Grand National Assembly of Turkey

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Grand National Assembly of Turkey

Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi
28th Parliament of Turkey
Seal of the Turkish Parliament (Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi).svg
Seal of the Turkish Parliament
Type
Type
History
Founded23 April 1920(104 years ago) (1920-04-23)
Preceded by23 December 1876 as General Assembly
Leadership
Numan Kurtulmuş, AK Party
since 7 June 2023
Government Group Leader
Abdullah Güler  [ tr ], AK Party
since 30 May 2023
Main Opposition Group Leader
Özgür Özel, CHP
since 3 June 2023
Structure
Seats600
1 non-voting member
Turkey Parliament 2023 political spectrum.svg
Political groups
Government (265)
  •   AK Party (265)

Confidence and supply (55)

Opposition (274)

Vacant (6)

  •   Vacant (6)
Committees 19 committees
Length of term
5 years
Authority Constitution of Turkey
Salary 125,349 monthly [1]
Elections
Closed list proportional representation
(D'Hondt method with a 7% electoral threshold)
Last election
14 May 2023
Next election
No later than 2028
Redistricting Supreme Election Council
Motto
Egemenlik kayıtsız şartsız Milletindir
Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the Nation
Meeting place
TBMM, October 2021.jpg
General Assembly Hall
Grand National Assembly of Turkey
06543, Bakanlıklar
Ankara, Turkey
Website
Grand National Assembly of Türkiye
Constitution
Constitution of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish : Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi [tyɾcijebyjycmilːetmedʒlisi] ), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Turkish : Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 amid the National Campaign. This constitution had founded its pre-government known as 1st Executive Ministers of Turkey (Commitment Deputy Committee) in May 1920. The parliament was fundamental in the efforts of Mareşal Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1st President of the Republic of Turkey, and his colleagues to found a new state out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.

Contents

Composition

There are 600 members of parliament (deputies) who are elected for a five-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system, from 87 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (Istanbul and Ankara are divided into three electoral districts whereas İzmir and Bursa are divided into two each because of its large populations). To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, from 1982 to 2022, a party must have won at least 10% of the national vote to qualify for representation in the parliament, [2] but in 2022 this was reduced to 7%. [3] As a result of the 10% threshold, only two parties won seats in the legislature after the 2002 elections and three in 2007. The 2002 elections saw every party represented in the previous parliament ejected from the chamber and parties representing 46.3% of the voter turnout were excluded from being represented in parliament. [2] This threshold has been criticized, but a complaint with the European Court for Human Rights was turned down. [4]

Independent candidates may also run [5] and can be elected without needing a threshold. [6]

Speaker of the parliament

The chair of the Speaker of the Parliament GNAT speakers.jpg
The chair of the Speaker of the Parliament

A new term in the parliament began on 2 June 2023, after the June 2023 General Elections. Devlet Bahçeli from the MHP temporarily served as the speaker, as it is customary for the oldest member of the TBMM to serve as speaker during a hung parliament. Numan Kurtulmuş was elected after the snap elections on 07 June 2023. [7]

Languages

The parliament's minutes are translated into the four languages: Arabic, Russian, English and French, but not in the Kurdish language which is the second most spoken native language in Turkey. [8] Though phrases in the Kurdish language can be permitted, whole speeches remain forbidden. [9]

Members (since 1999)

Parliamentary groups

Parties who have at least 20 deputies may form a parliamentary group. Currently there are six parliamentary groups at the GNAT: AK Party, which has the highest number of seats, CHP, MHP, Good Party, DEM, and Felicity. [10]

Committees

Specialized committees

  1. Justice Committee (27 members) [11]
  2. Constitution Committee (26 members) [12]
  3. Committee for Harmonization with the European Union (27 members) [13]
  4. Public Works, Zoning, Transportation, and Tourism Committee (26 members) [14]
  5. Environment Committee (26 members) [15]
  6. Foreign Affairs Committee (25 members) [16]
  7. Digital Media Committee (17 members) [17]
  8. Petitions Committee (12 members) [18]
  9. Security and Intelligence Committee (17 members) [19]
  10. Internal Affairs Committee (26 members) [20]
  11. Committee for the Inspection of Human Rights (25 members) [21]
    1. Subcommittee for the Inspection of Islamophobia and Racism (10 members) [22]
    2. Subcommittee for the Inspection of the Rights of Convicts and Detainees [23]
    3. Migration and Integration Subcommittee (10 members) [24]
    4. Children's Rights Subcommittee (10 members) [25]
  12. Committee for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (26 members) [26]
  13. State-owned Enterprises Committee (35 members) [27]
  14. National Education, Culture, Youth, and Sports committee (26 members) [28]
  15. National Defense Committee (26 members) [29]
  16. Planning and Budgeting Committee (30 members) [30]
  17. Health, Family, Employment, and Social Affairs Committee (27 members) [31]
  18. Industry, Commerce, Energy, Natural Resources, Information, and Technology Committee (26 members) [32]
  19. Agriculture, Forestry, and Rural Works Committee (26 members) [33]

Parliamentary research committees

These committees are one of auditing tools of the Parliament. The research can begin upon the demand of the Government, political party groups or min 20 MPs. The duty is assigned to a committee whose number of members, duration of work and location of work is determined by the proposal of the Parliamentary Speaker and the approval of the General Assembly. [34] [35]

Parliamentary investigation committees

These committees are established if any investigation demand re the president, vice president, and ministers occur and approved by the General Assembly through hidden voting. [35]

International committees

  1. Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (8 members) [36]
  2. NATO Parliamentary Assembly (18 members) [37]
  3. Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (18 members) [38]
  4. Turkey — European Union Joint Parliamentary Committee (25 members) [39]
  5. Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (5 members) [40]
  6. Asian Parliamentary Assembly (5 members) [41]
  7. Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean (7 members) [42]
  8. Inter-parliamentary Union (9 members) [43]
  9. Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (9 members) [44]
  10. Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean (5 members) [45]
  11. Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic States (9 members) [46]
  12. Parliamentary Assembly of the Economic Cooperation Organization (5 members) [47]
  13. Parliamentary Assembly of the Southeast European Cooperation Process (6 members) [48]
  14. Andean Parliament (observer) (3 members) [49]
  15. Latin American Parliament (observer) (3 members) [50]

MPs can attend more than one committee if not a member of Petitions Committee or Planning and Budgeting Committee. Members of those committees can not participate in any other committees. On the other hand, MPs do not have to work for a committee either. Number of members of each committee is determined by the proposal of the Advisory Council and the approval of the General Assembly. [35]

Sub committees are established according to the issue that the committee receives. Only State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) Committee has constant sub committees that are specifically responsible for a group of SOEs. [35]

Committee meetings are open to the MPs, the Ministers' Board members and the Government representatives. The MPs and the Ministers' Board members can talk in the committees but can not make amendments proposals or vote. Every MP can read the reports of the committees. [35]

NGOs can attend the committee meetings upon the invitation of the committee therefore volunteer individual or public participation is not available. Media, but not the visual media, can attend the meetings. The media representatives are usually the parliamentary staff of the media institutions. The committees can prevent the attendance of the media with a joint decision. [51]

Current composition

The 28th Parliament of Turkey took office on 2 June 2023, following the ratification of the results of the general election held on 14 May 2023. The composition of the 28th Parliament, is shown below.

Parliament Building

Damage to the Parliament Building after the failed 2016 coup 160801-D-PB383-016 US-General Joseph F. Dunford Jr. tours parts of the Turkish Grand National Assembly that were destroyed during the failed July 15 coup in Ankara.JPG
Damage to the Parliament Building after the failed 2016 coup

The current Parliament Building is the third to house the nation's parliament. The building which first housed the Parliament was converted from the Ankara headquarters of the Committee of Union and Progress. Designed by architect Hasip Bey, [52] it was used until 1924 and is now used as the locale of the Museum of the War of Independence, the second building which housed the Parliament was designed by architect Vedat (Tek) Bey (1873–1942) and used from 1924 to 1960. [52] It is now been converted as the Museum of the Republic. The Grand National Assembly is now housed in a modern and imposing building in the Bakanlıklar neighborhood of Ankara. [53] The monumental building's project was designed by architect and professor Clemens Holzmeister (1886–1993). [52] The building was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50,000 lira banknotes of 1989–1999. [54] The building was hit by airstrikes three times during the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, suffering noticeable damage. It went through a renovation in the summer of 2016. [55]

History

Turkey has had a history of parliamentary government before the establishment of the current national parliament. These include attempts at curbing absolute monarchy during the Ottoman Empire through constitutional monarchy, as well as establishments of caretaker national assemblies immediately prior to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 but after the de facto dissolution of the Ottoman Empire earlier in the decade.

Parliamentary practice before the Republican era

Ottoman Empire

There were two periods of parliamentary governance during the Ottoman Empire. The First Constitutional Era lasted for only two years, elections being held only twice. After the first elections, there were a number of criticisms of the government due to the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878 by the representatives, and the assembly was dissolved and an election called on 28 June 1877. The second assembly was also dissolved by the Sultan Abdul Hamid II on 14 February 1878, the result being the return of absolute monarchy with Abdul Hamid II in power and the suspension of the Ottoman constitution of 1876, which had come with the democratic reforms resulting in the First Constitutional Era. [56]

The Second Constitutional Era began on 23 July 1908 with the Young Turk Revolution. The constitution that was written for the first parliament included control of the sultan on the public and was removed during 1909, 1912, 1914 and 1916, in a session known as the "declaration of freedom". Most of the modern parliamentary rights that were not granted in the first constitution were granted, such as the abolition of the right of the Sultan to deport citizens that were claimed to have committed harmful activities, the establishment of a free press, a ban on censorship. Freedom to hold meetings and establish political parties was recognized, and the government was held responsible to the assembly, not to the sultan. [57]

During the two constitutional eras of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman parliament was called the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and was bicameral. The upper house was the Senate of the Ottoman Empire, the members of which were selected by the sultan. [58] The role of the Grand Vizier, the centuries-old top ministerial office in the empire, transformed in line with other European states into one identical to the office of a prime minister, as well as that of the speaker of the Senate. The lower chamber of the General Assembly was the Chamber of Deputies of the Ottoman Empire, the members of which were elected by the general public. [59]

Establishment of the National Assembly

Address of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the President of the Turkish Grand National Assembly to the members of parliament during the second legislative period of the assembly (1 March 1921) Mustafa Kemal Pasha in the Turkish Grand National Assembly, 1 March 1921.jpg
Address of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the President of the Turkish Grand National Assembly to the members of parliament during the second legislative period of the assembly (1 March 1921)

After World War I, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire through the Treaty of Sèvres. [60] The sovereign existence of the Turkish nation was to be eliminated under these plans, except for a small region. Nationalist Turkish sentiment rose in the Anatolian peninsula, engendering the establishment of the Turkish national movement. The political developments during this period have made a lasting impact which continues to affect the character of the Turkish nation. During the Turkish War of Independence, Mustafa Kemal put forth the notion that there would be only one way for the liberation of the Turkish people in the aftermath of World War I, namely, through the creation of an independent, sovereign Turkish state. The Sultanate was abolished by the newly founded parliament in 1922, paving the way for the formal proclamation of the republic that was to come on 29 October 1923. [61]

Transition to Ankara

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was the first speaker of the Grand National Assembly. Ataturk1930s.jpg
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was the first speaker of the Grand National Assembly.

Mustafa Kemal, in a speech he made on 19 March 1920 announced that "an Assembly will be gathered in Ankara that will possess extraordinary powers" and communicated how the members who would participate in the assembly would be elected and the need to realise elections, at the latest, within 15 days. [62] He also stated that the members of the dispersed Ottoman Chamber of Deputies could also participate in the assembly in Ankara, to increase the representative power of the parliament. These elections were held as planned, in the style of the elections of the preceding Chamber of Deputies, in order to select the first members of the new Turkish assembly. This Grand National Assembly, established on national sovereignty, held its inaugural session on 23 April 1920. [61] From this date until the end of the Turkish War of Independence in 1923, the provisional government of Turkey was known as the Government of the Grand National Assembly.

Republican era

1923–1945

President Ataturk and his colleagues leaving the building of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (today the Republic Museum) after a meeting for the seventh anniversary of the foundation of the Republic of Turkey (1930). Ataturk TBMM'den cikarken.jpg
President Atatürk and his colleagues leaving the building of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (today the Republic Museum) after a meeting for the seventh anniversary of the foundation of the Republic of Turkey (1930).
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. First female MPs of the Turkish Parliament (1935).jpg
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections.
The War of Independence Museum (Kurtulus Savasi Muzesi), housed in the first Turkish Grand National Assembly building in the Ulus district of Ankara Ankara asv2021-10 img45 Cumhuriyet Street on 29Oct.jpg
The War of Independence Museum (Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi), housed in the first Turkish Grand National Assembly building in the Ulus district of Ankara

The first trial of multi-party politics, during the republican era, was made in 1924 by the establishment of the Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Fırkası (Progressive Republican Party) at the request of Mustafa Kemal, which was closed after several months. Following a 6-year one-party rule, after the foundation of the Serbest Fırka (Liberal Party) by Ali Fethi Okyar, again at the request of Mustafa Kemal, in 1930, some violent disorders took place, especially in the eastern parts of the country. The Liberal Party was dissolved on 17 November 1930 and no further attempt at a multiparty democracy was made until 1945. [63]

1945–1960

The multi-party period in Turkey was resumed by the founding of the National Development Party (Milli Kalkınma Partisi), by Nuri Demirağ, in 1945. The Democrat Party was established the following year, and won the general elections of 1950; one of its leaders, Celal Bayar, becoming President of the Republic and another, Adnan Menderes, Prime Minister. [64]

1960–1980

After the a military coup on 27 May 1960, Prime Minister Adnan Menderes, President Celal Bayar, and all the ministers and members of the Assembly were arrested. [65] The Assembly was closed. The Committee of National Unity, CNU (Milli Birlik Komitesi), assumed all the powers of the Assembly by a provisional constitution and began to run the country. Executive power was used by ministers appointed by the CNU. [66]

The members of the CNU began to work on a new and comprehensive constitution. The Constituent Assembly (Kurucu Meclis), composed of members of the CNU and the members of the House of Representatives, was established to draft a new constitution on 6 January 1961. The House of Representatives consisted of those appointed by the CNU, representatives designated by two parties of that time (CHP and Republican Villagers National Party, RVNP), and representatives of various professional associations. [64]

The constitutional text drafted by the Constituent Assembly was presented to the voters in a referendum on 9 July 1961, and was accepted by 61.17% of the voters. The 1961 Constitution, the first prepared by a Constituent Assembly and the first to be presented to the people in a referendum, included innovations in many subjects. [64]

The 1961 Constitution stipulated a typical parliamentarian system. According to the Constitution, Parliament was bicameral. The legislative power was vested in the House of Representatives and the Senate. while the executive authority was vested in the President and the Council of Ministers. The Constitution envisaged a Constitutional Court. [64]

The 1961 Constitution regulated fundamental rights and freedom, including economic and social rights, over a wide spectrum and adopted the principles of a democratic social state and the rule of law. The 1961 Constitution underwent many comprehensive changes after the military memorandum of 12 March 1971, but continued to be in force until the military coup of 1980. [67]

1980–2018

The country underwent another military coup on 12 September 1980. The Constitution was suspended and political parties were dissolved. [68] Many politicians were forbidden from entering politics again. The military power ruling the country established a "Constituent Assembly", as had been done in 1961. The Constituent Assembly was composed of the National Security Council and the Advisory Assembly. Within two years, the new constitution was drafted and was presented to the referendum on 7 November 1982. Participation in the referendum was 91.27%. As a result, the 1982 Constitution was passed with 91.37% of the votes. [69]

The greatest change brought about by the 1982 Constitution was the unicameral parliamentary system. [68] The number of MPs were 550 members. The executive was empowered and new and more definite limitations were introduced on fundamental rights and freedoms. Also, a 10% electoral threshold was introduced. [2] Except for these aspects, the 1982 Constitution greatly resembled the 1961 Constitution.

The 1982 Constitution, from the time it was accepted until the present time, has undergone many changes, especially the "integration laws", which have been introduced within the framework of the European Union membership process, and which has led to a fundamental evolution. [67]

2018–present

After the 2017 constitutional referendums, the first general election of the Assembly was under a presidential system, with an executive president who has the power to renew the elections for the Assembly and vice versa. [70] Following the referendum, the number of MPs increased from 550 to 600. [71] Furthermore, due to separation of powers, members of the cabinet can't introduce laws anymore. This task is left to the parliamentarians. In line with this change, the seats for the members of the cabinet have been removed from the parliament. These seats were originally located on the left side of the Parliament Speaker. [72]

In 2022, at the initiative of the ruling AK Party and its main political ally MHP, the national electoral threshold for a party to enter parliament was lowered from 10 to 7 percent. [73]

Changes since 2023

#PartyLeaderPositionGroup chairpersonStartCurrentChangeStatusNational affiliation
1AK PARTY
Justice and Development Party
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Right-wing
Conservatism
Abdullah Güler  [ tr ]
268 / 600
265 / 600
Decrease2.svg 3 Government People's Alliance
2CHP
Republican People's Party
Özgür Özel Center-left
Kemalism
Özgür Özel
169 / 600
125 / 600
Decrease2.svg 44Main opposition
3DEM PARTİ
Peoples' Equality and Democracy Party
Tulay Hatımoğulları Oruç & Tuncer Bakırhan Green politics
Regionalism
Sırrı Süreyya Önder
61 / 600
57 / 600
Decrease2.svg 4Opposition Labour and Freedom Alliance
4MHP
National Movement Party
Devlet Bahçeli Far-right
Ultranationalism
Devlet Bahçeli
50 / 600
49 / 600
Decrease2.svg 1Confidence and supply People's Alliance
5İYİ PARTİ
Good Party
Müsavat Dervişoğlu Center-right
Turkish nationalism
Koray Aydın
44 / 600
38 / 600
Decrease2.svg 6Opposition
6SAADET
Felicity Party
Temel Karamollaoğlu Far-right
Millî Görüş
Selçuk Özdağ  [ tr ]
0 / 600
20 / 600
Increase2.svg 20Opposition Felicity and Future Alliance
Parties without parliamentary groups [lower-alpha 3]
7DEVA PARTİSİ
Democracy and Progress Party
Ali Babacan Center
Liberal democracy
0 / 600
15 / 600
Increase2.svg 15Opposition
8YENİDEN REFAH
New Welfare Party
Fatih Erbakan Far-right
Millî Görüş
5 / 600
4 / 600
Decrease2.svg 1Opposition
9TİP
Workers' Party of Turkey
Erkan Baş Far-left
Socialism
4 / 600
3 / 600
Decrease2.svg 1Opposition Labour and Freedom Alliance
10HÜDA PAR
Free Cause Party
Zekeriya Yapıcıoğlu Far-right
Kurdish-Islamic synthesis
0 / 600
4 / 600
Increase2.svg 4Confidence and supply
11DP
Democrat Party
Gültekin Uysal Center-right
Liberal conservatism
0 / 600
3 / 600
Increase2.svg 3Opposition
12DBP
Democratic Regions Party
Salihe Aydeniz & Keskin Bayındır  [ tr ] Left-wing
Regionalism
0 / 600
2 / 600
Increase2.svg 2Opposition Labour and Freedom Alliance
13EMEP
Labour Party
Selma Gürkan Far-left
Hoxhaism
0 / 600
2 / 600
Increase2.svg 2Opposition Labour and Freedom Alliance
14DSP
Democratic Left Party
Önder Aksakal  [ tr ] Center-left
Ecevitism
0 / 600
1 / 600
Increase2.svg 1Confidence and supply
15 Independent
0 / 600
6 / 600
Increase2.svg 6
Total
600 / 600
594 / 600
Decrease2.svg 6

Historical composition

Single-party period

   ARMHC / CHP
  Ind.
1923
3321
1927
335
1931
28730
1935
40127
1939
470
1943
492

Beginning of the multi-party period

   CHP
   HP
  Ind.
   DP (1946)
   MP (1948) / CMP / CKMP
1946
395664
1950
6914161
1954
3125035
1957
17844244

Second Republic

   TBP
   CHP
  Ind.
   DP (1970)
   YTP
   CGP
   AP
   MP (1962)
   CKMP / MHP
   MSP
1961
1736515854
1965
141341192403111
1969
281431361525661
1973
118564513149348
1977
2134131891624

After the 1980 coup

   DSP
   HP / SHP / CHP
  Ind.
   DYP
   ANAP
   MDP
   MHP
   RP / FP
1983
11721171
1987
9959292
1991
78817811562
1995
7649132135158
1999
13638685129111

After the 2002 election

   HDP / DEM
   CHP
  Ind.
   İYİ
   MHP
   AK Party
   YRP
2002
1789363
2007
1122671341
2011
1353553327
2015.06
8013280258
2015.11
5913440317
2018
671464349295
2023
46116943502685

List of foreign leaders addressing the Turkish Parliament

US president Barack Obama addressing the Turkish Parliament in 2009 Barack Obama addresses Turkish Parliament 4-6-09 1.JPG
US president Barack Obama addressing the Turkish Parliament in 2009

The General Assembly of the Turkish Grand National Assembly hosts foreign dignitaries from time to time. [74] However, the protocol here may vary depending on the situation. For the foreign guest to make a speech a decision of the General Assembly is required. [75]

YearCountryNameTitle
115 April 1955Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Abdul-Wahab Mirjan Chairman of the Iraqi Parliament
216 July 1956Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Iskander Mirza President of Pakistan
31 November 1958Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Serdar Fahi̇r Hi̇kmat Chairman of the Iranian Parliamentary Delegation
424 April 1959Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Sukarno President of Indonesia
51 April 1964Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany Eugen Gerstenmaier President of the Bundestag
65 January 1965Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union Nikolay Podgorny General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR
725 March 1965Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Habib Bourguiba President of Tunisia
85 December 1984Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Lei Jieqiong Member of National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
923 April 1985Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Susumu Kobayashi  [ jp ] Member of the House of Representatives of Japan
1023 April 1986Flag of the Council of Europe.svg  Council of Europe Oliver James Flanagan Deputy President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
1123 April 1987Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Astrid Lulling Member of Chamber of Deputies of Luxembourg
1223 April 1988Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Mohamed Zahir Ismail Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat
1323 April 1989Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg   Switzerland Hubert Reymond  [ de ] President of the Swiss Council of States
1423 April 1990Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Ahmad Urai Abang Muhideen  [ ms ] President of the Senate of Malaysia
1523 April 1991Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Kelemen András  [ hu ] Hungarian Deputy Minister of Social Security
1612 May 1992Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina Muhamed Čengić Deputy Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1726 June 1992Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Abulfaz Elchibey President of Azerbaijan
1823 April 1992Flag of Kyrgyzstan (2023).svg  Kyrgyzstan Serikbolsyn Abdildin Chairman of the Supreme Council of Kazakhstan
1910 June 1993Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
209 February 1994Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
2123 April 1994Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus Ayhan Halit Acarkan  [ tr ] Speakers of the Assembly of the Republic
2213 October 1994Flag of Kyrgyzstan (2023).svg  Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev President of Kyrgyzstan
2323 April 1995Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Katica Ivanišević Speaker of the Chamber of Counties of Croatia
244 April 1996Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze President of Georgia
2521 January 1997Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
2629 April 1997Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Emil Constantinescu President of Romania
276 May 1997Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
2829 July 1997Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Petar Stoyanov President of Bulgaria
2912 February 1998Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Rexhep Meidani President of Albania
3023 April 1998Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
3130 June 1998Flag of India.svg  India Ganti Mohana Chandra Balayogi Speaker of the Parliament of India
3215 July 1999Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
3315 November 1999Flag of the United States.svg  United States of America Bill Clinton President of the United States of America
347 March 2000Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Abdullah II King of Jordan
3514 April 2000Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Aleksander Kwasniewski President of Poland
3623 April 2000Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Sahat Muradow Speaker of the Parliament of Turkmenistan
3723 November 2000Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Leonid Kuchma President of Ukraine
3813 March 2001Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
396 March 2003Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
4015 January 2004Flag of Europe.svg  European Union Romano Prodi President of the European Commission
4120 January 2004Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Pervez Musharraf President of Pakistan
422 March 2004Flag of Europe.svg  European Union Pat Cox President of the European Parliament
4314 April 2004Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
4415 April 2004Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
453 December 2004Flag of Europe.svg  European Union Josep Borrell Fontelles President of the European Parliament
469 November 2005Flag of the Council of Europe.svg  Council of Europe René van der Linden President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
4713 November 2007Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine Mahmud Abbas President of the Palestinian National Authority
4813 November 2007Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Shimon Peres President of Israel
4910 April 2008Flag of Europe.svg  European Union Jose Manuel Barroso President of the European Commission
506 November 2008Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
516 April 2009Flag of the United States.svg  United States of America Barack Hussein Obama President of the United States of America
5212 May 2009Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Anibal Cavaco Silva President of Portugal
5322 October 2009Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev President of Kazakhstan
5429 June 2010Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono President of Indonesia
5519 October 2010Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Christian Wulff President of Germany
567 December 2010Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Yusuf Raza Gilani Prime Minister of Pakistan
5724 November 2011Flag of Europe.svg  European Union Jerzy Buzek President of the European Parliament
5810 January 2012Flag of the Council of Europe.svg  Council of Europe Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
5912 January 2012Flag of Kyrgyzstan (2023).svg  Kyrgyzstan Almazbek Atambayev President of the Kyrgyz Republic
6010 December 2012Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine Mahmud Abbas President of Palestine
6130 May 2013Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Moncef Marzouki President of Tunisia

See also

Notes

  1. Parties need at least 20 members to form parliamentary groups.

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39°54′42″N32°51′04″E / 39.91167°N 32.85111°E / 39.91167; 32.85111