Epistemological particularism

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Epistemological particularism is the belief that one can know something without knowing how one knows that thing. [1] By this understanding, one's knowledge is justified before one knows how such belief could be justified. Taking this as a philosophical approach, one would ask the question "What do we know?" before asking "How do we know?" The term appears in Roderick Chisholm's "The Problem of the Criterion", and in the work of his student, Ernest Sosa ("The Raft and the Pyramid: Coherence versus Foundations in the Theory of Knowledge"). Particularism is contrasted with Methodism, which answers the latter question before the former. Since the question "What do we know" implies that we know, particularism is considered fundamentally anti-skeptical, and was ridiculed by Kant in the Prolegomena .

Roderick Milton Chisholm was an American philosopher known for his work on epistemology, metaphysics, free will, value theory, and the philosophy of perception. He was often called "the philosopher's philosopher."

Ernest Sosa is an American philosopher primarily interested in epistemology. He is Board of Governors Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University since 2007, but spent most of his career at Brown University.

In the study of knowledge, Methodism refers to the epistemological approach where one asks "How do we know?" before "What do we know?" The term appears in Roderick Chisholm's "The Problem of the Criterion", and in the work of his student, Ernest Sosa. Methodism is contrasted with particularism, which answers the latter question before the former.

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References

  1. J.P. Moreland. Duhemian and Augustinian Science and the Crisis in Non-Empirical Knowledge (PDF). Retrieved January 14, 2009.