|9th Legislative Yuan|
18 May 1948 (post-constitutionalization)
|Seats||113 members (List)|
| Government (69)|
Largest Opposition (35)
Other Opposition (9)
Length of term
|16 January 2016|
|11 January 2020|
|The Legislative Yuan, Taipei|
|www.ly.gov.tw (in English)|
|Constitution of the Republic of China|
|Literal meaning||Law-establishing court|
|Mongolian Cyrillic||Хууль тогтоох Юань|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Republic of China
The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of China now based in Taiwan. It is one of the five branches (五院; wǔyuàn; gō͘-īⁿ) of government stipulated by the Constitution of the Republic of China, which follows Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People . Sometimes referred to as a "parliament", the Legislative Yuan, under Sun's political theory, is a branch of government. According to the Judicial Yuan's interpretation number 76 of the Constitution (1957), the parliament of the republic includes all three of the National Assembly (now abolished), the Legislative Yuan, and the Control Yuan. However, after constitutional amendments effectively transferring almost all of the National Assembly's powers to the Legislative Yuan in the late 1990s, it has become more common in Taiwanese newspapers to refer to the Legislative Yuan as “the parliament” (國會; guóhuì; Kok-hōe).
In government, unicameralism is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The island of Taiwan has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. Taipei is the capital and largest metropolitan area. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and Taoyuan. With 23.5 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated states, and is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations (UN).
Starting with the 2008 legislative elections, drastic changes were made to the Legislative Yuan in accordance with a constitutional amendment passed in 2005. The Legislative Yuan has 113 members, down from 225. Legislators are elected to office through the following ways:
The Election for the 7th Legislative Yuan of Taiwan was held on January 12, 2008. The results gave the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Pan-Blue Coalition a supermajority in the legislature, handing a heavy defeat to then-President Chen Shui-bian's Democratic Progressive Party, which won the remaining 27 seats only. The junior partner in the Pan-Green Coalition, the Taiwan Solidarity Union, won no seats.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body --- each citizen voter being represented proportionately as by Evaluative Proportional Representation located in Section 5.5.5, or by each party being represented proportionately. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party as their favorite, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result - not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.
The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. It contrasts with various divisor methods.
Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gāoshān people, are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number almost 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population—or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese plain indigenous peoples officially in the future. Recent research suggests their ancestors may have been living on Taiwan for approximately 5,500 years in relative isolation before a major Han immigration from mainland China began in the 17th century. Taiwanese aborigines are Austronesian peoples, with linguistic and genetic ties to other Austronesian people. Related ethnic groups include Polynesians, most people of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei, among others.
Members serve four-year terms, with the 9th Legislative term serving from 1 February 2016. The 5 largest parties with 3 seats or more can form caucuses. If there are fewer than 5 such parties, legislators in other parties or with no party affiliation can form caucuses with at least 4 members.
|Democratic Progressive Party Caucus||Ker Chien-ming (majority)||69|
|Democratic Progressive Party (DPP)||68|
|Kuomintang Caucus||Johnny Chiang (minority)||35|
|New Power Party (NPP)||Hsu Yung-ming (third-party)||5|
|People First Party Caucus||Lee Hung-chun (third-party)||4|
|People First Party (PFP)||3|
|Non-Partisan Solidarity Union (NPSU)||1|
|(as of 22 Mar 2019)||Total||113|
The previous legislature had 225 members. Legislators were elected in the following ways:
Single non-transferable vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections.
Overseas Chinese are people of ethnic Chinese birth or descent who reside outside the territories of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Although a vast majority are Han Chinese, the group represents virtually all ethnic groups in China.
Su Jia-chyuan is a Taiwanese politician of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP).
The President of the Legislative Yuan (立法院院長) is presiding officer of the Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China. The incumbent president is Su Jia-chyuan, a Democratic Progressive Party at-large legislator and the first DPP President of the Legislative Yuan.
Wang Jin-pyng, is a Taiwanese politician. He served as President of the Legislative Yuan from 1999 to 2016, which makes him Taiwan's longest-serving legislative speaker. Once a leading figure of the Kuomintang (KMT), Wang is considered to be soft-spoken and a conciliatory figure who has often brokered deals between the KMT and opposition DPP. He was replaced by Democratic Progressive Party's Su Jia-chyuan as President of the Legislative Yuan after a decisive victory for the DPP in the 2016 election.
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The original Legislative Yuan was formed in the original Capital of Nanjing after the completion of the Northern Expedition. Its 51 members were appointed to a term of two years. The 4th Legislative Yuan under this period had its members expanded to 194, and its term in office was extended to 14 years because of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45). According to KMT political theory, these first four sessions marked the period of political tutelage.
The current Constitution of the Republic of China came into effect on 25 December 1947, and the first Legislative session convened in Nanjing on 18 May 1948, with 760 members. Six preparatory meetings had been held on 8 May 1948, during which Sun Fo and Chen Li-fu were elected President and Vice President of the body. In 1949, the mainland fell to the Communist Party and the Legislative Yuan (along with the entire ROC government) was transplanted to Taipei. On 24 February 1950, 380 members convened at the Sun Yat-sen Hall in Taipei.
The first Legislative Yuan was to have been elected for a term of three years ending in 1951; however, the fall of the Mainland made it impossible to hold new elections.As a result, the Judicial Yuan decided that the members of the Legislative Yuan would continue to hold office until new elections could be held on the Mainland. This decision was made in the belief that the KMT would retake the Mainland in a short time. However, over the years, as the prospect of regaining the Mainland diminished, this meant that the legislators from mainland districts (and members of the ruling KMT) held their seats for life, in a one-party system. The body thus came to be called "the Non-reelected Congress".
Over the years, deceased members elected on the mainland were not replaced while additional seats were created for Taiwan starting with eleven seats in 1969. Fifty-one new members were elected to a three-year term in 1972, fifty-two in 1975, ninety-seven in 1980, ninety-eight in 1983, one hundred in 1986, and one hundred thirty in 1989. Although the elected members of the Legislative Yuan did not have the majority to defeat legislation, they were able to use the Legislative Yuan as a platform to express political dissent. Opposition parties were formally illegal until 1991, but in the 1970s candidates to the Legislative Yuan would run as Tangwai ("outside the party"), and in 1985 candidates began to run under the banner of the Democratic Progressive Party.
The original members of the Legislative Yuan remained until 31 December 1991, when as part of subsequent Judicial Yuan ruling they were forced to retire and the members elected in 1989 remained until the 161 members of the Second Legislative Yuan were elected in December 1992. The third LY, elected in 1995, had 157 members serving 3-year terms. The fourth LY, elected in 1998, was expanded to 225 members in part to include legislators from the abolished provincial legislature of Taiwan Province. The Legislative Yuan greatly increased its prominence after the 2000 Presidential elections in Taiwan when the Executive Yuan and presidency was controlled by the Democratic Progressive Party while the Legislative Yuan had a large majority of Kuomintang members. The legislative elections in late 2001 produced a contentious situation in which the pan-blue coalition has only a thin majority over the governing pan-green coalition in the legislature,making the passage of bills often dependent on the votes of a few defectors and independents. Because of the party situation there have been constitutional conflicts between the Legislative Yuan and the executive branch over the process of appointment for the premier and whether the president has the power to call a special session.
Amid 70% public support, the Legislative Yuan voted 217-1 on 23 August 2004 for a package of amendments to:
The new electoral system installed in 2008 includes 73 plurality seats (one for each electoral district), 6 seats for aboriginals, with the remaining 34 seats to be filled from party lists. Every county has a minimum of 1 electoral district, thereby guaranteed at least one seat in the legislature, while half of the proportionally represented seats drawn from party lists must be women.
Additionally, the Legislative Yuan proposed to abolish the National Assembly. Future amendments would still be proposed by the LY by a three-fourths vote from a quorum of at least three-fourths of all members of the Legislature. After a mandatory 180-day promulgation period, the amendment would have to be ratified by an absolute majority of all eligible voters of the ROC irrespective of voter turnout. The latter requirement would allow a party to kill a referendum proposal by asking that their voters boycott the vote as was done by the KMT with the referendums associated with the 2004 Presidential Election.
A DPP proposal to allow the citizens the right to initiate constitutional referendums was pulled off the table, due to a lack of support. The proposal was criticized for dangerously lowering the threshold for considering a constitutional amendment. Whereas a three-fourth vote of the LY would require that any proposed constitutional amendment have a broad political consensus behind it, a citizen's initiative would allow a fraction of the electorate to force a constitutional referendum. It was feared that allowing this to occur would result in a referendum on Taiwan independence which would likely result in a crisis with the People's Republic of China.
The Legislative Yuan also proposed to give itself the power to summon the president for an annual "state of the nation" address and launch a recall of the president and vice president (proposed by one fourth and approved by two thirds of the legislators and be submitted to a nationwide referendum for approval or rejection by majority vote). The Legislative Yuan will also have the power to propose the impeachment of the president or vice president to the Council of Grand Justices.
An ad hoc National Assembly was elected and formed in 2005 to ratify the amendments. The downsized Legislative Yuan took effect after the 2008 elections.
On 20 July 2007, the Legislative Yuan passed a Lobbying Act.
On 18 March 2014, the Legislative Yuan was occupied by protesting students.
Much of the work of the Legislative Yuan is done via legislative committees, and a common sight on Taiwanese television involves officials of the executive branch answering extremely hostile questions from opposition members in committees. In the 1990s, there were a number of cases of violence breaking out on the floor, usually triggered by some perceived unfair procedure ruling, but in recent years, these have become less common. There was a brawl involving 50 legislators in January 2007 and an incident involving 40 legislators on 8 May 2007 when a speaker attempted to speak about reconfiguring the Central Election Committee. It has been alleged that fights are staged and planned in advance.These antics led the scientific humor magazine Annals of Improbable Research to award the Legislative Yuan its Ig Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 "for demonstrating that politicians gain more by punching, kicking and gouging each other than by waging war against other nations".
The other Yuans are authorized to propose legislative bills to the Legislative Yuan. Legislative bills proposed by the Legislative Yuan have to be cosigned by a certain number of legislators. Once a bill reaches the legislature, it is subject to a process of three readings.
majority plurality only largest minority
|KMT|| Chiang Kai-shek (1948-1975)|
Chiang Ching-kuo (1975-1988)
Lee Teng-hui (1988-1992)
| Tung Gun-shin (1948-1950)|
Liu Jin-chin (1950-1951)
Huang Guo-shu (1951-1952)
Chang Tao-fan (1952-1961)
Huang Guo-shu (1961-1972)
Ni Wen-ya (1972-1988)
Liu Kwo-tsai (1988-1990)
Liang Su-yung (1990-1992)
Liu Sung-pan (1992)
Chiang Peng-chien (1986-1987)
Yao Chia-wen (1987-1988)
Huang Shin-chieh (1988-1992)
Hsu Hsin-liang (1992)
| CYP |
|KMT||Lee Teng-hui||95||Liu Sung-pan||51||Shih Ming-teh|| Hsu Hsin-liang (1992-1993)|
Shih Ming-teh (1993-1995)
|KMT||Lee Teng-hui||85||Liu Sung-pan||54||Shih Ming-teh|| Shih Ming-teh (1995-1996)|
Hsu Hsin-liang (1996-1998)
Lin Yi-hsiung (1998)
|21||Chou Yang-shan||Chen Kuei-miao||NP|
|KMT|| Lee Teng-hui (1998-2000)|
Lien Chan (2000-2001)
|Hong Yuh-chin||123||Wang Jin-pyng||70||Shih Ming-teh|| Lin Yi-hsiung (1998-2000)|
Frank Hsieh Chang-ting (2000-2001)
|11||Hsieh Chi-ta (2001)||Chou Yang-shan||NP|
|DPP|| Frank Hsieh Chang-ting (2001-2002)|
Chen Shui-bian (2002-2004)
|Ker Chien-ming||87||Wang Jin-pyng||68||Hong Yuh-chin||Lien Chan||KMT||225|
|46||Chung Shao-ho||James Soong Chu-yu||PFP|
|13||Liao Pen-yen||Huang Chu-wen||TSU|
|DPP|| Su Tseng-chang (2005)|
Yu Shyi-kun (2006-2007)
Chen Shui-bian (2007-2008)
|Ker Chien-ming||89||Wang Jin-pyng||79||Tseng Yung-chuan|| Lien Chan (2004-2005)|
Ma Ying-jeou (2005-2007)
Wu Po-hsiung (2007)
Chiang Pin-kung (2007)
Wu Po-hsiung (2007-2008)
|34||Daniel Huang||James Soong Chu-yu||PFP|
|12|| Huang Chu-wen (2004)|
Shu Chin-chiang (2005-2006)
Huang Kun-huei (2007-2008)
|6||Yen Ching-piao||Chang Po-ya||NPSU|
| 7th |
|KMT|| Wu Po-hsiung (2008-2009)|
Ma Ying-jeou (2009-2012)
| Tseng Yung-chuan (2008)|
Lin Yi-shih (2008-2012)
|81–74||Wang Jin-pyng||27–33||Ker Chien-ming|| Chen Shui-bian (2008)|
Tsai Ing-wen (2008-2012)
|1||James Soong Chu-yu||PFP|
|1||Hong Yi Ping||Indep.|
| 8th |
|KMT|| Ma Ying-jeou (2012-2014)|
Wu Den-yih (2014-2015)
Eric Chu Li-luan (2015-2016)
| Lin Hung-chih (2012-2014)|
Alex Fai Hrong-tai (2014-2015)
Lai Shyh-bao (2015-2016)
|64–66||Wang Jin-pyng||40||Ker Chien-ming|| Tsai Ing-wen (2012)|
Su Tseng-chang (2012-2014)
Tsai Ing-wen (2014-2016)
|3|| Lisa Huang |
|3–2||Thomas Lee||James Soong Chu-yu||PFP|
| 9th |
|DPP||Tsai Ing-wen||Ker Chien-ming||68||Su Jia-chyuan||35|| Lai Shyh-bao (2016)|
Liao Kuo-tung (2016-2017)
Lin Te-fu (2017-2018)
Johnny Chiang (2018-)
| Huang Min-hui (2016)|
Hung Hsiu-chu (2016-2017)
Wu Den-yih (2017-)
|5||Hsu Yung-ming||Huang Kuo-chang||NPP|
|3||Lee Hung-chun||James Soong Chu-yu||PFP|
The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is a Taiwanese nationalist and centrist political party in Taiwan. Controlling both the Taiwan Presidency and the unicameral Legislative Yuan, it is the majority ruling party and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition.
The politics of the Republic of China take place in a framework of a representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Premier is head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in primarily with the parliament and limited by government. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The party system is dominated by the Kuomintang, which favors closer links to mainland China, and the Democratic Progressive Party, which favors Taiwanese independence.
The pan-Blue coalition, pan-Blue force or pan-Blue groups is a loose political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), New Party (CNP), Non-Partisan Solidarity Union (NPSU) and Minkuotang (MKT). The name comes from the party colours of the Kuomintang. This coalition tends to favor a Chinese nationalist identity over a separate Taiwanese one and favors a softer policy and greater economic linkage with the People's Republic of China, as opposed to the Pan-Green Coalition.
The National Assembly were several national parliamentary government organizations of the Republic of China.
The Constitution of the Republic of China, with its Additional Articles, is the supreme law of the Republic of China currently effective in Taiwan. It was ratified by the Kuomintang-led National Constituent Assembly session on December 25, 1946 and adopted on December 25, 1947.
The Premier of the Republic of China, officially the President of the Executive Yuan (行政院院長), is head of the government of the Republic of China and leader of the Executive Yuan. The Premier is appointed by the President of the Republic without approval by the Legislative Yuan.
The Election for the 6th Legislative Yuan (第六屆立法委員選舉) of Taiwan was held on December 11, 2004. All 225 seats of the Legislative Yuan were up for election: 168 elected by popular vote, 41 elected on the basis of the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties, eight elected from overseas Chinese constituencies on the basis of the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties, eight elected by popular vote among the aboriginal populations. Members served three-year terms beginning on February 1, 2005, and ending January 31, 2008. The next term served four years.
This is a timeline of the Republic of China.
An election for the National Assembly took place in Taiwan on Saturday 14 May 2005, from 07:30 to 16:00 local time. It elected an ad hoc National Assembly whose only function was to serve as a constitutional convention in order to approve or reject amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of China already proposed by the Legislative Yuan. The results indicated that the amendments would be approved, as the parties supporting them won an overwhelming majority, and indeed the amendments were passed on June 7, 2005. The election was carried out using purely the party-list proportional representation system. The official campaign period was 07:00 to 22:00 each day from 4 May 2005 to 13 May 2005. Official election broadcasts by the ad hoc coalitions and (established) parties were provided by the Public Television Service Taiwan on 7 May 2005; several unofficial debates were also arranged. Notably, this election saw the temporary breakdown of the traditional two-coalition system in Taiwanese politics: instead of dividing into the Pan-Green Coalition and Pan-Blue Coalition over the political status of Taiwan, the parties divided themselves into larger and smaller parties, with the larger Democratic Progressive Party and Kuomintang in support of the amendments and the smaller People First Party and Taiwan Solidarity Union against them.
The Kuomintang chairmanship election of 2005 was held on July 16, 2005 in Taiwan between Ma Ying-jeou and Wang Jin-pyng. The election was triggered by the retirement of chairman Lien Chan.
Same-sex marriage in Taiwan became legal on 24 May 2019. This made Taiwan the first nation in Asia to recognize same-sex marriage.
The Government of the Republic of China, commonly known as the Government of Taiwan, is the democratic, constitutional government that exercises control over Taiwan and other islands in the free area. The president is the head of state. The government consists of Presidency and five branches (Yuan), the Executive Yuan, Legislative Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Examination Yuan, and Control Yuan.
Referendums in Taiwan at both the national and local level are governed by the Referendum Act of Taiwan, which was enacted by the Legislative Yuan in December 2003. Citizens can propose laws via referendums at the national and local levels. The Referendum Act also allowed people to make changes or abolish laws by referendums.
The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China are the revisions and constitutional amendments to the original constitution to meet the requisites of the nation and the political status of Taiwan. The Additional Articles is usually attached after the original constitution as a separate document. It also has its own preamble and article ordering different from the original constitution.
Tuan Yi-kang is a Taiwanese politician. A former leader of the Democratic Progressive Party's now-abolished New Tide faction, he has served on the party's Central Standing Committee, the Taipei City Council and the Legislative Yuan.
Chung Shao-ho is a Taiwanese politician who served in the Legislative Yuan from 1999 to 2012.
Hsu Shu-hua is a Taiwanese politician.
Lin Pin-kuan or Peter Lin is a Taiwanese politician. First elected to the Legislative Yuan as a member of the Kuomintang in 1995, he continued serving until 2012. In 2004, Lin switched affiliations to the Non-Partisan Solidarity Union, and became chairman of the NPSU in 2007.
Chen Chin-te, also known as Derek Chen, is a Taiwanese politician.
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