaped the ancient tradition of Judaism had been undermined when only the most pious of Jews were being massacred during the Maccabean revolt.

Criticism of Christians


Protestant Christian dominated KKK hinting at violence toward Jews and Catholics. Illustration by Rev. Branford Clarke from Heroes of the Fiery Cross 1928 by Bishop Alma White published by the Pillar of Fire Church in Zarephath, NJ. Proper hands.jpg
Protestant Christian dominated KKK hinting at violence toward Jews and Catholics. Illustration by Rev. Branford Clarke from Heroes of the Fiery Cross 1928 by Bishop Alma White published by the Pillar of Fire Church in Zarephath, NJ.

Gaudium et spes claims that the example of Christians may be a contributory factor to atheism, writing, "…believers can have more than a little to do with the birth of atheism. To the extent that they neglect their own training in the faith, or teach erroneous doctrine, or are deficient in their religious, moral, or social life, they must be said to conceal rather than reveal the authentic face of God and religion." [172]

Secular and religious critics have accused many Christians of being hypocritical. [173] Tom Whiteman, a Philadelphia psychologist found that the primary reasons for Christian divorce include adultery, abuse (including substance, physical and verbal abuse), and abandonment whereas the number one reason cited for divorce in the general population was incompatibility. [174]


Instead of understanding and following the teachings of Jesus, the Christians argued and quarreled about the nature of Jesus’s divinity and about the Trinity. They called each other heretics and persecuted each other and cut each other’s heads off. There was a great and violent controversy at one time among different Christian sects over a certain diphthong. One party said that the word Homo-ousion should be used in a prayer; the other wanted Homoi-ousion-this difference had reference to the divinity of Jesus. Over this diphthong fierce war was raged and large numbers of people were slaughtered.

I like your Christ. I do not like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ. The materialism of affluent Christian countries appears to contradict the claims of Jesus Christ that says it's not possible to worship both Mammon and God at the same time.


Some have argued that Christianity is undermined by the inability of Christians to agree on matters of faith and church governance, and the tendency for the content of their faith to be determined by regional or political factors. Schopenhauer sarcastically suggested:

To the South German ecclesiastic the truth of the Catholic dogma is quite obvious, to the North German, the Protestant. If then, these convictions are based on objective reasons, the reasons must be climatic, and thrive, like plants, some only here, some only there. The convictions of those who are thus locally convinced are taken on trust and believed by the masses everywhere. [178]

Christians respond that Ecumenism has helped bring together such communities, where in the past mistranslations of Christological Greek terms may have resulted in seemingly different views. Non-denominational Christianity represents another approach towards reducing the divisions within Christianity, although many Christian groups claiming to be non-denominational wind up with similar problems.

Persecution by Christians

Individuals and groups throughout history have been persecuted by certain Christians (and Christian groups) based upon sex, sexual orientation, race, and religion (even within the bounds of Christianity itself). Many of the persecutors attempted to justify their actions with particular scriptural interpretations. During Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, important Christian theologians advocated religious persecution to varying degrees.[ citation needed ] However, Early modern Europe witnessed a turning point in the Christian debate on persecution and toleration. Nowadays all significant Christian denominations embrace religious toleration, and "look back on centuries of persecution with a mixture of revulsion and incomprehension". [179]

Early Christianity was a minority religion in the Roman Empire and the early Christians were themselves persecuted during that time. After Constantine I converted to Christianity, it became the dominant religion in the Roman Empire. Already under the reign of Constantine I, Christian heretics had been persecuted; beginning in the late 4th century AD also the ancient pagan religions were actively suppressed. In the view of many historians, the Constantinian shift turned Christianity from a persecuted into a persecuting religion. [180]

After the decline of the Roman Empire, the further Christianization of Europe was to a large extent peaceful. [181] However, encounters between Christians and Pagans were sometimes confrontational, and some Christian kings (Charlemagne, Olaf I of Norway) were known for their violence against pagans. In the late Middle Ages, the appearance of the Cathars and Bogomils in Europe laid the stage for the later witch-hunts. These (probably gnostic-influenced) sects were seen as heretics by the Catholic Church, and the Inquisition was established to counter them. In the case of the Cathars, the Albigensian Crusade violently suppressed them. In the Baltic countries, pagans were killed, subjugated or forcibly baptized.

From the start of Christian rule in Europe, Jews were increasingly discriminated against, at times rising to outright persecution. This sometimes took the form of events like the Rhineland massacres, and the Blood libel was often the source (falsely claiming Jews ritually murdered Christian children). Jews were also expelled from a number of countries, including from England and later Spain. In the latter case, if converted they could remain. However, as most did so only under duress, Judaism continued to be practiced in secret by many. As a result, the Spanish Inquisition was formed to root them out, along with the secret Muslims there. In the First Crusade, after the Siege of Jerusalem, all Jews and Muslims within the city were massacred by the Crusaders.[ citation needed ]

After the Protestant Reformation, the devastation caused by the partly religiously motivated wars (Thirty Years' War, English Civil War, French Wars of Religion) in Europe in the 17th century gave rise to the ideas of religious toleration, freedom of religion and religious pluralism.

Response of apologists

Christians will sometimes point out that in their points of view, the wrongdoings of other Christians are not the fault of their religious scriptures but of those who have wrongly interpreted it. They posit that the mistakes of Christians do not refute the validity of their teachings, but merely proves their weakness and sinful nature, of which they then turn to Christ. Thus, according to them, the "Word of God" can still be true and valid without it having been accurately followed.[ citation needed ] According to Ron Sider, an Evangelical theologian, "The tragedy is that poll after poll by Gallup and Barna show that evangelicals live just like the world. Contrast that with what the New Testament says about what happens when people come to living faith in Christ. There's supposed to be radical transformation in the power of the Holy Spirit (2 Cor 5:17, 1 Cor 10:13). The disconnect between our biblical beliefs and our practice is just, I think, heart-rending." [173]

Similar arguments are held by Roman Catholics against critics of the Catholic Church, or by other Christians defending their respective Churches.[ citation needed ] On the Church's structure, Roman Catholics argue that Popes who were corrupt in the Middle Ages is not the fault of the position of the Papacy or of the fact that there are obedient Priests lower in the hierarchy, but the fault of the individual people who act as "God's representative on Earth". Such examples can be seen in Dante's Divine Comedy , where Roman Catholic Clergy who had practiced simony find themselves in the lower circles of hell.

Anti-clericalism in Nazi Germany

Adolf Hitler-1933.jpg
Adolf Hitler failed in establishing a unified Protestant Reich Church and suppressed the dissenting church umbrella, i.e. the Confessing Church. [182] [183]
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1968-101-20A, Joseph Goebbels.jpg
Joseph Goebbels, as the Reich Minister of Propaganda, worked to implement Kirchenkampf (church struggle), limiting the power of independent churches. He wrote that there was "an insoluble opposition between the Christian and a heroic-German world view". [182]

Adolf Hitler's 1920 Nazi Party Platform promoted Positive Christianity—which mixed ideas of racial purity and Nazi ideology with elements of Christianity and removed "Jewish" elements. [184] [185]

Nazism aimed to transform the subjective consciousness of the German people—their attitudes, values and mentalities—into a single-minded, obedient "national community". The Nazis believed they would therefore have to replace class, religious and regional allegiances. [186] Under the Gleichschaltung process, Hitler attempted to create a unified Protestant Reich Church from Germany's 28 existing Protestant churches. The plan failed, and was resisted by the Confessing Church. Persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany followed the Nazi takeover. Hitler moved quickly to eliminate political catholicism. Amid harassment of the Church, the Reich concordat treaty with the Vatican was signed in 1933, and promised to respect Church autonomy. Hitler routinely disregarded the Concordat, closing all Catholic institutions whose functions were not strictly religious. Clergy, nuns, and lay leaders were targeted, with thousands of arrests over the ensuing years. [187]

Hitler was supportive of Christianity in public, yet hostile to it in private. Anti-clericalists like Joseph Goebbels and Martin Bormann saw the conflict with the Churches as a priority concern, and anti-church and anti-clerical sentiments were strong among grassroots party activists. [182] Hitler was born to a practising Catholic mother and an anticlerical father, but after leaving home Hitler never again attended Mass or received the sacraments. According to biographer Alan Bullock, Hitler retained some regard for the organisational power of Catholicism but held private contempt for its central teachings, which he said, if taken to their conclusion, "would mean the systematic cultivation of the human failure.": [183]

Joseph Goebbels, the Reich Minister of Propaganda, used his position to widely publicise trials of clergy and nuns in his propaganda campaigns, showing the cases in the worst possible light. In 1928, soon after his election to the Reichstag, Goebbels wrote in his diary that National Socialism was a "religion" that needed a genius to uproot "outmoded religious practices" and put new ones in their place: "One day soon National Socialism will be the religion of all Germans. My Party is my church, and I believe I serve the Lord best if I do his will, and liberate my oppressed people from the fetters of slavery. That is my gospel." [188] As the war progressed, on the "Church Question", he wrote "after the war it has to be generally solved... There is, namely, an insoluble opposition between the Christian and a heroic-German world view". [182]

Hitler's chosen deputy and private secretary, Martin Bormann, was a rigid guardian of National Socialist orthodoxy and saw Christianity and Nazism as "incompatible" (mainly because of its Jewish origins), [187] [189] as did the official Nazi philosopher, Alfred Rosenberg. In his "Myth of the Twentieth Century" (1930), Rosenberg wrote that the main enemies of the Germans were the "Russian Tartars" and "Semites" - with "Semites" including Christians, especially the Catholic Church. [190]

According to Bullock, Hitler considered the Protestant clergy to be "insignificant" and "submissive" and lacking in a religion to be taken seriously. [191] Hitler attempted to create a unified Protestant Reich Church from 28 separate regional churches through Gleichschaltung . His bid to create a unified Reich Church ultimately failed, and Hitler became disinterested in supporting the so-called "German Christians" Nazi aligned movement. Hitler initially lent support to Ludwig Muller, a Nazi and former naval chaplain, to serve as Reich Bishop, but his heretical views against Paul the Apostle and the Semitic origins of Christ and the Bible (see Positive Christianity) quickly alienated sections of the Protestant church. Lutheran Pastor Martin Neimoller created the Confessing Church movement to oppose the Nazification of Protestant churches. [192] Neimoller was arrested by the Gestapo in 1937, and sent to the concentration camps. [193] The Confessing Church seminary was prohibited that same year. [194]

Christian persecution complex

Christian persecution complex is the notion that Christian values and Christians are being oppressed by social groups and governments. [195] According to Elizabeth Castelli, some set the starting point in the middle of the 20th century while others point to the 90's. After 9/11, it accelerated. [196] The concept that Christianity is being oppressed is popular among conservative politicians in contemporary politics in the United States, and they utilize this idea to address issues concerning LGBT people or the ACA’s Contraceptives Mandate, which they perceive as an attack on Christianity. [197]

Others (like professor Candida Moss and lecturer Paul Cavill) point out that this mentality of being persecuted roots back to the earliest times. [198] It appeared during the era of early Christianity due to internal Christian identity politics. [199] [200] Cavill claims that the New Testament teaches that persecutions are inherent to Christianity. [201]

Criticism by other religions


Ram Mohan Roy criticized Christian doctrines, and asserted that how "unreasonable" and "self-contradictory" they are. [202] He further adds that people, even from India were embracing Christianity due to the economic hardship and weakness, just like European Jews were pressured to embrace Christianity, by both encouragement and force. [203]

Vivekananda regarded Christianity as "collection of little bits of Indian thought. Ours is the religion of which Buddhism with all its greatness is a rebel child, and of which Christianity is a very patchy imitation." [204]

Philosopher Dayanand Saraswati, regarded Christianity as "barbarous religion, and a 'false religion' religion believed only by fools and by the people in a state of barbarism," [205] he included that Bible contains many stories and precepts that are immoral, praising cruelty, deceit and encouraging sin. [206]

In 1956 the Niyogi Committee Report On Christian Missionary Activities was published by the Government of Madhya Pradesh. This influential report on controversial missionary activities in India recommended that suitable controls on conversions brought about through illegal means should be implemented. [207] Also in the 1950s, K.M. Panikkar's work "Asia and Western Dominance" was published and was one of the first post-Independence Indian critiques of Christian missions. It argued that the attempt to convert Asia has definitely failed, and that this failure was due to the missionaries' claim of a monopoly of truth which was alien to the Asian mind; their association with imperialism and the attitude of moral and racial superiority of the Christian West. [207]

The Indian writer and philosopher Ram Swarup was "most responsible for reviving and re-popularizing" the Hindu critique of Christian missionary practices in the 1980s. [208] He insisted that monotheistic religions like Christianity "nurtured among their adherents a lack of respect for other religions". [208] Other important writers who criticized Christianity from an Indian and Hindu perspective include Sita Ram Goel and Arun Shourie. [209] [208] Arun Shourie urged Hindus to be "alert to the fact that missionaries have but one goal - that of harvesting us for the church"; and he wrote that they have "developed a very well-knit, powerful, extremely well-endowned organizational framework" for attaining that goal. [209] In his "widely read and cited" book Missionaries in India, Shourie tried to build a case that Christian evangelistic methods were cynically calculating and materialistic, and to Shourie, missionary strategizing "sounded more like the Planning Commission, if not the Pentagon, than like Jesus". [208] [210]

Indian philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, wrote:

Unfortunately Christian religion inherited the Semitic creed of the ‘jealous God’ in the view of Christ as ‘the only begotten son of God’ so could not brook any rival near the throne. When Europe accepted the Christian religion, in spite of its own broad humanism, it accepted the fierce intolerance which is the natural result of belief in 'the truth once for all delivered to the saints.' [211]


Shlomo ben Aderet criticized Christianity, adding that it has lesser form of monotheism, and lacks a unified deity compared to Judaism. [212]

David Flusser viewed Christianity as "Cheaper Judaism" and highly anti-Judaism. He also highlighted the "failure of christianity to convert the Jewish people to the new message" as "precisely the reason for the strong anti-jewish trend in christianity." [213]

Professor Moshe Halbertal, regards Christianity to be "idolatrous religion" and he further adds that the idolatry by Christians "opened the door to the easing of many other restrictive prohibitions." [214]

Stephen Samuel Wise in his own words was critical towards the Christian community for their failure to rescue Jews from Europe during Nazi rule. He wrote that:

A Christian world that will permit millions of Jews to be slain without moving heaven by prayer and earth in every human way to save its Jews has lost its capacity for moral and spiritual survival. [215]


According to the Qu'ran, At-Tawba 31, Christians should follow one God, but they have made multiple.

They have taken as lords beside Allah their rabbis and their monks and the Messiah son of Mary, when they were bidden to worship only One God. [216]

Muslim scholars have criticized Christianity, usually for its Trinity concept. They argue that this doctrine is an invention, distortion of the idea about God, and presentation of the idea that there are three gods. [217]


Some have argued that Christianity is not founded on a historical Jesus, but rather on a mythical creation. [218] This view proposes that the idea of Jesus was the Jewish manifestation of Hellenistic mystery cults that acknowledged the non-historic nature of their deity using it instead as a teaching device. [219] However, the position that Jesus was not a historical figure is essentially without support among biblical scholars and classical historians. [220]

Scholars and historians such as James H. Charlesworth caution against using parallels with life-death-rebirth gods in the widespread mystery religions prevalent in the Hellenistic culture to conclude that Jesus is a purely legendary figure. Charlesworth argues that "it would be foolish to continue to foster the illusion that the Gospels are merely fictional stories like the legends of Hercules and Asclepius. The theologies in the New Testament are grounded on interpretations of real historical events…" [221]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Mark Allan Powell is the Robert and Phyllis Leatherman Professor of New Testament at Trinity Lutheran Seminary in Columbus, Ohio. He is editor of the HarperCollins Bible Dictionary and author of more than 100 articles and 25 books on the Bible and religion, including a widely used textbook, Introducing the New Testament.

Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Theologians may undertake the study of Christian theology for a variety of reasons, such as in order to:

This is a bibliography of literature treating the topic of criticism of Christianity, sorted by source publication and the author's last name.


  1. Le Roy Froom, Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers , Vol. I, Washington D.C. Review & Herald 1946, p. 328.
  2. Martin 1991, p. 3–4.
  3. 1 2 Martin 1991, p. 4.
  4. Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason, pp. 553–69
  5. Robert R. Palmer and Joel Colton, A History of the Modern World (New York: McGraw Hill, 1995), pp. 388–92.
  6. Robert R. Palmer and Joel Colton, A History of the Modern World (New York: McGraw Hill, 1995), p.630.
  7. Browning, W.R.F. "Biblical criticism." A Dictionary of the Bible. 1997 8 Apr. 2010
  8. 1 2 Robinson, B.A. Biblical Criticism, including Form Criticism, Tradition Criticism, Higher Criticism, etc. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 2008. Web: 8 Apr 2010.
  9. 1 2 Mather, G.A. & L.A. Nichols, Dictionary of Cults, Sects, Religions and the Occult, Zondervan (1993) (quoted in Robinson, Biblical Criticism
  10. Bruce Metzger, cited in The Case for Christ, Lee Strobel
  11. Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins. p. 91. ISBN   9780060738174 . Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  12. Ehrman, Bart D. The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture. New York: Oxford U. Press, 1993
  13. Wallace, Daniel B. "The Gospel According to Bart: A Review Article of Misquoting Jesus by Bart Ehrman," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society , June 2006 (also available at
  14. Ehrman, Bart D. (2006). Whose Word Is It?. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN   978-0-8264-9129-9. p. 166
  15. Bruce Metzger "A Textual Commentary on the New Testament", Second Edition, 1994, German Bible Society
  16. 1 2 K. Aland and B. Aland, "The Text Of The New Testament: An Introduction To The Critical Editions & To The Theory & Practice Of Modern Text Criticism", 1995, op. cit., p. 29-30.
  17. See for example the list of alleged contradictions from The Skeptic's Annotated Bible and Robert G. Ingersoll's article Inspiration Of Bible.
  18. M.W.J. Phelan. The Inspiration of the Pentateuch, Two-edged Sword Publications (March 9, 2005) ISBN   978-0-9547205-6-8
  19. Ronald D. Witherup, Biblical Fundamentalism: What Every Catholic Should Know, Liturgical Press (2001), page 26.
  20. France, R.T., Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: Matthew, Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester, England (1985), pg. 17.
  21. Britannica Encyclopedia, Jesus Christ, p.17
  22. 1 2 3 Lindsell, Harold. "The Battle for the Bible", Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA (1976), pg. 38.
  23. 1 2 3 "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy".
  24. As in 2 Timothy 3:16 , discussed by Thompson, Mark (2006). A Clear and Present Word. New Studies in Biblical Theology. Downers Grove: Apollos. p. 92. ISBN   978-1-84474-140-3.
  25. Norman L. Geisler; William E. Nix (2012), From God To Us Revised and Expanded: How We Got Our Bible, Moody Publishers, p. PT45, ISBN   978-0802483928 "faith and practice"
  26. See notably Grudem, representative of recent scholarship with this emphasis (Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology. Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 90–105. ISBN   978-0-85110-652-6.).
  27. Till, Farrell (1991). "Prophecies: Imaginary and Unfulfilled". Internet Infidels . Retrieved 2007-01-16.
  28. W. H. Bellinger; William Reuben Farmer, eds. (1998). Jesus and the Suffering Servant: Isaiah 53 and Christian Origins. Trinity Press. ISBN   9781563382307 . Retrieved 2 August 2013. Did Jesus of Nazareth live and die without the teaching about the righteous Servant of the Lord in Isaiah 53 having exerted any significant influence on his ministry? Is it probable that this text exerted no significant influence upon Jesus' understanding of the plan of God to save the nations that the prophet Isaiah sets forth?" Two questions addressed in a conference on "Isaiah 53 and Christian Origins" at Baylor University in the fall of 1995, the principal papers of which are available in "Jesus and the Suffering Servant.
  29. Peter W. Stoner, Science Speaks, Moody Pr, 1958, ISBN   0-8024-7630-9
  30. Harris, Stephen L. (2002). Understanding the Bible (6 ed.). McGraw-Hill College. pp. 376–377. ISBN   9780767429160 . Retrieved 2 August 2013. (Further snippets of quote: B C D)
  31. 1 2 "Biography of Isaac ben Abraham of Troki". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  32. "TorahLab - Store".
  33. Pascal, Blaise (1958). Pensees. Translator W. F. Trotter. chapter x, xii, xiii.
  34. McDowell, Josh (1999). "chapter 8". The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict. Thomas Nelson. ISBN   9781850785521.
  35. 1 2 "English Handbook Page 34 999KB" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-12. Retrieved 2013-08-01.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  36. See also "Given the New Testament a Chance?" from the Messiah Truth website
  37. 1 2 David Sper, Managing Editor, "Questions Skeptics Ask About Messianic Prophecies," Archived 2008-11-20 at the Wayback Machine RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI, 1997
  38. See Psalms 22:6-8 , 22:13 ; 69:8 , 69:20-21 ; Isaiah 11:1 , 49:7 , 53:2-3 , 53:8 ; Daniel 9:26
  39. Martin 1991, p. 10-12 & 105.
  40. Martin 1991, p. 111.
  41. Martin 1991, p. 112.
  42. Martin 1991, p. 121.
  43. The NAS New Testament Greek Lexicon
  44. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN   978-0-19-280290-3), article Virgin Birth of Christ
  45. See, for example, the Council of Jerusalem described in Acts 15
  46. Melvin E. Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg (2003). Colonialism: an international, social, cultural, and political encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 496. Of all religions, Christianity has been most associated with colonialism because several of its forms (Catholicism and Protestantism) were the religions of the European powers engaged in colonial enterprise on a global scale.
  47. Bevans, Steven. "Christian Complicity in Colonialism/ Globalism" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-11-17. The modern missionary era was in many ways the ‘religious arm’ of colonialism, whether Portuguese and Spanish colonialism in the sixteenth Century, or British, French, German, Belgian or American colonialism in the nineteenth. This was not all bad — oftentimes missionaries were heroic defenders of the rights of indigenous peoples
  48. Andrews, Edward (2010). "Christian Missions and Colonial Empires Reconsidered: A Black Evangelist in West Africa, 1766–1816". Journal of Church & State. 51 (4): 663–691. doi:10.1093/jcs/csp090. Historians have traditionally looked at Christian missionaries in one of two ways. The first church historians to catalogue missionary history provided hagiographic descriptions of their trials, successes, and sometimes even martyrdom. Missionaries were thus visible saints, exemplars of ideal piety in a sea of persistent savagery. However, by the middle of the twentieth century, an era marked by civil rights movements, anti-colonialism, and growing secularization, missionaries were viewed quite differently. Instead of godly martyrs, historians now described missionaries as arrogant and rapacious imperialists. Christianity became not a saving grace but a monolithic and aggressive force that missionaries imposed upon defiant natives. Indeed, missionaries were now understood as important agents in the ever-expanding nation-state, or “ideological shock troops for colonial invasion whose zealotry blinded them.
  49. Meador, Jake (2010-09-17). "Cosmetic Christianity and the Problem of Colonialism – Responding to Brian McLaren" . Retrieved 17 November 2010. According to Jake Meador, "some Christians have tried to make sense of post-colonial Christianity by renouncing practically everything about the Christianity of the colonizers. They reason that if the colonialists’ understanding of Christianity could be used to justify rape, murder, theft, and empire then their understanding of Christianity is completely wrong.
  50. Conquistadors, Michael Wood, p. 20, BBC Publications, 2000
  51. Glenn Sunshine, “Christianity and Slavery,” in True Reason: Confronting the Irrationality of the New Atheism, ed. Tom Gilson and Carson Weitnauer (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2013), 292–293.
  52. Glancy 2002, p. 141-145.
  53. Ellerbe 1995, p. 90-92.
  54. P.G. Kirchschlaeger, "Slavery and Early Christianity - A reflection from a human rights perspective", Acta theologica. vol.36 suppl.23 Bloemfontein 2016, paragraph 4.3.
  55. Youval Rotman, Byzantine Slavery and the Mediterranean World, Harvard University Press, 2009, pp 131, 132. Footnotes to Gruszka, Peter. "Die Ansichten über das Sklaventum in den Schriften ..." Antiquitas 10 (1983): 106-118.
  56. "Habits of Slavery in Early Christianity". Brandeis University (in Breton). Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  57. Youval Rotman, "Byzantine Slavery and the Mediterranean World", transl. by Jane Marie Todd, Cambridge, Massachusetts – London, Harvard University Press 2009. Book presentation in a) Nikolaos Linardos (University of Athens), , Mediterranean Chronicle 1 (2011) pp. 281, 282, b) Alice Rio, American Historical Review, Vol. 115, Issue 5, 2010, pp. 1513–1514
  58. 1 2 3 Robinson, B. A. (2006). "Christianity and slavery" . Retrieved 2007-01-03.
  59. Jack D. Forbes (1993), Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples, University of Illinois Press, p. 27, ISBN   978-0252063213
  60. Rae, Noel (February 23, 2018). "How Christian Slaveholders Used the Bible to Justify Slavery". Time. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  61. Rodney Stark, For the Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-Hunts, and the End of Slavery ISBN   978-0-691-11436-1 (2003)
  62. Lamin Sanneh, Abolitionists Abroad: American Blacks and the Making of Modern West Africa, Harvard University Press ISBN   978-0-674-00718-5 (2001)
  63. Ostling, Richard N. (2005-09-17). "Human slavery: why was it accepted in the Bible?". Salt Lake City Deseret Morning News. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
  64. "Abolitionist Movement". MSN Encyclopedia Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-29. Retrieved 2007-01-03.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  65. Martin, William. 1996. With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America. New York: Broadway Books.
  66. Diamond, Sara, 1998. Not by Politics Alone: The Enduring Influence of the Christian Right, New York: Guilford Press, p.213.
  67. Ortiz, Chris 2007. "Gary North on D. James Kennedy" Archived 2009-10-11 at the Wayback Machine , Chalcedon Blog, 6 September 2007.
  68. Ostling, Richard N. (2005-09-17). "Human slavery: why was it accepted in the Bible?". Salt Lake City Deseret Morning News. Associated Press. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  69. "Civil Rights Movement in the United States". MSN Encyclopedia Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-29. Retrieved 2007-01-03.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  70. "Religious Revivalism in the Civil Rights Movement". African American Review. Winter 2002. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
  71. "Martin Luther King: The Nobel Peace Prize 1964". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2006-01-03.
  72. Thurston, Herbert. St. Joan of Arc. 1910. Catholic Encyclopedia
  73. Frankenberry, Nancy (1 January 2011). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  74. "The Status of Women in the Old Testament".
  75. "The Woman's Bible Index".
  76. Clark, Elizabeth. Women in the Early Church. Liturgical Press, 1984. ISBN   0-8146-5332-4
  77. "Jesus Many Faces - Jesus' Family Tree - From Jesus To Christ - FRONTLINE - PBS".
  78. 1 2 "King, Karen L. "Women in Ancient Christianity: the New Discoveries." Karen L. King is Professor of New Testament Studies and the History of Ancient Christianity at Harvard University in the Divinity School.
  79. Stagg, Evelyn and Frank. Woman in the World of Jesus. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978. ISBN   0-664-24195-6
  80. Bilezikian, Gilbert. Beyond Sex Roles (2nd ed.) Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker, 1989, ISBN   978-0-8010-0885-6. pp. 82–104
  81. Schalom Ben-Chorin.Brother Jesus: the Nazarene through Jewish eyes. U of Georgia Press, 2001. ISBN   978-0-8203-2256-8, p.66
  82. Clarke, Arthur C. & Watts, Alan (January), “At the Interface: Technology and Mysticism”, Playboy (Chicago, Ill.: HMH Publishing) 19 (1): 94, ISSN 0032-1478, OCLC 3534353
  83. Alister McGrath and Joanna Collicutt McGrath, The Dawkins Delusion?, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 2007, ISBN   978-0-281-05927-0
  84. Luke 6
  85. Peoples, Dr., Glenn Andrew (2012-11-06). "Whittling down the pacifist narrative: Did early Christians serve in the army?". Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  86. 1Kings 18:17-46
  87. Deuteronomy 17:5
  88. Psalm 18:37
  89. International encyclopedia of violence research, Volume 2. Springer. 2003. ISBN   9781402014666.
  90. J. Denny Weaver (2001). "Violence in Christian Theology". Cross Currents. Retrieved 28 October 2014. "[3rd paragraph] I am using broad definitions of the terms "violence" and "nonviolence." "Violence" means harm or damage, which obviously includes the direct violence of killing – in war, capital punishment, murder – but also covers the range of forms of systemic violence such as poverty, racism, and sexism. "Nonviolence" also covers a spectrum of attitudes and actions, from the classic Mennonite idea of passive nonresistance through active nonviolence and nonviolent resistance that would include various kinds of social action, confrontations and posing of alternatives that do not do bodily harm or injury.
  91. Sam Harris (2006). Letter to a Christian Nation. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 80–81. ISBN   978-0-307-26577-7.
  92. J. Denny Weaver (2001). "Violence in Christian Theology". Cross Currents. Retrieved 2010-10-27.[ unreliable source? ]
  93. War, A Catholic Dictionary: Containing some Account of the Doctrine, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils, and Religious Orders of the Catholic Church, W. E Addis, T. Arnold, Revised T. B Scannell and P. E Hallett, 15th Edition, Virtue & Co, 1953, Nihil Obstat: Reginaldus Philips, Imprimatur: E. Morrogh Bernard, 2 October 1950, "In the Name of God : Violence and Destruction in the World's Religions", M. Jordan, 2006, p. 40 [ unreliable source? ]
  94. Christiansen, Eric. The Northern Crusades. London: Penguin Books. pg. 75.
  95. Quotation: "The conflict thesis, at least in its simple form, is now widely perceived as a wholly inadequate intellectual framework within which to construct a sensible and realistic historiography of Western science." (p. 7), from the essay by Colin A. Russell "The Conflict Thesis" in Gary Ferngren (editor). Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN   0-8018-7038-0".
  96. Quotation: "In the late Victorian period it was common to write about the "warfare between science and religion" and to presume that the two bodies of culture must always have been in conflict. However, it is a very long time since these attitudes have been held by historians of science." (p. 195) Shapin, S. (1996). The Scientific Revolution. University of Chicago Press Chicago, Ill.
  97. Quotation: "In its traditional forms, the [conflict] thesis has been largely discredited." (p. 42) Brooke, J.H. (1991). Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.
  98. Quotation from Ferngren's introduction at "Gary Ferngren (editor). Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN   0-8018-7038-0.": "…while [John] Brooke's view [of a complexity thesis rather than conflict thesis] has gained widespread acceptance among professional historians of science, the traditional view remains strong elsewhere, not least in the popular mind." (p. x)
  99. Gary Ferngren (editor). Science & Religion: A Historical Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN   0-8018-7038-0. (Introduction, p. ix)
  100. From Ferngren's introduction:
    "…while [John] Brooke's view [of a complexity thesis rather than conflict thesis] has gained widespread acceptance among professional historians of science, the traditional view remains strong elsewhere, not least in the popular mind. (p. x)-Gary Ferngren, (2002); Introduction, p. ix)
  101. Sagan, Carl. Cosmos: A Personal Voyage , Episode 3: "The Harmony of the Worlds"
  102. quoted in Ted Peters, Science and Religion, Encyclopedia of Religion, p.8182
  103. The compass in this 13th-century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of Creation.
    * Thomas Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005), ISBN   0-89526-038-7
  104. Morriston, Wes (2 August 2011). "Ethical Criticism of the Bible: The Case of Divinely Mandated Genocide". Sophia. 51 (1): 117–135. doi:10.1007/s11841-011-0261-5.
  105. Maitzen, Stephen (1 November 2007). "Skeptical Theism and God's Commands". Sophia. 46 (3): 237–243. doi:10.1007/s11841-007-0032-5.
  106. Singer, Peter (1991). A Companion to Ethics. Blackwell Oxford. pp. 91–105.
  107. See, for example, Everybody's Talkin' About Christian Fascism by Gary Leupp.
  108. "George Bush and the Rise of Christian Fascism". Archived from the original on 2008-02-21.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  109. Chip Berlet, "Following the Threads," in Ansell, Amy E. Unraveling the Right: The New Conservatism in American Thought and Politics, pp. 24, Westview Press, 1998, ISBN   0-8133-3147-1
  110. "MPs turn attack back on Cardinal Pell". Sydney Morning Herald. 2007-06-06.
  111. "Pope warns Bush on stem cells". BBC News. 2001-07-23.
  112. Andrew Dickson, White (1898). A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. p. X. Theological Opposition to Inoculation, Vaccination, and the Use of Anaesthetics.
  113. Cathy Lynn Grossman (17 June 2015). "Americans' confidence in religion hits a new low". Religion News Service.
  114. "U.S. has become notably less Christian, major study finds". LA Times. 12 May 2015.
  115. About 91% of young outsiders felt Christians were anti-homosexual, 87% felt Christians were judgemental and 85% thought Christians were hypocritical.
  116. "Millennials Leave Their Churches Over Science, Lesbian & Gay Issues". Public Religion Research Institute. 10 June 2011.
  118. "America's Change of Mind on Same-Sex Marriage and LGBTQ Rights". Barna. 3 Jul 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-08-15. Retrieved 2015-06-22.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  119. See "About the Evangelical and Ecumenical Women's Caucus". Archived from the original on July 10, 2011.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  120. "Home - Christians for Biblical Equality (CBE)".
  121. Ronald W. Pierce and Rebecca Merrill Groothuis (eds.). Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity without Hierarchy. IVP 2004. p. 17.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  122. Grudem, Wayne A. "Should We Move Beyond the New Testament to a Better Ethic?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS), 47/2 (June 2004) 299–346
  123. Eck, Diana L. Encountering God: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras. (2003) p. 98
  124. 1 2 Brumley, Mark. "Why God is Father and not Mother". The Catholic Faith Magazine. July/August 1999. Accessed 25 Feb 2013
  125. 1 2 "Baptist Faith and Message"
  126. "الاحتفال بعيد انتقال العذراء مريم في سان دييكو".
  127. The 9 Most Important Issues Facing the Evangelical Church
  128. Hume, David (2000). "Chapter 10. Of Religion". In Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding: A Critical Edition. Volume 3 of The Clarendon edition of the works of David Hume. Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN   9780198250609 . Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  129. Bruce L. Flamm, MD (2004). "Inherent Dangers of Faith-Healing Studies". The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine. Archived from the original on August 16, 2007.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  130. "Are Miracles Logically Impossible?". Come Reason Ministries, Convincing Christianity. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  131. ""Miracles are not possible," some claim. Is this true?". Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  132. Paul K. Hoffman. "A Jurisprudential Analysis Of Hume's "in Principal" Argument Against Miracles" (PDF). Christian Apologetics Journal, Volume 2, No. 1, Spring, 1999; Copyright ©1999 by Southern Evangelical Seminary. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  133. Howard W. Clarke, The Gospel of Matthew and Its Readers, Indiana University Press, 2003, p. 12
  134. William Lane Craig, Reasonable Faith: Christian Truth and Apologetics, Crossway Books (1994) pages 38-39.
  135. "Let no cultured person draw near, none wise and none sensible, for all that kind of thing we count evil; but if any man is ignorant, if any man is wanting in sense and culture, if anybody is a fool, let him come boldly [to become a Christian]. Celsus, AD178
  136. "Since we all inherit Adam's sin, we all deserve eternal damnation. All who die unbaptized, even infants, will go to hell and suffer unending torment. We have no reason to complain of this, since we are all wicked. (In the Confessions, the Saint enumerates the crimes of which he was guilty in the cradle.) But by God's free grace certain people, among those who have been baptized, are chosen to go to heaven; these are the elect. They do not go to heaven because they are good; we are all totally depraved, except insofar as God's grace, which is only bestowed on the elect, enables us to be otherwise. No reason can be given why some are saved and the rest damned; this is due to God's unmotivated choice. Damnation proves God's justice; salvation His mercy. Both equally display His goodness." A history of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell, Simon & Schuster, 1945
  137. Bible Teaching and Religious Practice essay: "Europe and Elsewhere," Mark Twain, 1923)
  138. Albert Einstein, Out of My Later Years (New York: Philosophical Library, 1950), p. 27
  139. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2002-09-01. Retrieved 2008-09-15.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  140. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1035, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, ISBN   0-89243-565-8,1994-the revised version issued 1997 has no changes in this section
  141. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1033, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, ISBN   0-89243-565-8,1994
  142. Richard Beck. "Christ and Horrors, Part 3: Horror Defeat, Universalism, and God's Reputation". Experimental Theology. March 19, 2007.
  143. Jonathan Kvanvig, The Problem of Hell, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN   978-0-19-508487-0, 1993
  144. "The Works of Thomas Manton", by Thomas Manton, p. 99
  145. ""A Tender Age": Chapter 2".
  146. Canon Law 1983
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  148. n:Vatican abolishes Limbo
  149. Catechism of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday. 1994. p. 845. ISBN   978-0-385-47967-7.
  150. Limbo: Recent statements by the Catholic church; Protestant views on Limbo at
  151. "Root of All Evil?". 9 January 2006 via IMDb.
  152. McGrath, Alister (2004). Dawkins' God: Genes, Memes, and the Meaning of Life. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing. p. 81. ISBN   978-1-4051-2538-3.
  153. Dawkins, Richard (September 17, 2007). "Do you have to read up on leprechology before disbelieving in them?". Retrieved 2007-11-14.
  154. Marianna Krejci-Papa, 2005. "Taking On Dawkins' God:An interview with Alister McGrath Archived 2015-02-07 at the Wayback Machine ." Science & Theology News , 2005–04–25.
  155. Dinesh D'Souza, What's So Great About Christianity, Regnery Publishing, ISBN   1-59698-517-8 (2007)
  156. Andrew Wilson, Deluded by Dawkins?, Kingsway Publications, ISBN   978-1-84291-355-0 (2007)
  157. "Ingersoll Biography: Chapter XI".
  158. Brandt, Eric T., and Timothy Larsen (2011). "The Old Atheism Revisited: Robert G. Ingersoll and the Bible". Journal of the Historical Society. 11 (2): 211–238. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5923.2011.00330.x.
  159. More Than A Carpenter, Tyndale House, Wheaton, Illinois, 1977, ISBN   978-0-8423-4552-1
  160. Jeffery, Steve; Ovey, Michael; Sach, Andrew (2007). Pierced for our transgressions. Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press. ch. 13. ISBN   978-1-84474-178-6.
  161. Most notably, Matthew 10:22-23 , 16:27-28 , 23:36 , 24:29-34 , 26:62-64 ; Mark 9:1 , 14:24-30 , 14:60-62 ; and Luke 9:27
  162. In his famous essay Why I Am Not a Christian
  163. Dr. Knox Chamblin, Professor of New Testament Emeritus, Columbia Theological Seminary: Commentary on Matthew 16:21-28 Archived 2012-03-04 at the Wayback Machine - see last 4 paragraphs
  164. Theodor Zahn, F.F. Bruce, J. Barton Payne, etc. hold this opinion - What is the meaning of Matthew 10:23?
  165. 1 2 From Witchcraft to Justice: Death and Afterlife in the Old Testament, George E. Mendenhall.
  166. 1 2 Hiroshi Obayashi, Death and Afterlife: Perspectives of World Religions. See Introduction.
  167. Jewish eschatology#Olam Haba - the afterlife and the world to come Jewish eschatology: The afterlife and olam haba
  168. Acts 23:6-8
  169. Pharisees#Pharisaic principles and values Pharisees: Pharisaic Principles and Values
  170. Essenes#Rules, customs, theology and beliefs Essenes: Rules, customs, theology and beliefs
  171. Gaudium et spes , 19
  172. 1 2 "The Evangelical Scandal".
  173. "Marriage 103: The Raw Reality of Divorce and its Terrible Results". Archived from the original on 2008-03-27. Retrieved 2008-01-22.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  174. In his book "Glimpses of world history", p. 86-87
  175. "Secularism and Hindutva, a Discursive Study", by A. A. Parvathy, p.42
  176. As quoted by William Rees-Mogg 4 April 2005 edition of The Times . Gandhi here makes reference to a statement of Jesus: “No servant can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will be loyal to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon." (Luke 16:13)
  177. Schopenhauer, Arthur; trans. T. Bailey Saunders. "Religion: A Dialogue". The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer.
  178. see e.g.: John Coffey, Persecution and Toleration on Protestant England 1558-1689, 2000, p. 206.
  179. see e.g.: John Coffey, Persecution and Toleration on Protestant England 1558-1689, 2000, p.22
    • Lutz E. von Padberg (1998), Die Christianisierung Europas im Mitterlalter, Reclam (in German), p. 183
  180. 1 2 3 4 Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.381-382
  181. 1 2 Alan Bullock; Hitler: A Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p219
  182. William L. Shirer (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. London: Secker & Warburg. pp. 238–39.
  183. Robert Michael; Philip Rosen (2007). Dictionary of Antisemitism from the Earliest Times to the Present. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. 321. ISBN   9780810858688.
  184. Ian Kershaw; The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation; 4th Edn; Oxford University Press; New York; 2000"; pp. 173–74
  185. 1 2 Encyclopedia Britannica Online: Fascism - Identification with Christianity; 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2013
  186. "American Experience . The Man Behind Hitler . Transcript - PBS".
  187. Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Martin Bormann; web 25 April 2013
  188. Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Alfred Rosenberg; web 25 April 2013.
  189. Alan Bullock; Hitler: A Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p219"
  190. Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.295-297
  191. Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Martin Niemöller; web 24 April 2013
  192. Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Dietrich Bonhoeffer; web 25 April 2013
  193. Hoover 2015 , p. 23: According to Hoover Linda "...Castelli (2007) believed the reluctance to self-disclose could be the “Christian persecution complex” (p. 156), an ideology that Christian values are unfavorably targeted by social and governmental opposition..."
  194. Årsheim 2016 , p. 7:According to Elizabeth Castelli, this engagement can be ascribed to a ‘Christian persecution complex’ that gathered pace throughout the 1990s, with the adoption of the US International Religious Freedom Act in 1998 as a significant milestone, and with the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001 as an accelerating factor (Castelli 2007: 173). This complex “…mobilizes the language of religious persecution to shut down political debate and critique by characterizing any position not in alignment with this politicized version of Christianity as an example of anti-religious bigotry and persecution. Moreover, it routinely deploys the archetypal figure of the martyr as a source of unquestioned religious and political authority.” (Castelli 2007: 154).
  195. Ben-Asher 2017 , p. 22: «...The notion that Christianity is under attack is prevalent in contemporary arguments for religious exemptions. Conservative legislatures, politicians and the media frequently characterize issues such as same-sex marriage and the ACA’s Contraceptives Mandate as attacks on Christians or Christianity....
  196. "Professor Candida Moss". Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  197. Janes & Houen 2014 , p. 24: Indeed, a recent study by Candida Moss, The Myth of Persecution]] has suggested that Christian "persecution complex" was the result of internal Christian identity politics
  198. "Dr Paul Cavill". Retrieved 2018-02-27.
  199. Cavil 2013 , p. 81: The early christian persecution complex is often underemphasised, but is important. The New Testament teaches that persecution is the inevitable by-product of effective Christianity
  200. "Raja Rammohun Roy: Encounter with Islam and Christianity and the Articulation of Hindu Self-Consciousness. Page 166, by Abidullah Al-Ansari Ghazi, year = 2010
  201. "Raja Rammohun Roy: Encounter with Islam and Christianity and the Articulation of Hindu Self-Consciousness. Page 169, by Abidullah Al-Ansari Ghazi, year = 2010
  202. "Neo-Hindu Views of Christianity", p. 96, by Arvind Sharma, year = 1988
  203. "Gandhi on Pluralism and Communalism", by P. L. John Panicker, p.39, year = 2006
  204. "Dayānanda Sarasvatī, his life and ideas", p. 267, by J. T. F. Jordens
  205. 1 2 Chapter 6 Hindutva, Secular India and the Report of the Christian Missionary Activities Enquiry Committee: 1954-57 Sebastian C.H. Kim, in Nationalism and Hindutva: A Christian Response: Papers from the 10th CMS Consultation, Mark T. B. Laing, 2005 ISBN   9788172148386
  206. 1 2 3 4 Pentecostals, Proselytization, and Anti-Christian Violence in Contemporary India by Chad M. Bauman, Oxford University Press, 2015
  207. 1 2 The Debate on Conversion Initiated by the Sangh Parivar, 1998-1999 Author: Sebastian Kim, Source: Transformation, Vol. 22, No. 4, Christianity and Religions (October 2005), pp. 224- 237
  208. Dr. Timothy Hembrom. Book review on "Arun Shourie and his Christian Critic" and on S.R. Goel, Catholic Ashrams, in the Indian Journal of Theology "Book Reviews," Indian Journal of Theology 37.2 (1995): 93-99.
  209. The Philosophy of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , by Paul Arthur Schilpp, page = 641
  210. "Judaism and Other Religions", p. 88, publisher = Palgrave Macmillan
  211. Anti-Judaism and Early Christian Identity: A Critique of the Scholarly Consensus , by Miriam S. Taylor, p. 41
  212. "Idolatry", by Moshe Halbertal, p. 212
  213. Wise Criticizes Christian World for Failure to Rescue Jews in Nazi Europe 19 February 1943
  214. "At-Tawba, Al Qu'ran". University of Leeds. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  215. Christianity: An Introduction, p. 125, by Alister E. McGrath
  216. Examples of authors who argue the Jesus myth theory: Thomas L. Thompson The Messiah Myth: The Near Eastern Roots of Jesus and David (Jonathan Cape, Publisher, 2006); Michael Martin, The Case Against Christianity (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 36–72; John Mackinnon Robertson
  217. Freke, Timothy and Gandy, Peter (1999) The Jesus Mysteries. London: Thorsons (Harper Collins)
  218. Historian Michael Grant stated, "To sum up, modern critical methods fail to support the Christ myth theory. It has 'again and again been answered and annihilated by first rank scholars.' In recent years, 'no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus' or at any rate very few, and they have not succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary." Michael Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels (Scribner, 1995).
    • "There are those who argue that Jesus is a figment of the Church’s imagination, that there never was a Jesus at all. I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more." Burridge, R & Gould, G, Jesus Now and Then, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2004, p.34.
    • Michael James McClymond, Familiar Stranger: An Introduction to Jesus of Nazareth, Eerdrmans (2004), page 24: "most scholars regard the argument for Jesus' non-existence as unworthy of any response".
  219. Charlesworth, James H. (ed.) (2006). Jesus and Archaeology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. ISBN   978-0-8028-4880-2.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)


Further reading

Skeptical of Christianity

Defending Christianity