National Assembly of Pakistan
ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان
|15th National Assembly of Pakistan|
New session started
|13 August 2018|
| Government Coalition (176)|
Supported By (7)
|Mixed member majoritarian (First past the post for 272 seats, 60 seats reserved for women and 10 seats reserved for minorities by proportional representation)|
|25 July 2018|
|12 October 2023 (Expected)|
|Parliament House, Islamabad|
The National Assembly or Aiwān-e-Zairīñ of Pākistān (Urdu : ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان, IPA: [ɛːʋɑːn-e zɛːrĩː ˌpɑːkɪst̪ɑːn], literally "Pakistan lower house") is the lower legislative house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the Senate of Pakistan (upper house). The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 336 members, before 25th amendment they used to be 342' who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 137 seats to obtain and preserve a majority.
Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation.
Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan; it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. New session of National Assembly was started from March 2008. On 17 March 2013, 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution.2013 Pakistani general election (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on 11 May 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on 1 June 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 upon completing its 5 year term under Article 52 of the constitution. The 15th National Assembly of Pakistan took their oath on 13 August 2018.
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The first session of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was held on 10 August 1947 at Sindh Assembly Building, in Karachi. On 11 August 1947, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was elected unanimously as the President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the National Flag was formally approved by the Assembly.
... you are now a sovereign legislative body and you have got all the powers. It, therefore, places on you the gravest responsibility as to how you should take your decisions.— Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in his presidential address to the First Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11 August 1947
The Constitution, which was passed unanimously by the National Assembly in April 1973, provides a federal parliamentary system of government, with the President as the ceremonial head of the state and an elected Prime Minister as the head of the government. Under Article 50 of the Constitution the federal legislature is the bicameral Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), which comprises the President and the two Houses, the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly, Pakistan's sovereign legislative body, makes laws for the federation under powers spelled out in the federal legislative List and also for subjects in the concurrent List, as given in the fourth schedule of the Constitution. Through debates, adjournment motions, question hour, and standing committees, the National Assembly keeps a check on the government. It ensures that the government functions within the parameters set out in the Constitution, and does not violate the people's fundamental rights. The Parliament scrutinizes public spending and exercises control of expenditure incurred by the government through the work of the relevant standing committees. The Public Accounts Committee has a special role to review the report of the auditor general. The Senate, the upper house of the Parliament, has equal representation from the federating units balancing the provincial inequality in the National Assembly, where the number of members is based on population of the provinces. The Senate's role is to promote national cohesion and harmony, and work as a stabilizing factor of the federation. The Senate has 104 members who serve six-year terms which are alternated so that half the senators are up for re-election by the electoral college every three years. The National Assembly consists of 342 members. The Constitution does not empower the President to dissolve the National Assembly. The Senate is not subject to dissolution. Only the Parliament can amend the Constitution, by two-thirds majority vote separately in each House.
The Constitution of Pakistan lists a number of requirements for members of the National Assembly in Article 62.
The constitution also details a number of disqualifications in Article 63, which include mental instability, insolvency, criminal conviction and accepting dual-citizenship or relinquishing Pakistani nationality, among others. Furthermore, an individual is disqualified if he or she is found to have opposed Pakistan's ideology or worked against the integrity of the country, after its establishment in 1947.
The National Assembly has 342 members, including 60 seats reserved for women and 10 for minorities, as per Article 51.The seats in the National Assembly are allocated to each province and the federal capital on the basis of population, as officially published in the preceding census. The present allocation of seats is as under:
|Punjab||Sindh||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||Balochistan||Federal Capital||Total|
The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one person, one vote. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the House, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the President in his discretion under the Constitution. Under the 1973 Constitution, a member of Parliament may not hold the office of the Prime Minister more than twice. In the 1990s, Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Shareef proposed a bill to amend the 1973 constitution to allow a Member to serve a third term as Prime Minister.
According to The Constitution
The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the National Assembly. The speaker is assisted by the Deputy Speaker. Both officers are elected from within the ranks of the National Assembly and, by current convention, are usually members of the majority party. The election of the two officers is the first matter an incoming National Assembly deals with, as mandated by the constitution. Apart from presiding over National Assembly debates, the Speaker may also assume the duties of Acting President, if the position is vacant (in case the President as well as Chairman Senate are not available).
The current Speaker and Deputy Speaker are Asad Qaiser (PTI) and Qasim Suri (PTI), respectively.
The National Assembly is divided into sessions. It had to meet for 130 days before the First Amendment passed on 8 May 1974 in the constitution of 1973. According to this amendment, the maximum duration between successive sessions was reduced to 90 days from 130 days, and there must be at least three sessions in a year. A session of the National Assembly is summoned by the President under Article 54(1) of the Constitution. In the summoning order the President gives the date, time and place (which is usually the Parliament House), for the National Assembly to meet. The date and time for the summoning of the National Assembly is immediately announced over radio and television. Generally, a copy of the summon is also sent to the Members at their home addresses. The National Assembly can also be summoned by the Speaker of National Assembly on a request made by at one-fourth of the total membership of the National Assembly. If the National Assembly is so requisitioned, it must be summoned within 14 days.
Article 50 of the Constitution provides that the Parliament shall consist of president and the two houses known as the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly has an edge over the Senate by legislating exclusively on money matters. With exception to money bills, however, both the houses work together to carryout the basic work of the Parliament, i.e. law making.
The bill relating to the Federal Legislative List can be originated in either house. If the House passed a bill through majority vote, it shall be transmitted to the other house. If the other house passes it without amendment, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
If the bill, transmitted to the other house, is not passed within ninety days or rejected, it shall be considered in a joint sitting to be summoned by the President on the request of the house in which the bill was originated. If the bill is passed in the joint sitting, with or without amendments, by the votes of majority of the members of the two houses, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
If the bill is presented to the President for assent, he shall assent to the bill in not later than ten days. If it is not a money bill, the President may return it to the Majlis-e-Shoora with a message requesting that the bill be reconsidered and that an amendment specified in the message be considered. The Majlis-e-Shoora shall reconsider the bill in a joint sitting. If the bill is passed again, with or without amendment, by vote of the majority of the members present and voting, it shall be presented to the President and the President shall give his assent within ten days; failing which such assent shall be deemed to have been given.
Under the Constitution, the Parliament may also legislate for two or more provinces by consent and request made by those provinces. If the federal government proclaims a state of emergency in any province, the power to legislate about that province is vested in the Parliament. But the bills passed by the Parliament during the state of emergency, shall cease to be in force after the expiration of six months from the date that the emergency is lifted. Nevertheless, the steps already taken under these acts shall remain valid.
The Leader of the House is the highest ranking representative of the majority party in National Assembly usually the Prime Minister.
See: List of All The Prime Ministers
The Leader of the Opposition is the highest ranking representative of the main opposition party.
See: List of Leaders of the Opposition
While recognizing the Committee System, the committees have been empowered to go into all matters of the ministry. A matter can be remitted to a standing committee by the Speaker or the Assembly suo moto and without moving any motion.
The committees have also been empowered to invite or summon before it any member or any other person having a special interest in relation to any matter under its consideration and may hear expert evidence and hold public hearing.
The composition of the National Assembly is specified in Article 51 of the Constitution of Pakistan. There are a total of 342 seats in the National Assembly. Of these, 272 are filled by direct elections. In addition, the Pakistani Constitution reserves 10 seats for religious minorities and 60 seats for women, to be filled by proportional representation among parties with more than 5% of the vote. As of 2006, there are 72 women members in the Assembly.
Members of the National Assembly are elected by the people in competitive multi-party elections, to be held at most five years apart on universal adult franchise. To be a member of electoral college, according to Article 62 of the Constitution, candidates must be citizens of Pakistan and not less than 25 years of age.
|Pakistan Muslim League (N)||12,934,589||24.35||64||16||2||82||–84|
|Pakistan Peoples Party||6,924,356||13.03||43||9||2||54||+12|
|Grand Democratic Alliance||1,260,147||2.37||2||1||0||3||–4|
|Awami National Party||815,998||1.54||1||0||0||1||–2|
|Muttahida Qaumi Movement||733,245||1.38||6||1||0||7||–17|
|Pakistan Muslim League (Q)||517,408||0.97||4||1||0||5||+3|
|Balochistan Awami Party||319,348||0.60||4||1||0||5||New|
|Balochistan National Party (Mengal)||238,817||0.45||3||1||0||4||+3|
|Sindh United Party||140,303||0.26||0||0||0||0|
|Pashtunkhwa Milli Awami Party||134,846||0.25||0||0||0||0||–4|
|Pak Sarzameen Party||126,128||0.24||0||0||0||0|
|Awami Muslim League||119,362||0.22||1||0||0||1||0|
|Pakistan Awami Raj||115,226||0.22||0||0||0||0|
|Pakistan Muslim League (F)||72,553||0.14||0||0||0||0|
|Qaumi Watan Party||57,249||0.11||0||0||0||0|
|Pakistan Rah-e-Haq Party||55,859||0.11||0||0||0||0|
|Balochistan National Party (Awami)||55,206||0.10||0||0||0||0|
|All Pakistan Muslim League||36,566||0.07||0||0||0||0|
|Pakistan National Muslim League||35,415||0.07||0||0||0||0|
|Jamiat Ulama-e-Islam Nazryati||34,247||0.06||0||0||0||0|
|Pakistan Human Party||34,246||0.06||0||0||0||0|
|Mutahidda Qabail Party||28,469||0.05||0||0||0||0|
|Jamiat Ulama-e-Islam Pakistan (S)||24,582||0.05||0||0||0||0|
|Jamhoori Wattan Party||23,274||0.04||1||0||0||1||+1|
|Jamiat Ulama-e-Pakistan (Noorani)||22,145||0.04||0||0||0||0|
|Mohajir Qaumi Movement Pakistan||21,521||0.04||0||0||0||0|
|Awami Workers Party||17,935||0.03||0||0||0||0|
|Pakistan Justice and Democratic Party||12,637||0.02||0||0||0||0|
|Pakistan Kissan Ittehad (Ch. Anwar)||12,255||0.02||0||0||0||0|
|Pakistan Peoples Party (Shaheed Bhutto)||10,032||0.02||0||0||0||0|
National Assembly can be dissolved at the initiative of the Prime Minister. If dissolved, new elections are conducted for the Assembly. Article 58 of the Constitution of Pakistan deals with the dissolution of the Assembly:
58. Dissolution of the National Assembly:
Explanation: Reference in this Article to "Prime Minister" shall not be construed to include reference to a Prime Minister against whom a notice of a resolution for a note of no-confidence has been given in the National Assembly but has not been voted upon or against whom such a resolution has been passed or who is continuing in office after his resignation or after the dissolution of the National Assembly.
The seat distribution in 14th assembly of Pakistan is as follows:
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Member of Congress is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions.
The President of India, IAST: Bhārat kē Rāṣhṭrapati) is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. Unlike in a presidential system of government, the head of state is generally constrained by the cabinet or the legislature in a parliamentary system, and most reserve powers are usable only in certain exceptional circumstances. In some countries, reserve powers go by another name; for instance, the reserve powers of the President of Ireland are called discretionary powers.
A motion of no confidence, or a vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some aspect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel detrimental. As a parliamentary motion, it demonstrates to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in the appointed government. In some countries, if a no confidence motion is passed against an individual minister they have to resign along with the entire council of ministers.
The constructive vote of no confidence is a variation on the motion of no confidence that allows a parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor. The principle is intended to ensure that a replacement head of government has enough parliamentary support to govern.
The Lok Sabha, or House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
In parliamentary and some semi-presidential systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election.
Senate of Pakistan or Aiwān-e-Bālā Pākistān is the upper legislative chamber of the bicameral legislature of Pakistan, and together with the National Assembly makes up the Parliament.
The Parliament of Pakistan is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan. It is a bicameral federal legislature that consists of the Senate as the upper house and the National Assembly as the lower house. According to the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the President of Pakistan is also a component of the Parliament. The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one-man one-vote. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the house, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the president in his discretion under the Constitution.
Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federal parliamentary democratic republic. At the national level, the people of Pakistan elect a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan. The parliament consists of a lower house called the National Assembly, which is elected directly, and an upper house called the Senate, whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. The head of government, the Prime Minister, is elected by the majority members of the National Assembly and the head of state, the President, is elected by the Electoral College, which consists of both houses of Parliament together with the four provincial assemblies. In addition to the national parliament and the provincial assemblies, Pakistan also has more than five thousand elected local governments.
The Speaker of the National Assembly ; informally as Speaker National Assembly, is the presiding official of the National Assembly of Pakistan– a lower house of the Parliament of Pakistan.
The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia is the head of government of Cambodia. The prime minister is also the chairman of the Cabinet and leads the executive branch of the Royal Cambodian Government. The prime minister is a member of parliament, and is appointed by the monarch for a term of five years. Since 1945, 36 individuals have served as prime minister; 32 as official prime ministers, and 4 in acting capacities.
The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The parliament is formally made up of the Queen, an appointed Senate, and an elected House of Assembly. It currently sits at Nassau, the national capital.
The Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan, is the president-chair of the Senate of Pakistan. According to the Constitution of Pakistan, the chairman is a presiding official and that Senate must choose a chairman and deputy chairman for a time interval of three years.
The Provincial Assembly of the Punjab is a unicameral legislature of elected representatives of the province of Punjab, which is located in Lahore, Pakistan. The Assembly was established under Article 106 of the Constitution of Pakistan as having a total of 371 seats, with 297 general seats, 66 seats reserved for women and eight reserved for non-Muslims.
Provincial Assembly of Sindh is a unicameral house of elected representatives of people of Sindh established under Article 106 of the Constitution of Pakistan. Under this article, the total number of seats for the Assembly through direct vote is 168, of which 29 seats are reserved for women and 9 seats for non-Muslims.
The Speaker of the Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the presiding officer of the chamber. The current Speaker of the Parliament is Karu Jayasuriya, in office since 1 September 2015. The Speaker fulfills a number of important functions in relation to the operation the House, which is based upon the British Westminster Parliamentary system.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly is the unicameral legislative body of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. It was established under Article 106 of the Constitution of the Pakistan. The assembly previously had 124 elected members, 99 regular seats, 22 seats reserved for women and 3 seats for Non-Muslims. After the merger of FATA with the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, the assembly seats rose from 124 to 145 by adding 16 general seats, 4 seats reserved for women and 1 for a Non-Muslim.
The National Assembly of Thailand is the bicameral legislative branch of the government of Thailand. It convenes in the Sappaya-Sapasathan, Dusit District, Bangkok.