William Lane Craig

Last updated
William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig.jpg
Born (1949-08-23) August 23, 1949 (age 70)
Residence Marietta, Georgia, US [1]
Education Wheaton College (B.A. 1971)
Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
(M.A. 1974; M.A. 1975)
University of Birmingham (Ph.D. 1977)
University of Munich (D.Theol. 1984)
Notable work
Reasonable Faith (1994)
Jan Craig(m. 1972)
Era Contemporary philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Analytic philosophy
Doctoral advisor
Other academic advisors Norman Geisler
Main interests
Notable ideas
Kalam cosmological argument
Website reasonablefaith.org

William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytic philosopher [6] and Christian theologian, historian, and apologist. [7] He holds faculty positions at Talbot School of Theology (Biola University) and Houston Baptist University. [8] Craig has updated and defended the Kalam cosmological argument for the existence of God. [1] [9] [10] [11] [12] He has also published work where he argues in favor of the historical plausibility of the resurrection of Jesus. [13] His study of divine aseity and Platonism culminated with his book God Over All. [14] [15] Craig has debated the existence of God with Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens, Lawrence M. Krauss [1] and A. C. Grayling. [16] He established and runs the online apologetics ministry ReasonableFaith.org. [8]

Analytic philosophy style of philosophy

Analytic philosophy is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century. The term can refer to one of several things:

Talbot School of Theology

Talbot School of Theology is an evangelical theological seminary of Biola University located near Los Angeles. Talbot is one of the seven schools that comprise Biola University, located in La Mirada, California. The school is interdenominational and theologically conservative in its theological positions.

Biola University Christian university near Los Angeles

Biola University is a private, evangelical Christian university in La Mirada, California. Founded in 1908, the university has over 150 programs of study in nine schools.


Early life and education

Craig was born August 23, 1949 in Peoria, Illinois to Mallory and Doris Craig. [17] [18] While a student at East Peoria Community High School (1963–1967), [19] Craig competed in debate and won the state championship in oratory. [20] [1] In September 1965, his junior year, he became a Christian, [21] [22] [23] and after graduating from high school, attended Wheaton College, majoring in communications. [24] [1] Craig graduated in 1971 and the following year married his wife Jan, whom he met on the staff of Campus Crusade for Christ. [24] [25] They have two grown children and reside in suburban Atlanta, Georgia. [25] In 2014, he was named alumnus of the year by Wheaton. [24]

Peoria, Illinois City in Illinois, United States

Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County, Illinois, and the largest city on the Illinois River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 115,007., making it the eighth-most populated in Illinois, the second-largest city in Central Illinois after the state capital, Springfield, and the third largest outside the Chicago metropolitan area. It is the principal city of the Peoria Metropolitan Statistical Area in Central Illinois, consisting of the counties of Marshall, Peoria, Stark, Tazewell, and Woodford, which had a population of 373,590 in 2011. The Peoria Metro Area is the third largest MSA in Illinois after Chicago and Metro East (St. Louis MSA Illinois portion.

Illinois American State

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product (GDP), the sixth largest population, and the 25th largest land area of all U.S. states. Illinois has been noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, and natural resources such as coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, and is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population. The Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, and the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports. Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics.

East Peoria Community High School is a four-year public high school located in East Peoria, Illinois, and is the only school of East Peoria Community High School District 309. As of 2018, the school has 983 students enrolled. East Peoria Community High School has several feeder schools: Central Junior High School, Parkview Middle School, and Robein Elementary School.

In 1973 Craig entered the program in philosophy of religion at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School north of Chicago, where he studied under Norman Geisler. [26] [27] [1] In 1975 Craig commenced doctoral studies in philosophy at the University of Birmingham, England, [28] writing on the cosmological argument under the direction of John Hick. [29] [1] He was awarded a doctorate in 1977. [30] Out of this study came his first book, The Kalam Cosmological Argument (1979), a defense of the argument he first encountered in Hackett's work. [1] Craig was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship in 1978 from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation [31] to pursue research on the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus under the direction of Wolfhart Pannenberg at the Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München in Germany. [28] [32] [31] [1] [26] His studies in Munich under Pannenberg's supervision led to a second doctorate, this one in theology, [24] [1] awarded in 1984 with the publication of his doctoral thesis, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy (1985). [33] [34]

Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions". Philosophical discussions on such topics date from ancient times, and appear in the earliest known texts concerning philosophy. The field is related to many other branches of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics.

Trinity Evangelical Divinity School

Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (TEDS) is an academic divinity school founded in 1897 and located north of Chicago, Illinois. TEDS is one of the largest seminaries in the world, enrolling more than 1,200 graduate students in professional and academic programs, including more than 150 in its PhD programs. The most popular degree at the school prepares pastors, educators, and missionaries for many kinds of service. The school also offers a range of more focused Master of Arts programs in counseling ministries, Christian thought, New Testament, Old Testament, and other disciplines.

Chicago city and county seat of Cook County, Illinois, United States

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,705,994 (2018), it is also the most populous city in the Midwestern United States. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the US, with portions of the northwest side of the city extending into DuPage County near O'Hare Airport. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland. At nearly 10 million people, the metropolitan area is the third most populous in the nation.


Craig joined the faculty of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in 1980, where he taught philosophy of religion until 1986. [35] In 1982 Craig received an invitation to debate Kai Nielsen at the University of Calgary, Canada, on the question of God's existence. [36] Encouraged by the reception, [36] Craig has since debated many philosophers, scientists, and biblical scholars. [37] [1]

Kai Nielsen is professor emeritus of philosophy at the University of Calgary. Before moving to Canada, Nielsen taught at New York University (NYU). He specializes in metaphilosophy, ethics, and social and political philosophy. Nielsen has also written about philosophy of religion, and is an advocate of contemporary atheism. He is also known for his defense of utilitarianism, writing in response to Bernard Williams's criticism of it.

University of Calgary public research university located in Calgary, Alberta

The University of Calgary is a public research university located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The University of Calgary started in 1944 as the Calgary branch of the University of Alberta, founded in 1908, prior to being instituted into a separate, autonomous university in 1966. It is composed of 14 faculties and over 85 research institutes and centres. The main campus is located in the northwest quadrant of the city near the Bow River and a smaller south campus is located in the city center. The main campus houses most of the research facilities and works with provincial and federal research and regulatory agencies, several of which are housed next to the campus such as the Geological Survey of Canada. The main campus covers approximately 200 hectares.

After a one-year stint at Westmont College on the outskirts of Santa Barbara, Craig moved in 1987 with his wife and two young children back to Europe, [38] where he was a visiting scholar at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Louvain) in Belgium until 1994. [38] [39] At that time, Craig joined the Department of Philosophy and Ethics at Talbot School of Theology in suburban Los Angeles as a research professor of philosophy, a position he currently holds, [21] [8] [40] and he went on to become a professor of philosophy at Houston Baptist University in 2014. [8] [40] In 2016, Craig was named Alumnus of the Year by Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. [41] In 2017, Biola created a permanent faculty position and endowed chair, the William Lane Craig Endowed Chair in Philosophy, in honor of Craig's academic contributions. [42]

Westmont College interdenominational Christian liberal arts college in Santa Barbara, California

Westmont College, founded in 1937, is an interdenominational Christian liberal arts college in Montecito near Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, California.

Santa Barbara, California City in California, United States

Santa Barbara is a coastal city in, and the county seat of, Santa Barbara County in the U.S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is often described as Mediterranean, and the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera". As of 2018, the city had an estimated population of 91,350, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Montecito, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch, Summerland, and others, has an approximate population of 220,000. The population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895.

KU Leuven Dutch-speaking university in Leuven, Flanders, Belgium

The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, abbreviated KU Leuven, is a research university in the Dutch-speaking town of Leuven in Flanders, Belgium, founded in 1834 in Mechelen as the Catholic University of Belgium and moved its seat to the town of Leuven in 1835 where it changed its name to Catholic University of Leuven.

Craig served as president of the Philosophy of Time Society from 1999 to 2006. [43] [44] He helped revitalize the Evangelical Philosophical Society and served as its president from 1996 to 2005. [1]

The Philosophy of Time Society is an organization which grew out of a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar on the Philosophy of Time offered by George N. Schlesinger in 1991. The organization itself was formed in 1993. Its stated goal is "to promote the study of the philosophy of time from a broad analytic perspective, and to provide a forum as an affiliated group with the American Philosophical Association, to discuss the issues in and related to the philosophy of time."

The Evangelical Philosophical Society (EPS) is an organization devoted to the study of ethics, theology, and religion from an evangelical perspective. Membership is open to professional scholars and associate membership is available to laypersons and students. Since 2006, Paul Copan has been the president of the organization.

In the mid-2000s, [45] [46] Craig established the online Christian apologetics ministry ReasonableFaith.org. [8]

Philosophical and theological views

Kalam cosmological argument

Craig has written and spoken in defense of a version of the Cosmological Argument called the Kalam cosmological argument . [lower-alpha 1] [48] [49] While the Kalam originated in medieval Islamic philosophy, Craig added appeals to scientific and philosophical ideas in the argument's defense. [1] Craig's work has resulted in contemporary interest in the argument, and in cosmological arguments in general. [50] [51] [52]

Craig formulates his version of the argument as follows:

  1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence. [lower-alpha 2]
  2. The universe began to exist.
  3. Therefore, the universe has a cause of its existence." [47] [50]

Craig's defense of the argument mainly focuses on the second premise, [54] [55] and he offers several arguments to support it. For example, Craig appeals to Hilbert's example of an infinite hotel to argue that actually infinite collections are impossible, and thus the past is finite and has a beginning. [56] [57] [58] And, in another argument, Craig says that the series of events in time is formed by a process in which each moment is added to history in succession. According to Craig, this process can never produce an actually infinite collection of events, but instead produces only a potentially infinite one. On this basis, he argues that the past is finite and has a beginning. [59] [60] [50]

Craig also appeals to various physical theories to support the argument's second premise, such as the standard Big Bang model of cosmic origins and certain implications of the second law of thermodynamics. [50] [1] [56]

The Kalam argument concludes that the universe had a cause, but Craig further argues that the cause must be a person. [47] First, he says that the cause of the universe is outside of time, as it causes the beginning of time itself. He then says that causes that are outside of time only have eternal effects if they are non-personal. Given his acceptance of the Kalam argument for a non-eternal universe, he concludes that the cause of the universe must be personal. [61]

Craig's arguments to support the Kalam argument have been discussed and debated by a variety of commentators [62] [63] including philosophers Adolf Grünbaum, [64] Quentin Smith, [65] [66] Wes Morriston, [67] [68] and Graham Oppy. [69]


Craig is a proponent of Molinism, an idea first formulated by the Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina according to which God possesses foreknowledge of which free actions each person would perform under every possible circumstance, a kind of knowledge that is sometimes termed "middle knowledge." [70] Molinists such as Craig appeal to this idea to reconcile the perceived conflict between God's providence and foreknowledge with human free will. The idea is that, by relying on middle knowledge, God does not interfere with anyone's free will, instead choosing which circumstances to actualize given a complete understanding of how people will freely choose to act in response. [71] Craig also appeals to Molinism in his discussions of the inspiration of scripture, Christian exclusivism, the perseverance of the Saints, and missionary evangelism. [72]

Divine eternity

Craig believes that "God is timeless without creation and temporal since creation." [73] [74] [75] [76] After examining arguments aimed at showing either that God is timeless or omnitemporal, [73] [75] [77] Craig defends the coherence of a timeless and personal being, but he also believes the arguments for divine timelessness are unsound or inconclusive and so instead argues in favor of divine temporality. [73] [75] [78] Craig believes that acceptance of a B-theory of time would moot these arguments, and thus concludes that a theory of time is a watershed issue for a believer’s doctrine of divine eternity. [79] As such, Craig defends his adoption of A-Theory of time in The Tensed Theory of Time (2000), [80] [81] [82] and critiques arguments for the B-Theory of time in The Tenseless Theory of Time. [83] According to philosopher Quentin Smith, "Craig has made some important and positive contributions to the tensed theory of time in general." [84]

Resurrection of Jesus

Craig has written two volumes arguing for the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus (1985) [13] [85] and Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus (3rd ed., 2002). [86] [87] The first describes the history of the discussion, including David Hume's arguments against the identification of miracles, [13] [85] while the second is an exegetical study of the New Testament material pertinent to the resurrection. [87] Craig believes that there was a literal resurrection, [88] rejecting some alternative explanations such as Gerd Lüdemann's hallucination hypothesis. [89] Craig Morriston specifically challenges Craig's arguments relating to this subject. [90]

Divine aseity

Stating that the Quine–Putnam indispensability thesis is the chief support of Platonism, [91] Craig criticizes Willard Van Orman Quine's naturalized epistemology and confirmational holism, and also rejects the metaontological criterion of ontological commitment. [92] This is ultimately in support of his belief in divine aseity or self-existence. [93] [ verification needed ] [94] Craig rejects the view that God creates abstract objects [95] and defends nominalistic perspectives on abstract objects. [96]

Craig favors a neutral logic, according to which the formal quantifiers of first-order logic, as well as the informal quantifiers of ordinary language, are not ontologically committing. [97] [94] He also advocates a deflationary theory of reference, [94] according to which referring is a speech act rather than a word-world relation, so that singular terms may be used in true sentences without commitment to corresponding objects in the world. [98] If one stipulates that first-order quantifiers are being used as devices of ontological commitment, then Craig adverts to fictionalism, [94] in particular pretense theory, [94] according to which statements about abstract objects are expressions of make-believe, imagined to be true, though literally false. [99]

Other views

Craig is a critic of metaphysical naturalism, [100] New Atheism, [101] and prosperity theology, [102] as well as a defender of Reformed epistemology. [103] He also states that a confessing Christian should not engage in homosexual acts. [104] [105] [106] [107] Craig maintains that the theory of evolution is compatible with Christianity. [108] [109] Craig is not convinced that the "current evolutionary paradigm is entirely adequate" to explain the emergence of biological complexity, and he is inclined to think that God had to periodically intervene to produce this effect. [110] [111] He is a fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture [112] and was a fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design. [113]

As a divine command theorist, Craig believes God had the moral right to command the killing of the Canaanites if they refused to leave their land, as depicted in the Book of Deuteronomy. [114] [115] This has led to some controversy, as seen in a critique by Wes Morriston. [116] [117] The prominent atheist Richard Dawkins has repeatedly refused to debate Craig, and has given what he calls Craig's defense of genocide as one of his reasons. [118] [119]

Craig has also proposed an Apollinarian Christology in which the divine logos stands in for the human soul of Christ and completes his human nature. [120]


According to Nathan Schneider, "[many] professional philosophers know about him only vaguely, but in the field of philosophy of religion, [Craig's] books and articles are among the most cited". [1] Fellow philosopher Quentin Smith writes that "William Lane Craig is one the leading philosophers of religion and one of the leading philosophers of time." [74]

In apologetics cicles Craig is considerably well-known, and he's widely regarded as an extremely talented debater. With respect to his debating skills, Sam Harris once described Craig as “the one Christian Apologist who seems to have put the fear of God into many of my fellow atheists“. [1]

Selected publications

See also


  1. Craig's own version of the Kalām argument is succinct: 1. 'Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.' 2. 'The universe began to exist,' i.e., the temporal regress of events is finite. 3. 'Therefore the universe has a cause of its existence' Following Ghazali, Craig argues that this cause must be a personal will. Nothing but the arbitrary choice of a free agent could account for the fact that the world was created at one time rather than another, or (if time comes into being with the first event) for the fact that the first event did not have a predecessor. [47]
  2. In his later work, Craig prefers to use a more specific version of the first premise; as he puts it: "Suffice it to say that I now prefer to reformulate the causal premise: 'If the universe began to exist, then the universe has a cause of its beginning.' [53] [ full citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

A cosmological argument, in natural theology and natural philosophy, is an argument in which the existence of a unique being, generally seen as some kind of god, is deduced or inferred from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or finitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it. It is traditionally known as an argument from universal causation, an argument from first cause, or the causal argument, and is more precisely a cosmogonical argument. Whichever term is employed, there are three basic variants of the argument, each with subtle yet important distinctions: the arguments from in causa (causality), in esse (essentiality), and in fieri (becoming).

Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.

Omniscience knowing, or capacity to know, everything that there is to know

Omniscience is the capacity to know everything. In monotheistic religions, such as Sikhism and the Abrahamic religions, this is an attribute of God. In Jainism, omniscience is an attribute that any individual can eventually attain. In Buddhism, there are differing beliefs about omniscience among different schools.

Alvin Plantinga American Christian philosopher

Alvin Carl Plantinga is an American analytic philosopher who works primarily in the fields of philosophy of religion, epistemology, and logic.

The Christological argument for the existence of God, which exists in several forms, holds that if certain claims about Jesus are valid, one should accept that God exists. There are three main threads; the argument from the wisdom of Jesus, the argument from the claims of Jesus as son of God and the argument from the resurrection.

Open theism, also known as openness theology and free will theism, is a theological movement that has developed within evangelical and post-evangelical Protestant Christianity as a response to ideas related to the synthesis of Greek philosophy and Christian theology. It is typically advanced as a biblically motivated and philosophically consistent theology of human and divine freedom, with an emphasis on what this means for the content of God's foreknowledge and exercise of God's power. Roger E. Olson said that open theism triggered the "most significant controversy about the doctrine of God in evangelical thought" in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Apologetics is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse. Early Christian writers who defended their beliefs against critics and recommended their faith to outsiders were called Christian apologists. In 21st-century usage, apologetics is often identified with debates over religion and theology.

Richard Swinburne British philosopher of religion

Richard Granville Swinburne is a British philosopher. He is an Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford. Over the last 50 years Swinburne has been an influential proponent of philosophical arguments for the existence of God. His philosophical contributions are primarily in the philosophy of religion and philosophy of science. He aroused much discussion with his early work in the philosophy of religion, a trilogy of books consisting of The Coherence of Theism, The Existence of God, and Faith and Reason.

The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.

Molinism theological school which attempts to reconcile the providence of God with human free will

Molinism, named after 16th-century Spanish Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina, is a view about the providence of God in light of human free will. Prominent contemporary Molinists are William Lane Craig, Alvin Plantinga, Alfred Freddoso, Thomas Flint, Kenneth Keathley, and David Armstrong. The view affirms a strong notion of God's control of events in the world, alongside an equally firm view of human freedom.

The Kalām cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God; named for the kalam, it was popularized by William Lane Craig in his The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979).

Wolfhart Pannenberg German theologian

Wolfhart Pannenberg was a German Lutheran theologian. He has made a number of significant contributions to modern theology, including his concept of history as a form of revelation centered on the resurrection of Christ, which has been widely debated in both Protestant and Catholic theology, as well as by non-Christian thinkers.

In philosophy, theophysics is an approach to cosmology that attempts to reconcile physical cosmology and religious cosmology. It is related to physicotheology, the difference between them being that the aim of physicotheology is to derive theology from physics, whereas that of theophysics is to unify physics and theology.

Vision theory of Jesus appearances

The vision theory or vision hypothesis is a term used to cover a range of theories that question the physical resurrection of Jesus, and suggest that sightings of a risen Jesus were visionary experiences. It was first formulated by David Friedrich Strauss, and proposed in several forms by mainstream scholarship, including Helmut Koester, Géza Vermes, and Larry Hurtado, and members of the Jesus Seminar such as Gerd Lüdemann.

Richard Carrier American historian and philosopher

Richard Cevantis Carrier is an American author and activist, whose work focuses on empiricism, atheism, and the historicity of Jesus. A long-time contributor to philosophical web sites, including The Secular Web and Freethought Blogs, Carrier has published a number of books and articles on philosophy and religion in classical antiquity, discussing the development of early Christianity from a skeptical viewpoint, and concerning religion and morality in the modern world. He has publicly debated a number of religious scholars on the historical basis of the Bible and Christianity. He is a prominent advocate of the theory that Jesus did not exist, which he has argued in a number of his works. However, Carrier's methodology and conclusions in this field have proven controversial.

Graham Robert Oppy is an Australian philosopher whose main area of research is the philosophy of religion. He currently holds the posts of Professor of Philosophy and Associate Dean of Research at Monash University and serves as CEO of the Australasian Association of Philosophy, Chief Editor of the Australasian Philosophical Review, Associate Editor of the Australasian Journal of Philosophy, and serves on the editorial boards of Philo, Philosopher's Compass, Religious Studies, and Sophia. He was elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities in 2009.

This is a list of articles in philosophy of religion.

<i>The Kalām Cosmological Argument</i> book by William Lane Craig

The Kalām Cosmological Argument is a 1979 book by William Lane Craig, in which the author offers a contemporary defense of the Kalām cosmological argument and purports to establish the existence of God based upon the alleged metaphysical impossibility of an infinite regress of past events. According to Craig, given that an infinite temporal regress is metaphysically impossible and that everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence. In a further analysis Craig discloses that this cause is a personal creator who changelessly and independently willed the beginning of the universe.

Religious epistemology as a broad label covers any approach to epistemological questions from a religious perspective, or attempts to understand the epistemological issues that come from religious belief. The questions which epistemologists may ask about any particular belief also apply to religious beliefs and propositions: whether they seem rational, justified, warranted, reasonable, based on evidence and so on. Religious views also influence epistemological theories, such as in the case of Reformed epistemology.

The Blackwell Companion to Science and Christianity is a reference work in science and religion, edited by J.B. Stump and Alan G. Padgett, and published by Wiley-Blackwell in 2012. It contains 54 new essays written by an international list of 55 authors, many of them leading scholars in the discipline of science and religion, and others new or up-and-coming voices in the field. The editors claim, "We are seeking to introduce and advance serious thinking and talking about science and Christianity, particularly as they interconnect. We are reflecting on the work of scientists and theologians, trying to find points of contact and points of tension which help to illuminate these practices and doctrines in clear, scholarly light." The book has received positive reviews in Choice, Reference Reviews, Themelios and Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith. The article by Sean M. Carroll generated significant attention when it was discussed on the Huffington Post.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Schneider, Nathan (July 1, 2013). "The New Theist: How William Lane Craig Became Christian Philosophy's Boldest Apostle". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  2. Craig & Carroll 2016, p. 102.
  3. 1 2 3 Craig, William Lane (August 23, 2011). "Dr. Craig's Favorite Philosopher, Debate, and Books". Reasonable Faith (podcast). Interviewed by Harris, Kevin. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  4. Alvarez 2013, p. 238.
  5. Roach, David (September 8, 2014). "Theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg Dies". Baptist Press. Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  6. Schneider, Nathan (1 July 2013). "The New Theist". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 11 June 2019. The result is a person [Craig] ... who cannot only hold his own against fellow analytic philosophers...
  7. Creel 2014, p. 205.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Murashko, Alex (5 February 2014). "Leading Apologist William Lane Craig to Join Houston Baptist U's School of Christian Thought Faculty". The Christian Post. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  9. Reichenbach, Bruce. "Cosmological Argument". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University. Retrieved 12 June 2019. In his widely discussed writings William Lane Craig marshals multidisciplinary evidence for the truth of the premises found in the kalām argument.... [much more discussion follows]
  10. Sun, Eryn (30 Sep 2011). "Dawkins defends decision not to debate apologist William Lane Craig". Christianity Today. Retrieved 12 June 2019. ...[Craig is the] the leading Christian apologist, famous for his revival of the Kalam cosmological argument which asserts that God caused the universe to first exist.
  11. Horn, Trent (17 July 2013). "New Support for the Cosmological Argument". catholic.com. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Although the argument fell into relatively obscurity after it was promoted in the Middle Ages, it received new life through William Lane Craig’s 1979 book The Kalam Cosmological Argument. Craig has become the argument’s leading proponent, and thanks to his famous debates with atheists that end up on YouTube, the kalam argument has become well-known and is vigorously dissected by critics.
  12. Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 212.
  13. 1 2 3 Habermas 1988.
  14. Craig 2016.
  15. McNabb, Tyler Dalton. "Review of God Over All: Divine Aseity and the Challenge of Platonism by William Lane Craig". Journal of Biblical and Theological Studies. ISSN   2572-2832.
  16. Premier. "Unbelievable? 5 Jul 2011 - William Lane Craig vs AC Grayling debate on God & Evil: Tuesday 05 July 2011 2:30:00 am". Premier Christian Radio.
  17. Craig, William Lane. "Does the Problem of Material Constitution Illuminate the Doctrine of the Trinity?" . Retrieved 10 July 2019. I am the second child of Mallory and Doris Craig...
  18. Craig, William Lane (February 5, 2018). "Questions on Certainty and Debate" . Retrieved 22 July 2019. But that doesn't undermine my knowledge that I was born in Peoria, Illinois and raised in Keokuk, Iowa.
  19. Craig, William Lane. "Debating". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  20. "Records and History – Original Oratory". Illinois High School Association. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  21. 1 2 "William Lane Craig". La Mirada, California: Biola University. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  22. "William Lane Craig and Sean McDowell". Fervr. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  23. Craig, William Lane (November 5, 2007). "Faith and Doubt" . Retrieved 10 July 2019. To speak personally, I myself was not raised in an evangelical home, but I became a Christian my third year of high school.
  24. 1 2 3 4 "Dr. William Lane Craig Named Alumnus of the Year". Wheaton, Illinois: Wheaton College. May 7, 2014. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  25. 1 2 Schneider, Nathan (July 12, 2013). "7 Habits of a Highly Effective Philosopher". Killing the Buddha. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  26. 1 2 Craig, William Lane. "Double Doctorates". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  27. "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  28. 1 2 "William Lane Craig". calvin.edu. Calvin College. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  29. Cramer, David C. "John Hick (1922—2012)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN   2161-0002 . Retrieved 12 June 2019. Many of [Hick's] former students are now established Christian philosophers in their own right, including ... William Lane Craig...
  30. "The Cadbury Lectures 2015: God Over All Back to 'The Cadbury lectures' 16 March - 20 March 2015". University of Birmingham. Retrieved 22 July 2019. Hosted by the John Hick Centre for Philosophy of Religion. Our theme for 2015 is 'God Over All' , and will consist of a series of lectures given by Professor William Lane Craig (Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University; PhD University of Birmingham 1977).
  31. 1 2 "Humboldt Network: Prof. Dr. William L. Craig". Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung/Foundation. Retrieved 16 July 2019. Host(s) and host institute(s) during Humboldt sponsorship: Prof. Dr. Wolfhart Pannenberg, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München; Start of first sponsorship: 01.01.1978
  32. Sanders, Fred (18 September 2014). "The Strange Legacy of Theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Accordingly, Pannenberg marshaled the available evidence and argued that the most rational interpretation of it is that Christ actually rose from the dead. That a high-level German theologian would defend Christ’s resurrection as a knowable fact was headline news in the religious press of the 1970s. It’s no surprise, then, that Pannenberg’s emphasis on the historical reliability of the Resurrection attracted students like apologist William Lane Craig.
  33. "The historical argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist controversy". WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  34. Pearson, Samuel C. (Oct 1988). "Book Review: The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist Controversy. William L. Craig". The Journal of Religion. The University of Chicago Press. 68 (4): 595. In this large study, which apparently grew out of a dissertation prepared under the supervision of Wolfhart Pannenberg...
  35. "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Craig earned master’s degrees from TEDS in philosophy of religion, as well as in church history and the history of Christian thought. He taught philosophy of religion at TEDS from 1980–1986.
  36. 1 2 Craig, William Lane (April 5, 2010). "#155 Debating". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 31 July 2019. But in 1982, with my doctoral studies behind me, I received an invitation from a Canadian Christian group to debate the atheist philosopher Kai Nielsen at the University of Calgary.
  37. Stafforini, Pablo (August 18, 2016). "William Lane Craig: A Complete List of Debates". Pablo's Miscellany. Pablo Stafforini. Archived from the original on June 11, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  38. 1 2 Craig, William Lane (2000). "Author Bio". The Only Wise God: The Compatibility of Divine Foreknowledge & Human Freedom (Reprint edition (January 2000) ed.). Wipf and Stock. ISBN   978-1579103163. From 1980 to 1986 he taught philosophy of religion at Trinity, during which time he and Jan started their family. In 1987 they moved to Brussels, Belgium, where Dr. Craig pursued research at the University of Louvain until 1994.
  39. "Contributors". International Philosophical Quarterly. Fordham University Press. 33: 142. 1993. William Lane Craig is a visiting scholar at the Inst. Supérieur de Philosophie at the Catholic Univ. of Louvain (B-3000 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium), PhD from Univ. of Birmingham (Eng.) and DTh from the Univ. of Munich, he taught at Westmont College and is a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Siftung. Interested in Philosophy of Religion and of Space and Time, he includes in his publications the books The Kalam Cosmological Argument and Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom.
  40. 1 2 Kristof, Nicholas (21 Dec 2018). "Professor, Was Jesus Really Born to a Virgin?". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. p. SR23. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Here’s my interview of William Lane Craig, professor of philosophy at Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University.
  41. Trinity International University (July 22, 2016). "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Buffalo Grove Countryside. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  42. Wu, Joanna (Spring 2017). "William Lane Craig Named in Biola's First Endowed Chair". Biola Magazine. La Mirada, California: Biola University. p. 15. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  43. Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 213.
  44. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 74:2. November 2000. p. 162.
  45. "Reasonable Faith Inc". Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  46. Craig, William Lane; Harris, Kevin (March 3, 2019). "Dr Craig's Interview in the New York Times". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 5 August 2019. That's one of the reasons we founded Reasonable Faith over ten years ago
  47. 1 2 3 Wainwright 1982, p. 328.
  48. Cowan & Spiegel 2009, pp. 268–269; Jackson 2014, p. 19; Peterson et al. 2013, pp. 86–89; Reichenbach 2017; Williams 2013, p. 89.
  49. "Who's Who: Modern Authors: William Lane Craig (Entry 2)". Philosophy of Religion.info. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  50. 1 2 3 4 Reichenbach 2019.
  51. Smith 2007, p. 183.
  52. Oppy 2006, p. 137.
  53. Craig 2017, p. 302.
  54. Copan 2017, p. 4.
  55. Le Poidevin, Robin (2003). Arguing for Atheism: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. Routledge. ISBN   9781134871117.
  56. 1 2 Wainwright 1982, p. 329.
  57. Moreland 2003.
  58. Craig & Sinclair 2009, p. 103.
  59. Wainwright 1982, p. 333.
  60. Craig & Sinclair 2009, p. 117.
  61. Morriston 2000.
  62. Quinn, Philip I. (2003). "God, Existence Of". In van Huyssteen, J Wentzel Vrede (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Thomson-Gale. pp. 381–382. ISBN   9780028657042.
  63. McGrath, Alister E. (2009). Science and Religion: A New Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN   9781405187909. This form of the kalam argument has been widely debated in recent years. One of its most signficant defenders has been William Lane Craig...
  64. Grünbaum, Adolf (1994). "Some Comments on William Craig's "Creation and Big Bang Cosmology"". Philosophia Naturalis. 31 (2): 225–236.
  65. Smith, Quentin (2007). "Kalam cosmological arguments for atheism". In Martin, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. pp. 192–194.
  66. Smith 2007.
  67. Morriston 2013.
  68. Morriston 2018.
  69. Oppy 2006, pp. 137-153.
  70. Perzyk 2013, p. 755.
  71. Perzyk 2013, p. 755-756.
  72. Perzyk 2013, p. 765.
  73. 1 2 3 Quarum, Merrit (2003). "Review: Time and Eternity: Exploring God's Relationship to Time". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. 46 (4): 746–749.
  74. 1 2 Ganssle, Gregory E. "God and Time". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN   2161-0002.
  75. 1 2 3 Helm, Paul (2014). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Eternity". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University (Spring 2014 Edition). ISSN   1095-5054 . Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  76. Helm 2011, pp. 220ff.
  77. Craig 2000c.
  78. Craig 1996.
  79. Craig 2001c, p. 115.
  80. Craig, William Lane (2000). The Tensed Theory of Time: A Critical Examination. ISBN   978-0792366348.
  81. Dyke, Heather (2002). "Review of The Tensed Theory of Time". International Philosophical Quarterly. 42 (3): 404–406. doi:10.5840/ipq200242331.
  82. Copan, Paul (2001). "Reviewed Work: The Tensed Theory of Time: A Critical Examination by William Lane Craig". The Review of Metaphysics. 55 (2): 384–385.
  83. Copan, Paul (2001). "Reviewed Work: The Tenseless Theory of Time: A Critical Examination by William Lane Craig". The Review of Metaphysics. 55 (2): 386–388.
  84. Smith, Quentin (1999). "The "Sentence-Type Version" of the Tenseless Theory of Time". Synthese. 119 (3): 233–251. doi:10.1023/A:1005130104563.
  85. 1 2 Craig 1985b.
  86. Habermas, Gary R. (2005). "Resurrection Research From 1975 to the Present: What are Critical Scholars Saying?". Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus. 3 (2): 135–153. doi:10.1177/1476869005058192.
  87. 1 2 Craig 1989.
  88. Craig 2008, p. 360.
  89. Craig, William Lane. "Visions of Jesus: A Critical Assessment of Gerd Lüdemann's Hallucination Hypothesis". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  90. Law 2011.
  91. Liggins 2008.
  92. Craig, William Lane (October 28, 2012). "Can We Refer to Things That Are Not Present?". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on July 14, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  93. Craig 2014.
  94. 1 2 3 4 5 Oppy, Graham (30 May 2017). "God Over All: Divine Aseity and the Challenge of Platonism: Reviewed by Graham Oppy, Monash University". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. ISSN   1538-1617 . Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  95. Moreland & Craig 2003, pp. 506–507.
  96. Craig 2012a.
  97. Craig 2012b.
  98. Båve 2009.
  99. Nichols & Stich 1999.
  100. Craig & Moreland 2000.
  101. Copan & Craig 2009.
  102. Craig, William Lane (March 28, 2010). "Lightning Strikes Again". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  103. "Religious Epistemology MP3 Audio by William Lane Craig". Apologetics 315. December 30, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  104. Craig 2003, pp. 133.
  105. Zaimov, Stoyan (April 9, 2013). "Christian Apologist Says Church 'Losing Battle' Against Hate Label for Homosexuality Stance". The Christian Post. Retrieved September 28, 2018. What you shouldn't be is a confessing Christian and a practicing homosexual.
  106. Craig, William Lane. "A Christian Perspective on Homosexuality". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2018. So how do you find out what God thinks? The Christian says, you look in the Bible. And the Bible tells us that God forbids homosexual acts. Therefore, they are wrong.
  107. Craig, William Lane (May 19, 2008). "Christian Homosexuals?". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  108. Stewart 2007.
  109. Craig, William Lane (February 20, 2012). "Evolutionary Theory and Theism". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  110. Craig, William Lane (2009). "William Lane Craig's View on Creation and Evolution". YouTube. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  111. "Evolutionary Creationism and the Image of God in Mankind". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved June 25, 2016. Evolutionary creationism is...the view that the current evolutionary paradigm is entirely adequate, so that the evolution of presently observed biological complexity requires no causal input from God. ... I’m not convinced that evolutionary creationism is true. It seems to me that so-called progressive creationism fits the evidence quite nicely. Progressive creationism suggests that God intervenes periodically to bring about miraculously new forms of life and then allows evolutionary change to take place with respect to those life forms.
  112. "William Lane Craig". Discovery Institute. Archived from the original on September 1, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  113. "Society Fellows". International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
  114. Copan & Flannagan 2014, pp. 81–82; Howson 2011, p. 11.
  115. Craig, William Lane (August 8, 2011). "The 'Slaughter' of the Canaanites Re-visited". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  116. Morriston 2012.
  117. Morriston 2009.
  118. Dawkins, Richard (October 20, 2011). "Why I Refuse to Debate with William Lane Craig". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  119. Came, Daniel (October 22, 2011). "Richard Dawkins's Refusal to Debate Is Cynical and Anti-Intellectualist". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  120. Moreland & Craig 2003, p. 608.


Alvarez, Daniel R. (2013). "A Critique of Wolfhart Pannenberg's Scientific Theology". Theology and Science. 11 (3): 224–250. doi:10.1080/14746700.2013.809950. ISSN   1474-6719.
Båve, Arvid (2009). "A Deflationary Theory of Reference". Synthese. 169 (1): 51–73. doi:10.1007/s11229-008-9336-4. ISSN   1573-0964.
Copan, Paul; Craig, William Lane, eds. (2009). Contending with Christianity's Critics: Answering New Atheists & Other Objectors. Nashville, Tennessee: B&H Academic. ISBN   978-0-8054-4936-5.
Copan, Paul; Flannagan, Matthew (2014). Did God Really Command Genocide? Coming to Terms with the Justice of God. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books. ISBN   978-0-8010-1622-6.
Cowan, Steven B.; Spiegel, James S. (2009). The Love of Wisdom: A Christian Introduction to Philosophy. Nashville, Tennessee: B&H Academic. ISBN   978-0-8054-4770-5.

 ———  (1985b). The Historial Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy. E. Mellen Press. ISBN   0889468117.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)