|Category||Special municipalities, counties, and cities|
|Location||Free area of the Republic of China|
|Number||3 (as of 2019)|
|This article is part of a series on|
| Administrative divisions|
| Historical divisions of|
Republic of China (1912–49)
A city,previously provincial city, is an administrative division unit in Taiwan.
The first administrative divisions entitled "city" were established in the 1920s when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. At this time cities were under the jurisdiction of prefectures. After the World War II, nine (9) out of eleven (11) prefectural cities established by the Japanese government were reform into provincial cities. Their roman spellings are also changed to reflect the official language shift from Japanese to Mandarin Chinese, but characters remain the same.
The reform was based on the Laws on the City Formation (市組織法) of the Republic of China. This law was passed in the early 20th century. The criteria for being a provincial city included being the provincial capital as well as having a population of over 200,000, or over 100,000 if the city had particular significance in politics, economics, and culture. The division reform in 1945 had some compromises between the Japanese and the Chinese systems, some of the cities with population under the criteria were still be established as provincial cities.
After the government of the Republic of China relocated to Taipei, Taiwan in 1949, the population criterion for provincial cities was raised to 500,000 in the Guidelines on the Implementation of Local Autonomy in the Counties and Cities of Taiwan Province (臺灣省各縣市實施地方自治綱要), which was passed in 1981. It was later raised again to 600,000. Since the streamline of provinces in 1998, provincial cities are all directly under the central government, and are simply referred to as cities.
|1945-10|| Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu,|
Kaohsiung, Keelung, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei
|9||Reorganised from the prefecture-administered cities in the period under Japanese rule.|
|1950-08-16||Chiayi||8||Merged into Chiayi County and became a county-administered city|
|1951-12-01||Changhua, Hsinchu, Pingtung||5||Downgraded to county-administered cities|
|1967-07-01||Taipei||4||Upgraded to a special municipality|
|1979-07-01||Kaohsiung||3||Upgraded to a special municipality|
|1982-07-01||Chiayi, Hsinchu||5||Upgraded from county-administered cities|
|2010-12-25||Taichung, Tainan||3||Merge with Taichung County and Tainan County, and upgraded to special municipalities|
|Current cities: Chiayi, Hsinchu, Keelung (3).|
Currently, the Local Government Act of the Ministry of the Interior applies for the creation of a city, in which a city needs to have a population between 500,000 and 1,250,000 and occupies major political, economical and cultural roles.Note that all three existing cities are not qualified for the population test, they were built for historical reasons.
There are currently three cities, all in Taiwan Province:
| Hokkien |
| Hakka |
|Chiayi||嘉義市||Jiāyì||Chia¹-i⁴||Jiayì||Ka-gī||Kâ-ngi||60.03 km2||East District||東區||1982-07-01|
|Hsinchu||新竹市||Xīnzhú||Hsin¹-chu²||Sinjhú||Sin-tek||Sîn-chuk||104.10 km2||North District||北區||1982-07-01|
|Keelung||基隆市||Jīlóng||Chi¹-lung²||Jilóng||Ke-lâng||Kî-lùng||132.76 km2||Zhongzheng District||中正區||1945-10-25|
Their self-governed bodies (executive and legislature) regulated by the Local Government Act are:
|Government||Mayor||Current Mayor||City Council||No. of seats|
|Chiayi||Chiayi City Government||Mayor of Chiayi||Huang Min-hui||Chiayi City Council||24|
|Hsinchu||Hsinchu City Government||Mayor of Hsinchu||Lin Chih-chien||Hsinchu City Council||33|
|Keelung||Keelung City Government||Mayor of Keelung||Lin Yu-chang||Keelung City Council||32|
|Republic of China|
Taiwan Province is a nominal province of the Republic of China without administrative function. Its existence merely retain within the configuration of constitutional structure as a nominal entity and is no longer deemed to be a local self-governing body or one practical administrative division.
Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, which rank immediately below the national government and form the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. They include 43 prefectures proper two urban prefectures, one "circuit" or "territory" and one metropolis. In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures to replace the urban and rural administrators in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.
Due to China's large population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. The constitution of China provides for three de jure levels of government. Currently, however, there are five practical levels of local government: the provincial, prefecture, county, township, and village.
Taiwan, officially known as the Republic of China (ROC), is divided into multi-layered statutory subdivisions. Due to the complex political status of Taiwan, there is a significant difference in the de jure system set out in the original constitution and the de facto system in use today.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of China, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. The political status of Taiwan Province along with a small fraction of Fujian Province remain in dispute, those are under separate rule by the Republic of China, which is usually referred to as "Taiwan".
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city; formerly known as province-administrated city from 1949 to 1983, is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC), ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs (mayors) of prefectural level cities generally have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities.
A sub-provincial division in China is a prefecture-level city governed by a province promoted by half a level. Thus, it is half a level under the provincial level but half a level above the prefecture-level.
A county-administered city is a unit of administrative division in Taiwan. Under the administrative structure of Taiwan, it is at the same level as a township or a district. Such cities are under the jurisdiction of counties. It is also the lowest-level city of Taiwan, below a city and a special municipality. There are 14 county-administered cities currently.
Prefectures, formally a kind of prefecture-level divisions as a term in the context of China, are used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. There are 333 prefecture-level divisions in China. They include 7 prefectures, 293 prefecture-level cities, 30 autonomous prefectures and 3 leagues. Other than provincial level divisions, prefectural level divisions are not mentioned in the Chinese constitution.
A county-level municipality, county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city, is a county-level administrative division of the People's Republic of China. County-level cities have judicial but no legislative rights over their own local law and are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions. Three of the claim county-level cities are part of the disputed Taiwan Province, but all of them are controlled by the Republic of China as its provincial cities.
There are eleven types of elections in Taiwan which, since 2012, have been unified into general and local elections, each held every four years, typically in January and November respectively. There may also be by-elections. Electoral systems include first-past-the-post, proportional representation, single non-transferable voting, and a parallel mixture of the above.
The bureaucratic administration of Japan is divided into three basic levels; national, prefectural, and municipal. Below the national government there are 47 prefectures, six of which are further subdivided into subprefectures to better service large geographical areas or remote islands. The municipalities are the lowest level of government; the twenty most-populated cities outside Tokyo Metropolis are known as designated cities and are subdivided into wards.
The free area of the Republic of China, also known as the "Taiwan Area of the Republic of China", "Tai-Min Area " or simply the "Taiwan Area", is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control. The area under the definition consists of the island groups of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and some minor islands. This term is used in the "Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China". The term "Tai-Peng-Kin-Ma" is also essentially equivalent except that it only refers to the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu Area, to the exclusion of the South China Sea possessions—Pratas Island (Tungsha/Dongsha) and Taiping Island.
Districts are administrative subdivisions of special municipalities and provincial cities of Taiwan. There are two types of district in the administrative scheme.
A county, constitutionally known as a hsien, is an administrative division unit in the Republic of China (Taiwan). Under the administrative structure of Taiwan, it is with the same level of a provincial city.
A special municipality is an administrative division unit in the Republic of China (Taiwan). Under the administrative structure of the ROC, it is the highest rank of division and is equivalent to a province. Since the streamlining of provinces in 1998, the special municipalities along with provincial cities and counties have all been directly under the central government.
A municipality under the direct administration of central government(simplified Chinese: 直辖市; traditional Chinese: 直轄市; pinyin: zhíxiáshì; lit. 'direct-controlled city'), or, in short form, a municipality, is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China. These cities have the same rank as provinces, and form part of the first tier of administrative divisions of China.
Villages are the basic level administrative subdivisions of Taiwan, under townships, county-administered cities or districts. There are two types of villages depending on the divisions it belongs to.
The history of the administrative divisions of China between 1912 and 1949 refers to the administrative divisions under the Republic of China government control.