Pakistani philosophy

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M.A. Jinnah (middle) and Fatima Jinnah (3rd right), stands with the Muslim philosophers at the convention who presented the Idea of Pakistan, circa before 1947. Jinnah and Muslim League founders.jpg
M.A. Jinnah (middle) and Fatima Jinnah (3rd right), stands with the Muslim philosophers at the convention who presented the Idea of Pakistan, circa before 1947.

The Pakistani philosophy is the philosophical activity or the philosophical academic output both within Pakistan and abroad. [1] [2] It encompasses the history of philosophy in the state of Pakistan, and its relations with nature, science, logic, culture, religion, and politics since its establishment on August 1947. [3]

This article discusses topics related to the environment of Pakistan

Science and technology in Pakistan

Science and technology is a growing field in Pakistan and has played an important role in the country's development since its founding. Pakistan has a large pool of scientists, engineers, doctors, and technicians assuming an active role in science and technology. Liaquat Ali Khan the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, made various reforms to initiate improvement in higher education and scientific research. The real growth in science in Pakistan occurred after the establishment of the Higher education Commission in 2002 which supported science in a big way and also became the major sponsor of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman. The first IT policy and implementation strategy was approved under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, then Federal Minister of Science & technology, in August 2000 which laid the foundations of the development of this sector On the request of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, Intel initiated a nation wide programme to train school teachers in Information and Communication technologies in March 2002 which has led to the training of 220,000 school teachers in 70 districts and cities across Pakistan. A 15 year tax holiday was approved on the recommendation of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman which has resulted in growth of IT business from $ 30 million in 2001 to over $ 3 billion.The Pakistan Austria University of Applied Engineering (Fachhochschule) is now being established in Haripur Hazara under the Chairmanship of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman in which students will get degrees from several Austrian universities

Religion in Pakistan religions of Pakistan

The state religion in Pakistan is Islam, which is practiced by 96.28% of the population. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Pakistani constitution, which established a fundamental right of Pakistani citizens, irrespective of their religion, to equal rights. The remaining 4% practice Hinduism, Christianity, Sikhism and other religions.


Academically, the philosophical activities began in the universities and the thought organization founded by renowned philosopher Dr. M.M. Sharif in 1954. [1] In an editorial written by critic Bina Shah in Express Tribune in 2012, "the philosophical activities in Pakistan can nevertheless both reflects and shapes the collected Pakistani identity over the history of the nation." [4]

Bina Shah is a Pakistani writer, columnist and blogger living in Karachi.


When Pakistan gained independence there was only one department of philosophy in the country, at Government College Lahore. Now there are seven departments of philosophy at different Pakistani universities, and many Pakistani philosophers are doing research in diverse fields of philosophy.

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Philosophy The rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will?

Notable Pakastani philosophical organizations include The Pakistan Philosophical Congress, which was founded by M. M. Sharif, a pupil of G. E. Moore, in 1954[ citation needed ], and the Islamic Philosophical Association. In addition there are various smaller groups devoted to promoting philosophical study and research.

While philosophy in Pakistan has been greatly influenced by Western philosophy, it nonetheless retains strong elements of the tradition of Muslim philosophy. The Pakistani philosophy community includes adherents of all the major strands of contemporary western philosophy, including a significant number of Pakistani philosophers who are inclined towards more traditional, metaphysical, positions.

Western philosophy Philosophy of the Western world

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics such as Thales and Pythagoras, and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word philosophy itself originated from the Ancient Greek philosophía (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom".

Islamic philosophy Philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition

Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa, which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam, which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic theology.

Pakistani philosophers include: Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Alaudin Akhtar, Irfan Muhammad (KU), M M Sharif, Khalifa Abdul Hakeem, C A Qadir, Kazi A Kadir, Abdul Wahab Suri (KU), Ather Rasheed, Absar Ahmad, Intasar ul Haq, Waheed Ali Farooqi, B H Sidiquei, Sajid Ali, Abdul Khaliq, Naeem Ahmed, Abdul Hafeez, Muhammad Maroof, Mirza Ather Beig, Shahid Hossain, Fazlur Rehman, Shehzad Qaiser, Manzoor Ahmed, Ghazala Irfan, Javed Bhuto, Syed Zafarul Hasan, Robina Lodhi and Waqar Aslam.

Syed Zafarul Hasan Pakistani philosopher

Syed Zafarul Hasan was a prominent twentieth-century Muslim philosopher.

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Javed Iqbal (judge) British Indian

Senior Justice Javed Iqbal was a Pakistani philosopher and senior justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan. He was internationally known for his acclaimed publications on philosophy of law and modern Islamic philosophy in international and national journals.

This is a selective list of scholarly works related to Muhammad Iqbal, the poet-philosopher of the Indian subcontinent.

Manzoor Ahmad Philosopher and scholar

Manzoor Ahmed, DSc is a Pakistani scientist and philosopher of science. He is a professor of philosophy and is currently serving as rector of Usman Institute of Technology (UIT) in Karachi, Sindh Province. He has international prestige for publishing articles, books, and leading edge research on the field of Philosophy of science, particularly the philosophy of space and time.


Tamgha-i-Imtiaz, , is a state-organised honour of Pakistan. It is given to any civilian in Pakistan based on their achievements. While it is a civilian award, it can also be bestowed upon officers of the Pakistan Armed Forces and worn on their uniform. It can also be awarded to foreign citizens who have performed great service to Pakistan. It is awarded sometimes to the army martyrs by the President of Pakistan.

The Lahore Chamber of Commerce & Industry(LCCI) was established in 1923. It was established to serve and represent the interests of the business community in Lahore, Pakistan.

Abdul Khaliq was born in Lahore on 15 June 1935. He was Iqbal Professor and chairman of the Department of Philosophy at the University of the Punjab.

Mian Mohammad Sharif TI, best known as Professor M. M. Sharif, was an influential philosopher, clergyman, and college professor. He is noted for his notable work in analytical philosophy and pioneered the idea of Muslim philosophy. He wrote on this subject and his work was published in international philosophical journals.

Iqbal Academy Pakistan(Urdu:اقبال اکادمی پاکستان) is an institute whose purpose is to study, promote, and disseminate the teachings of the poet and philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal. It was established by the Government of Pakistan, through the Iqbal Academy Ordinance No. XXVI of 1962.

The Third Sharif provincial cabinet was formed by Shehbaz Sharif in 2013 to begin a new government following the 2013 Pakistani general election.


  1. 1 2 Richard V. DeSemet; et al. "Philosophical Activities in Pakistan:1947-1961". Work published by Pakistan Philosophical Congress. Work published by Pakistan Philosophical Congress. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  2. Kazmi, A. Akhtar. "Quantification and Opicity". CVRP. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  3. Ahmad, ed. by Naeem (1998). Philosophy in Pakistan. Washington, DC: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. ISBN   1-56518-108-5. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. Shah, Bina (November 21, 2012). "Philosophy of Pakistan". Express Tribune, 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2013.

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