Philosophical schools of thought and philosophical movements.
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will?
A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, discipline, belief, social movement, economics, cultural movement, or art movement.
A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. Major philosophical movements are often characterized with reference to the nation, language, or historical era in which they arose.
|Index: (A–C) (D–H) (I–Q) (R–Z)|
|Philosophers: (A–C) (D–H) (I–Q) (R–Z)|
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Absurdism - Actual idealism - Actualism - Advaita Vedanta - Aesthetic Realism - Aesthetics - African philosophy - Agential realism - Agnosticism - American philosophy - Anarchy - Animism - Antinatalism - Anti-realism - Antireductionism - Analytic philosophy - Anarchism - Ancient philosophy - Anthropocentrism - Anomalous monism - Applied ethics - Aristotelianism - Asceticism - Authoritarianism - Averroism - Avicennism - Axiology
In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any in a purposeless, meaningless or chaotic and irrational universe. The universe and the human mind do not each separately cause the Absurd, but rather, the Absurd arises by the contradictory nature of the two existing simultaneously.
Actual idealism was a form of idealism, developed by Giovanni Gentile, that grew into a 'grounded' idealism, contrasting the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, and the absolute idealism of G. W. F. Hegel. To Gentile, who considered himself the "philosopher of Fascism," actualism was the sole remedy to philosophically preserving free agency, by making the act of thinking self-creative and, therefore, without any contingency and not in the potency of any other fact.
In contemporary analytic philosophy, actualism is the view that everything there is is actual. Another phrasing of the thesis is that the domain of unrestricted quantification ranges over all and only actual existents.
Ba'athism - Bioconservatism - Bioethics - Biolibertarianism - Biosophy - Buddhist philosophy -
Ba'athism is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government. The ideology is officially based on the theories of the Syrian intellectuals Michel Aflaq, Zaki al-Arsuzi and Salah al-Din al-Bitar.
Bioconservatism is a stance of hesitancy and skepticism regarding radical technological advances, especially those that seek to modify or enhance the human condition. Bioconservatism is characterized by a belief that technological trends in today's society risk compromising human dignity, and by opposition to movements and technologies including transhumanism, human genetic modification, "strong" artificial intelligence, and the technological singularity. Many bioconservatives also oppose the use of technologies such as life extension and preimplantation genetic screening.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine. It is also moral discernment as it relates to medical policy and practice. Bioethics are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine and medical ethics, politics, law, theology and philosophy. It includes the study of values relating to primary care and other branches of medicine. Ethics also relates to many other sciences outside the realm of biological sciences.
Calvinism - Capitalism - Cartesianism - Categorical imperative - Chaos theory - Charvaka - Chinese naturalism - Chinese philosophy - Christian existentialism - Christian humanism - Christian philosophy - Collectivism - Cognitivism - Communitarianism - Compatibilism and incompatibilism - Confirmation holism - Confucianism - Consequentialism - Conservatism - Constructivist epistemology - Continental philosophy - Cosmopolitanism - Critical rationalism - Critical realism - Cynicism - Czech philosophy
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system and competitive markets. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investments are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.
The Cartesian Method is the philosophical and scientific system of René Descartes and its subsequent development by other seventeenth century thinkers, most notably François Poullain de la Barre, Nicolas Malebranche and Baruch Spinoza. Descartes is often regarded as the first thinker to emphasize the use of reason to develop the natural sciences. For him, the philosophy was a thinking system that embodied all knowledge, and expressed it in this way:
Danish philosophy - Daoism - Deconstruction - Deism - Denialism - Deontology - Determinism - Dialectic - Dialectical materialism - Didacticism - Digital philosophy - Discordianism - Dualistic cosmology - Dvaita
Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy.
Originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida, deconstruction is an approach to understanding the relationship between text and meaning. Derrida's approach consisted of conducting readings of texts looking for things that run counter to the intended meaning or structural unity of a particular text. The purpose of deconstruction is to show that the usage of language in a given text, and language as a whole, are irreducibly complex, unstable, or impossible. Throughout his readings, Derrida hoped to show deconstruction at work.
Deism is the philosophical belief which posits that although God exists as the uncaused First Cause – ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe – God does not interact directly with that subsequently created world. Equivalently, deism can also be defined as the view which asserts God's existence as the cause of all things, and admits its perfection but rejects divine revelation or direct intervention of God in the universe by miracles. It also rejects revelation as a source of religious knowledge and asserts that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator or absolute principle of the universe.
Ecocentrism - Ecumenism - Egalitarianism - Egocentrism - Eliminative materialism - Empiricism - Ephesian school - Epiphenomenalism - Epicureanism - Epistemological nihilism - Epistemology - Esotericism - Ethics - Eudaimonism - Existentialism - Externalism
Feminist philosophy - Filial piety - Foundationalism - Free will - Fundamentalism
German idealism - German philosophy - Greek philosophy
Hedonism - Hegelianism - Hermeticism - Heterophenomenology - Hindu philosophy - Historical materialism - Historicism - Holism - Hongaku - Humanism - Humanistic naturalism
Idealism - Identityism - Ideological criticism - Ignosticism - Illegalism - Illuminationism - Individualism - Indian logic - Indian philosophy - Indonesian philosophy - Induction / Inductionism - Informal logic - Innatism - Instrumental rationality - Instrumentalism - Interactionism (philosophy of mind) - Internalism and externalism - Intuitionism - Iranian philosophy - Irrealism - Islamic ethics - Islamic philosophy
Japanese philosophy - Jewish philosophy - Juche - Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800–1400) - Just war theory
Kantianism - Korean philosophy
Legalism - Leibnizianism - Liberalism - Libertarianism (metaphysics) - Libertarianism - Logic / Informal logic - Logical atomism - Logical positivism - Logicians - Logicism - Logic in China - Logic in Islamic philosophy -
Maoism - Marxism - Marxist philosophy of nature - Materialism - Mathematicism - Medical ethics - Medieval philosophy - Medievalism - Mentalism - Mereological nihilism - Meta-philosophy - Metaphysics - Meta-ethics - Mimamsa - Mind-body dualism - Misology - Modernism - Modern Islamic philosophy - Mohism - Monism - Moral absolutism - Moral realism - Moral relativism - Moral skepticism - Mysticism -
Naïve realism - Naturalism - Neo-Confucianism - Neo-Hegelianism - Neo-Kantianism - Neoplatonism - Neopythagoreanism - Neo-Scholasticism - Neotaoism - Neuroethics - Neurophilosophy - Neurotheology - New realism - New Thought - Neutral monism - Nihilism - Nominalism - Nondualism - Non-philosophy - Negative utilitarianism - Nyaya
Objective idealism - Objectivism (Ayn Rand) - Occasionalism - Ontology - Ontotheology - Open individualism - Organicism
Pakistani philosophy - Pancritical rationalism - Panpsychism - 'Pataphysics - Perennial philosophy - Perfectionism - Peripatetic school - Personalism - Perspectivism - Pessimism - Phenomenalism - Phenomenology - Philosophical anthropology - Philosophical Satanism - Philosophy of archaeology - Philosophy of art - Philosophy of Arithmetic - Philosophy of artificial intelligence - Philosophy of action - Philosophy of biology - Philosophy of business - Philosophy of Common Sense - Philosophy of culture - Philosophy of color - The Philosophy of Chance - Philosophy of design - Philosophy of dialogue - Philosophy of eating - Philosophy of economics - Philosophy of education - Philosophy of engineering - Philosophy of environment - Philosophy of film - Philosophy of futility - Philosophy of geography - Philosophy of healthcare - Philosophy of history - Philosophy of information - Philosophy of language - Philosophy of logic - Philosophy of love - Philosophy of mathematics - Philosophy of mathematics education - Philosophy of mind - Philosophy of motion - Philosophy of music - Philosophy of nature - Philosophy of Natural Science - Philosophy of neuroscience - Philosophy of perception - Philosophy of philosophy - Philosophy of physics - Philosophy of psychology - Philosophy of psychiatry - Philosophy of religion - Philosophy of religious language - Philosophy of science - Philosophy of sex - Philosophy of self - Philosophy of social science - Philosophy of space and time - Philosophy of sport - Philosophy of statistics - Philosophy of thermal and statistical physics - Philosophy of war - Physicalism - Physical ontology - Platonic realism - Platonism - Pluralism - Political philosophy - Populism - Positivism - Postanalytic philosophy - Post-structuralism - Posthumanism - Post-materialism - Post-modernism - Postpositivism- Practical reason - Pragmatism - Praxis School - Presentism - Process philosophy - Progressivism - Property dualism - Pseudophilosophy - Psychological egoism - Pure practical reason - Pure reason - Pyrrhonian skepticism - Pythagoreanism
Quantum mysticism - Quietism
Raëlism - Rastafari - Rationalism - Realism - Reconstructivism - Reductionism - Reductive materialism - Reformational philosophy - Relationalism - Relativism - Relevance logic - Religious humanism - Religious philosophy - Reliabilism - Renaissance humanism - Romanian philosophy - Romanticism - Russian cosmism - Russian philosophy
Sabellianism - Sankhya - Scholasticism - Scientism - Secularism - Secular humanism - Semantic holism - Sensualism - Sexualism - Sexism - Shamanism - Sikhism - Simulism - Singularitarianism - Skepticism - Socialism - Social philosophy - Solipsism - Sophism - Spiritualism - Stoicism - Structuralism - Subjective idealism - Subjectivism - Sufi metaphysics - Śūnyatā - Supersessionism - Synoptic philosophy - Systems philosophy
Taoism - Teleology - Tetralemma - Thelema - Theology - Thomism - Traditionalist School - Transcendent theosophy (al-Hikmat al-Muta’liyah) - Transcendental idealism - Transcendentalism - Transcendental perspectivism - Transhumanism - Transmodernism - Type physicalism
Universalism - Utilitarian bioethics - Utilitarianism
Value pluralism - Value theory - Verificationism - Vienna Circle - Virtue ethics - Vitalism - Voluntaryism
Wahdat-ul-Wujood - Wahdat-ul-Shuhud - Western philosophy
Zen - Zoroastrianism - Zurvanism
In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett. The term was coined as an argument against a form of realism Dummett saw as 'colorless reductionism'.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments. Meta-ethics is one of the three branches of ethics generally studied by philosophers, the others being normative ethics and applied ethics.
This Index of ethics articles puts articles relevant to well-known ethical debates and decisions in one place - including practical problems long known in philosophy, and the more abstract subjects in law, politics, and some professions and sciences. It lists also those core concepts essential to understanding ethics as applied in various religions, some movements derived from religions, and religions discussed as if they were a theory of ethics making no special claim to divine status.
Epistemological idealism is a subjectivist position in epistemology that holds that what one knows about an object exists only in one's mind. It is opposed to epistemological realism.
Moral nihilism is the meta-ethical view that nothing is morally right or wrong.
In analytic philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism. In certain theologies, universalism is the quality ascribed to an entity whose existence is consistent throughout the universe, whose being is independent of and unconstrained by the events and conditions that compose the universe, such as entropy and physical locality.
A glossary of terms used in philosophy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to philosophy:
Secular ethics is a branch of moral philosophy in which ethics is based solely on human faculties such as logic, empathy, reason or moral intuition, and not derived from supernatural revelation or guidance—the source of ethics in many religions. Secular ethics refers to any ethical system that does not draw on the supernatural, and includes humanism, secularism and freethinking. A classical example of literature on secular ethics is the Kural text, authored by the ancient Tamil Indian philosopher Valluvar who lived during the 1st century BCE.
Robert Buford Pippin is an American philosopher. He is the Evelyn Stefansson Nef Distinguished Service Professor in the John U. Nef Committee on Social Thought, the Department of Philosophy, and the College at the University of Chicago.
Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It addresses the questions "What is knowledge?", "How is knowledge acquired?", "What do people know?", "How do we know what we know?", and "Why do we know what we know?". Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims.
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. Cosmology and ontology are traditional branches of metaphysics. It is concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world. Someone who studies metaphysics can be called either a "metaphysician" or a "metaphysicist".
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to metaphysics:
Raymond Brassier is a member of the philosophy faculty at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, known for his work in philosophical realism. He was formerly Research Fellow at the Centre for Research in Modern European Philosophy at Middlesex University, London, England.
Speculative realism is a movement in contemporary Continental-inspired philosophy that defines itself loosely in its stance of metaphysical realism against the dominant forms of post-Kantian philosophy.
Objectivity is a philosophical concept of being true independently from individual subjectivity caused by perception, emotions, or imagination. A proposition is considered to have objective truth when its truth conditions are met without bias caused by a sentient subject. Scientific objectivity refers to the ability to judge without partiality or external influence, sometimes used synonymously with neutrality.
This is a list of articles in philosophy of religion.
Paul Walter Franks, is a scholar, writer and professor of philosophy. He graduated with his PhD from Harvard University in 1993. Franks' dissertation, entitled "Kant and Hegel on the Esotericism of Philosophy", was supervised by Stanley Cavell and won the Emily and Charles Carrier Prize for a Dissertation in Moral Philosophy at Harvard University. He completed his B.A and M.A, in Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Balliol College, Oxford. Prior to this, Franks received his general education at the Royal Grammar School, Newcastle, and studied classical rabbinic texts at Gateshead Talmudical College.
The following is a list of the major events in the history of German idealism, along with related historical events.