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In politics, a National Assembly is either a unicameral legislature, the lower houseof a bicameral legislature, or both houses of a bicameral legislature together. In the English language it generally means "an assembly composed of the representatives of the nation." The population base represented by this name is manifestly the nation as a whole, as opposed to a geographically select population, such as that represented by a provincial assembly. The powers of a National Assembly vary according to the type of government. It may possess all the powers of government, generally governing by committee, or it may function solely within the legislative branch of the government.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
The name also must be distinguished from the concept. Conceptually such an institution may appear under variety of names, especially if "national assembly" is being used to translate foreign names of the same concept into English. Also, the degree to which the National Assembly speaks for the nation is a variable. To achieve a quorum, the ancient Athenian Assembly employed Scythian police to arrest citizens at random from the street. On the other hand, the early Parliaments of Europe were mainly of an aristocratic composition. The word had its origins and inspirations from the National Assembly that was responsible for drafting a constitution during the French Revolution.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
The exact words, "national assembly," have been used prolifically in the international community of nations since the 18th and 19th centuries, considered the Age of Revolution in western Europe. Nations that formed republics in this age subsequently formed empires. Extensive cross-cultural influences brought much of their language and institutions to the provinces. When these empires collapsed finally, the emancipated countries formed states and other institutions on the model of the former imperial nations. Some examples of international influences are as follows:
The Age of Revolution is the period from approximately 1774 to 1849 in which a number of significant revolutionary movements occurred in most of Europe and the Americas. The period is noted for the change from absolutist monarchies to representative governments with a written constitution, and the creation of nation states.
In Germany, a Nationalversammlung was elected following the revolutions of 1848–1849 and 1918–1919, to be replaced by a permanent parliament (Reichstag) later. The legislature of the Estado Novo regime in Portugal was known as the National Assembly, while the Corporative Chamber was a purely advisory chamber. The national assembly was also defined in the Republic of China constitution. This is different from the Legislative Yuan by the ROC constitution. In 2005, Taiwan revised the constitution and national assembly was abolished. Examples have multiplied greatly under the policy of self-determination adopted by the western nations. Many more are to be found in the articles listed below.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance, and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west.
The German Revolution or November Revolution was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the adoption in August 1919 of the Weimar Constitution.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries.The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems, even where it is not in the official name.
Perhaps the best known National Assembly was that established during the French Revolution in 1789, known as the Assemblée nationale . Consequently, the name is particularly common in Francophone countries. It was also the name of the legislature during France's First Republic and the Consulate, and since 1946 has been the lower house of the French parliament, first under the Fourth Republic, and from 1958, the Fifth Republic.
During the French Revolution, the National Assembly, which existed from 4 June 1789 to 9 July 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General; thereafter it was known as the National Constituent Assembly, though popularly the shorter form persisted.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory, and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power.
The expression, however, did not originate in 1789. It was already in use in the French language of the times. Louis XIII of France (1601–1643), par la grace de Dieu Roy de France & de Navarre, in a Declaration of April 14, 1627, concerning the sovereignty of his kingdom, prohibits ministers of foreign countries from any jurisdiction in France, citing, as precedent, his Lettres de Declaration of April 17, 1623, forbidding religious officials from treating with foreign countries. He describes his Declaration as ordonné qu'en Assemblées Provinciales & Nationales des nosdites sujets.This was the "registration" that the Parlement of Paris refused to perform for Louis XVI of France in 1787–1788. When the Estates-General of 1789 formed the National Assembly of 1789, they did not believe they were instituting anything new. In the Assembly of Notables of 1787, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette had used National Assembly and Estates General synonymously when he suggested that France needed a national assembly to solve its financial problems.
Louis XIII was King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court. In 1789, France had 13 parlements, the most important of which was the Parlement of Paris. While the English word parliament derives from this French term, parlements were not legislative bodies. They consisted of a dozen or more appellate judges, or about 1,100 judges nationwide. They were the court of final appeal of the judicial system, and typically wielded much power over a wide range of subject matter, particularly taxation. Laws and edicts issued by the Crown were not official in their respective jurisdictions until the parlements gave their assent by publishing them. The members were aristocrats called nobles of the gown who had bought or inherited their offices, and were independent of the King.
Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last king of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.
National Assembly is also found in some Commonwealth countries. Its use there is not a translation of Assemblée nationale, as the phrase is equally embedded in the English language. For example, at the end of the First English Civil War, an Act of Parliament, 1648, "Concerning the Members of the Classical and Congregational Presbyteries, in the several counties of the Kingdom of England, and Dominion of Wales," establishes a national congregational church in England and Wales, corresponding to the presbyteries of Scotland. The language is: "The National Assembly shall be constituted of members chosen by and sent from the several Provincial Assemblies."This National Assembly appears to have no direct link to any French words, although the concept is the same.
|Albania||National Assembly of Albania||Kuvendi i Shqipërisë|
|Angola||National Assembly of Angola||Assembleia Nacional|
|Armenia||National Assembly of Armenia||Ազգային Ժողով|
|Azerbaijan||National Assembly of Azerbaijan||Milli Məclis|
|Benin||National Assembly of Benin||Assemblée Nationale|
|Bhutan||National Assembly of Bhutan|
|Botswana||National Assembly of Botswana|
|Bulgaria||National Assembly of Bulgaria||Народно събрание|
|Burkina Faso||National Assembly of Burkina Faso||Assemblée Nationale|
|Cameroon||National Assembly of Cameroon|
|Cape Verde||National Assembly of Cape Verde||Assembleia Nacional|
|Central African Republic||National Assembly of the Central African Republic||Assemblée Nationale|
|Chad||National Assembly of Chad||Assemblée Nationale|
|Cuba||National Assembly of People's Power||Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular|
|Djibouti||National Assembly of Djibouti||Assemblée Nationale|
|Eritrea||National Assembly of Eritrea|
|Gambia||National Assembly of Gambia|
|Greece||National Assembly of Greece|
|Guinea||National Assembly of Guinea||Assemblée Nationale|
|Guinea-Bissau||National People's Assembly of Guinea-Bissau|
|Guyana||National Assembly of Guyana|
|Hungary||National Assembly of Hungary||Országgyűlés|
|Ivory Coast||National Assembly of Ivory Coast|
|Kuwait||National Assembly of Kuwait||مجلس الامة|
|Kurdistan Regional Government||Kurdistan National Assembly||المجلس الوطني لكوردستان|
|Laos||National Assembly of Laos|
|Malawi||National Assembly of Malawi|
|Mali||National Assembly of Mali||Assemblée Nationale|
|Mauritius||National Assembly of Mauritius|
|Nicaragua||National Assembly of Nicaragua||Asamblea Nacional|
|Niger||National Assembly of Niger||Assemblée Nationale|
|North Korea||Supreme People’s Assembly||최고인민회의 (Choego Inmin Hoe-ui)|
|Pakistan||National Assembly of Pakistan||مجلس شوریٰ|
|Panama||National Assembly of Panama||Asamblea Nacional de Panamá|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||National Assembly of Saint Kitts and Nevis|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||National Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe||Assembleia Nacional|
|Senegal||National Assembly of Senegal||Assemblée Nationale|
|Serbia||National Assembly of Serbia||Народна скупштина Србије (Narodna skupština Srbije)|
|Seychelles||National Assembly of Seychelles|
|South Korea||National Assembly of the Republic of Korea||국회 (Gukhoe)|
|Sudan||National Assembly of Sudan|
|Suriname||National Assembly of Suriname||Nationale Assemblee|
|Tanzania||National Assembly of Tanzania|
|Togo||National Assembly of Togo||Assemblée Nationale|
|Turkey||Grand National Assembly of Turkey||Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi|
|Uganda||National Assembly of Uganda|
|Venezuela||National Assembly of Venezuela||Asamblea Nacional|
|Vietnam||National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam||Quốc hội nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam|
|Wales||National Assembly for Wales||Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru|
|Zambia||National Assembly of Zambia|
|Algeria||People's National Assembly|
|Bhutan||National Assembly of Bhutan|
|Burundi||National Assembly of Burundi|
|Cambodia||National Assembly of Cambodia||រដ្ឋសភាកម្ពុជា (Rodsaphea)|
|Congo (DRC)||National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of the Congo||Assemblée nationale|
|Congo (Rep.)||National Assembly of the Republic of the Congo||Assemblée nationale|
|France||National Assembly of France||Assemblée nationale|
|Ivory Coast||National Assembly of Ivory Coast||Assemblée nationale|
|Kenya||National Assembly of Kenya|
|Gabon||National Assembly of Gabon|
|Lesotho||National Assembly of Lesotho|
|Madagascar||National Assembly of Madagascar|
|Namibia||National Assembly of Namibia|
|Pakistan||National Assembly of Pakistan||مجلس شوری|
|Slovenia||National Assembly of Slovenia||Državni zbor|
|South Africa||National Assembly of South Africa|
|Tajikistan||National Assembly of Tajikistan||Majlisi Milliy|
|Nepal||National Assembly of Nepal|
|Afghanistan||National Assembly of Afghanistan||ملی شورا|
|Bahrain||National Assembly of Bahrain|
|Belarus||National Assembly of Belarus||Нацыянальны сход/Национальное собрание|
|Belize||National Assembly of Belize|
|Haiti||National Assembly of Haiti||Assemblée Nationale|
|Jordan||National Assembly of Jordan||Majlis al-Umma|
|Nigeria||National Assembly of Nigeria|
|Poland||National Assembly of Poland||Zgromadzenie Narodowe|
|Russia||Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation|
|Thailand||National Assembly of Thailand||รัฐสภา|
|Tunisia||National Assembly of Tunisia|
| Batavian Republic, |
| National Assembly of the Batavian Republic: |
- First National Assembly
- Second National Assembly
|1 March 1796 - 31 August 1797|
1 September 1797 - 22 January 1798 (coup)
|Republic of China||National Assembly of the Republic of China||1913-2005||defunct constitutional convention|
|Germany ("Weimar Republic")||Weimar National Assembly||1919-1933|
|Nepal||National Assembly of Nepal||1990-1997|
|Philippines|| National Assembly of Representatives |
National Assembly of the Philippines
National Assembly of the Second Philippine Republic
25 September 1943 - 2 February 1944
|During Japanese occupation|
|Portugal||National Assembly of Portugal||1933-1974||During Estado Novo dictatorship|
|Iraq||National Assembly of Iraq||A constitutional convention|
|Quebec, Canada||National Assembly of Quebec||Assemblée nationale du Québec||A unicameral provincial legislative assembly|
|Republika Srpska||National Assembly (Republika Srpska)||Народна скупштина Републике Српске (Narodna Skupština Republike Srpske)||Autonomous entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.|
|Wales||National Assembly for Wales||Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru||Can make Acts of the Assembly and Delegated legislation|
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different countries, constituent states, organizations, trade unions, political parties or other groups. The term originated in Late Middle English to denote an encounter during battle, from the Latin congressus.
In government, unicameralism is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives which is assembled for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitution or similar document. The constituent assembly is entirely elected by popular vote ; that is, all constituent assemblies are constitutional conventions, but a constitutional convention is not necessarily a constituent assembly. As the fundamental document constituting a state, a constitution cannot normally be modified or amended by the state's normal legislative procedures; instead a constitutional convention or a constituent assembly, the rules for which are normally laid down in the constitution, must be set up. A constituent assembly is usually set up for its specific purpose, which it carries out in a relatively short time, after which the assembly is dissolved. A constituent assembly is a form of representative democracy.
The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral French Parliament under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate. The National Assembly's legislators are known as députés.
The chamber of deputies is the lower house in many bicameral legislatures and the sole house in some unicameral legislatures.
The politics of Quebec are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces, namely a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The capital of Quebec is Quebec City, where the Lieutenant Governor, Premier, the legislature, and cabinet reside.
The National Assembly of Quebec is the legislative body of the province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs. The Queen in Right of Quebec, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and the National Assembly compose the Legislature of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other Westminster-style parliamentary systems.
This is a glossary of the French Revolution. It generally does not explicate names of individual people or their political associations; those can be found in List of people associated with the French Revolution.
The Legislative Assembly of Quebec was the name of the lower house of Quebec's legislature until December 31, 1968, when it was renamed the National Assembly of Quebec. At the same time, the upper house of the legislature, the Legislative Council, was abolished. Both were initially created by the Constitution Act of 1867.
The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty.
The French Parliament is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate and the National Assembly. Each assembly conducts legislative sessions at a separate location in Paris: the Palais du Luxembourg for the Senate and the Palais Bourbon for the National Assembly.
The Parliament of Morocco is the bicameral legislature located in Rabat, the capital of Morocco.
The Society of the Friends of the Blacks was a group of French men and women, mostly white, who were abolitionists. They opposed slavery, which was institutionalized in the French colonies of the Caribbean and North America, and the African slave trade. The Society was created in Paris in 1788, and operated until 1793, during years of the French Revolution. It was led by Jacques Pierre Brissot, with advice from British Thomas Clarkson, who led the abolitionist movement in the Kingdom of Great Britain. At the beginning of 1789, the Society had 141 members.
The unicameral National Assembly is Benin's legislative body.
The National Assembly is lower house of the Parliament of Ivory Coast since November 2016. From 1960 to 2016, The National Assembly was Ivory Coast's unicameral legislative body. Evolved from semi-representative bodies of the French Colonial period, the first National Assembly was constituted on 27 November 1960 with 70 elected members (députés) in accordance with the Constitution of 31 October 1960, which created the First Republic.
The Constitution of Cameroon is the supreme law of the Republic of Cameroon. Adopted in 1972, it is Cameroon's third constitution. The document consists of a preamble and 13 Parts, each divided into Articles. The Constitution outlines the rights guaranteed to Cameroonian citizens, the symbols and official institutions of the country, the structure and functions of government, the procedure by which the Constitution may be amended, and the process by which the provisions of the Constitution are to be implemented.
A National Assembly is either a unicameral legislature, the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or both houses of a bicameral legislature together.