Last updated

Kaohsiung City

高雄市 [upper-roman 1]

Takao, Takow, Takau
Kaohsiung Skyline 2020 (cropped).jpg
Kaohsiung MRT Red Line Train (cropped).jpg
Kaohsiung Museum of History face 20070106 (cropped).jpg
Dragon and Tiger Pagodas on Lotus Lake (cropped).jpg
WorkdGame2009 Stadium completed.jpg
Flag of Kaohsiung City.svg
Emblem of Kaohsiung City.svg
Logo (stylized form of )
Etymology: Takao Prefecture
The Harbor City (Gangdu), The Maritime Capital, The Waterfront City
Taiwan ROC political division map Kaohsiung City (2010).svg
Kaohsiung City shown within the Taiwan islands
Coordinates: 22°38′N120°16′E / 22.633°N 120.267°E / 22.633; 120.267 Coordinates: 22°38′N120°16′E / 22.633°N 120.267°E / 22.633; 120.267
CountryFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China (Taiwan)
Seat Lingya District (mayor's office) Fongshan District
   Mayor Chen Chi-mai (DPP)
   Special municipality 2,951.85 km2 (1,139.72 sq mi)
363 km2 (140 sq mi)
Area rank 4 out of 22
9 m (30 ft)
 (October 2019) [3]
   Special municipality 2,773,127
  Rank 3 out of 22
  Density940/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
  Urban density7,100/km2 (18,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Postal code
Area code(s) 07
ISO 3166 code TW-KHH
Flower Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
Tree Cotton Tree (Bombax ceiba)
Website www.kcg.gov.tw/EN (in English)
South China Sea location map.svg
Green pog.svg
Location of Pratas Island and Taiping Island (administered by Cijin District, Kaohsiung) relative to the city of Kaohsiung
Legend: Red pog.svg red: Pratas Island Blue pog.svg blue: Taiping Island Green pog.svg green: Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung City
Kaohsiung Chinese Characters.png
"Kaohsiung" in Chinese characters
Chinese name
Chinese 高雄
Literal meaningJapanese transcription of an old Siraya name
Japanese name
Kanji 高雄市
Kana たかおし

Kaohsiung City [upper-roman 1] ( /ˌkˈʃʌŋ/ ; Mandarin Chinese: [káuɕjʊ̌ŋ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Wade–Giles: Kao¹-hsiung²) is a special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of 2,952 km2 (1,140 sq mi). Kaohsiung city has a population of approximately 2.77 million people and is Taiwan's third most populous city and largest city in southern Taiwan. [4]


Since founding in the 17th century, Kaohsiung has grown from a small trading village into the political and economic centre of southern Taiwan, with key industries such as manufacturing, steel-making, oil refining, freight transport and shipbuilding. It is classified as a "Gamma -" level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, [5] with some of the most prominent infrastructures in Taiwan. The Port of Kaohsiung is the largest and busiest harbour in Taiwan [6] while Kaohsiung International Airport is the second busiest airport in number of passengers. The city is well-connected to other major cities by high speed and conventional rail, as well as several national freeways. It also hosts the Republic of China Navy fleet headquarters and its naval academy. More recent public works such as Pier-2 Art Center, National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts and Kaohsiung Music Center have been aimed at growing the tourism and cultural industries of the city.


Map of Taiwan including Takau (Kaohsiung) (1880) Map of Taiwan (Formosa) in 1880, from- Stanford's map of the empires of China and Japan with the adjacent parts of the Russian Empire, India, Burma etc. LOC 2006458442 (cropped).jpg
Map of Taiwan including Takau (Kaohsiung) (1880)

Hoklo immigrants to the area during the 16th and 17th centuries called the region Takau (Chinese:打狗; Pe̍h-ōe-jī:Tá-káu). The surface meaning of the associated Chinese characters was "beat the dog". According to one theory, the name Takau originates from the aboriginal Siraya language and translates as "bamboo forest". According to another theory, the name evolved via metathesis from the name of the Makatao tribe, who inhabited the area at the time of European and Hoklo settlement. The Makatao are considered by some to be part of the Siraya tribe. [7]

During the Dutch colonization of southern Taiwan, the area was known as Tancoia to the western world for a period of about three decades.[ specify ] In 1662, the Dutch were expelled by the Kingdom of Tungning, founded by Ming loyalists of Koxinga. His son, Zheng Jing, renamed the village Banlian-chiu (Chinese:萬年州; Pe̍h-ōe-jī:Bān-liân-chiu; lit. 'ten-thousand-year region ( zhou )') in 1664.

The name of "Takau" was restored in the late 1670s, when the town expanded drastically with immigrants from mainland China, and was kept through Taiwan's cession to the Japanese Empire in 1895. In his 1903 general history of Taiwan, US Consul to Formosa James W. Davidson relates that "Takow" was already a well-known name in English. [8] In 1920, the name was changed to Takao (Japanese: 高雄, after Takao (Kyoto)  [ ja ]) and administered the area under Takao Prefecture. While the new name had quite a different surface meaning, its pronunciation in Japanese sounded more or less the same as the old name spoken in Hokkien.

After Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China, the name did not change, but the official romanization became Kaohsiung (pinyin :Gāoxióng; Wade–Giles :Kao¹-hsiung²), derived from the Wade-Giles romanization of the Mandarin Chinese pronunciation for 高雄.

The name Takau remains the official name of the city in Austronesian languages of Taiwan such as Rukai, although these are not widely spoken in the city. The name also remains popular locally in the naming of businesses, associations, and events.


Port of Ta-kau (1893) Harbor Takao.jpg
Port of Ta-kau (1893)

The written history of Kaohsiung can be traced back to the early 17th century, through archaeological studies have found signs of human activity in the region from as long as 7,000 years ago. Prior to the 17th century, the region was inhabited by the Makatao people of the Siraya tribe, who settled on what they named Takau Isle (translated to 打狗嶼 by Ming Chinese explorers); "Takau" meaning "bamboo forest" in the aboriginal language. [9]

Early history

Sketch of the Makatao people during the Ching empire Makatao.jpg
Sketch of the Makatao people during the Ching empire

The earliest evidence of human activity in the Kaohsiung area dates back to roughly 4,700–5,200 years ago. Most of the discovered remnants were located in the hills surrounding Kaohsiung Harbor. Artifacts were found at Shoushan, Longquan Temple, Taoziyuan, Zuoying, Houjing, Fudingjin and Fengbitou. The prehistoric Dapenkeng, Niuchouzi, Dahu, and Niaosong civilizations were known to inhabit the region. Studies of the prehistoric ruins at Longquan Temple have shown that that civilization occurred at roughly the same times as the beginnings of the aboriginal Makatao civilization, suggesting a possible origin for the latter. Unlike some other archaeological sites in the area, the Longquan Temple ruins are relatively well preserved. Prehistoric artifacts discovered have suggested that the ancient Kaohsiung Harbor was originally a lagoon, with early civilizations functioning primarily as Hunter-gatherer societies. Some agricultural tools have also been discovered, suggesting that some agricultural activity was also present.

The first Chinese records of the region were written in 1603 by Chen Di, a member of Ming admiral Shen You-rong's expedition to rid the waters around Taiwan and Penghu of pirates. In his report on the "Eastern Barbarian Lands" (Dong Fan Ji), Chen Di referred to a Ta-kau Isle:

It is unknown when the barbarians (Taiwanese aborigines) arose on this island in the ocean beyond Penghu, but they are present at Keeong Harbor (nowaday's Budai, Chiayi), the bay of Galaw (Anping, Tainan), Laydwawan (Tainan City), Yaw Harbor (Cheting, Kaohsiung), Takau Isle (Kaohsiung City), Little Tamsui (Donggang, Pingtung), Siangkeykaw (Puzi, Chiayi), Gali forest (Jiali District, Tainan), the village of Sabah (Tamsui, Taipei), and Dwabangkang (Bali, New Taipei City).

Dutch Formosa

Taiwan became a Dutch colony in 1624, after the Dutch East India Company was ejected from Penghu by Ming forces. At the time, Takau was already one of the most important fishing ports in southern Taiwan. The Dutch named the place Tankoya, and the harbor Tancoia. The Dutch missionary François Valentijn named Takau Mountain "Ape Berg", a name that would find its way onto European navigational charts well into the 18th century. Tankoia was located north of Ape's Hill and a few hours south from Tayouan (modern-day Anping, Tainan) by sail. [10] At the time, a wide shallow bay existed there, sufficient for small vessels. However, constant silting changed the coastline.

During this time, Taiwan was divided into five administrative districts, with Takau belonging to the southernmost district. In 1630, the first large scale immigration of Han Chinese to Taiwan began due to famine in Fujian, with merchants and traders from China seeking to purchase hunting licenses from the Dutch or hide out in aboriginal villages to escape authorities in China.

Qing Dynasty

South Gate of Fongshan County 2010 07 Feng Shan Xian Jiu Cheng Nan Men Yuan Huan .jpg
South Gate of Fongshan County

In 1684, the Qing Dynasty annexed Taiwan and renamed the town Fongshan County (Chinese :鳳山縣; pinyin :Fèngshān Xiàn), considering it a part of Taiwan Prefecture. It was first opened as a port during the 1680s and subsequently prospered fairly for generations. [11]

Japanese rule

Old Kaohsiung Train Station, built during Japanese rule of Taiwan Gallery of Vision for Kaohsiung (old Kaohsiung Station building).jpg
Old Kaohsiung Train Station, built during Japanese rule of Taiwan

In 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan as part of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Administrative control of the city was moved from New Fongshan Castle to the Fongshan Sub-District of Tainan Chō (臺南廳). In November 1901, twenty chō were established in total; Hōzan Chō (鳳山廳) was established nearby. In 1909, Hōzan Chō was abolished, and Takow was merged into Tainan Chō.

In 1920, during the tenure of 8th Governor-General Den Kenjirō, districts were abolished in favor of prefectures. Thus the city was administered as Takao City (高雄市, Takao-shi) under Takao Prefecture.

The Japanese developed Takao, especially the harbor that became the foundation of Kaohsiung to be a port city. Takao was then systematically modernized and connected to the end of North-South Railway. Forming a north–south regional economic corridor from Taipei to Kaohsiung in the 1930s, Japan's Southward Policy set Kaohsiung to become an industrial center. [12] Kaohsiung Harbor was also developed starting from 1894. The city center was relocated several times during the period due to the government's development strategy. [13] Development was initially centered on Ki-au (Chinese : 旗後 ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī :Kî-āu) region but the government began laying railways, upgrading the harbor, and passing new urban plans. New industries such as refinery, machinery, shipbuilding and cementing were also introduced.

Before and during World War II it handled a growing share of Taiwan's agricultural exports to Japan, and was also a major base for Japan's campaigns in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Extremely ambitious plans for the construction of a massive modern port were drawn up. Toward the end of the war, the Japanese promoted some industrial development at Kaohsiung, establishing an aluminum industry based on the abundant hydroelectric power produced by the Sun Moon Lake project in the mountains.

The city was heavily bombed by Task Force 38 and FEAF during World War II between 1944 and 1945. [14]

Republic of China

The Kaohsiung Martyrs' Shrine Gu Shan Zhong Lie Ci .jpg
The Kaohsiung Martyrs' Shrine
The restored Port of Kaohsiung, which was badly damaged in World War II. Kaohsiung Tuntex Sky Tower Innen Bild 2 (2).jpg
The restored Port of Kaohsiung, which was badly damaged in World War II.

After control of Taiwan was handed over from Japan to the government of the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County were established as a provincial city and a county of Taiwan Province respectively on 25 December 1945. The official romanization of the name came to be "Kaohsiung", based on the Wade–Giles romanization of the Mandarin reading of the kanji name. [15] Kaohsiung City then consisted of 10 districts, which were Gushan, Lianya (renamed "Lingya" in 1952), Nanzih, Cianjin, Cianjhen, Cijin, Sanmin, Sinsing, Yancheng, and Zuoying.

During this time, Kaohsiung developed rapidly. The port, badly damaged in World War II, was restored. It also became a fishing port for boats sailing to Philippine and Indonesian waters. Largely because of its climate, Kaohsiung overtook Keelung as Taiwan's major port. Kaohsiung also surpassed Tainan to become the second largest city of Taiwan in the late 1970s and Kaohsiung City was upgraded from a provincial city to special municipality on 1 July 1979, by the Executive Yuan with a total of 11 districts. [16] The additional district is Siaogang District, which was annexed from Siaogang Township of Kaohsiung County.

The Kaohsiung Incident, where the government suppressed a commemoration of International Human Rights Day, occurred on 10 December 1979. Since then, Kaohsiung gradually grew into a political center of the Pan-Green population of Taiwan, in opposition to Taipei where the majority population is Kuomintang supporters.

On 25 December 2010, Kaohsiung City merged with Kaohsiung County to form a larger special municipality with administrative centers in Lingya District and Fongshan District. [17]

On 31 July 2014, a series of gas explosions occurred in the Cianjhen and Lingya Districts of the city, killing 31 and injuring more than 300. Five roads were destroyed in an area of nearly 20 square kilometres (7.7 square miles) near the city center. It was the largest gas explosion in Taiwan's modern history. [18]


The city sits on the southwestern coast of Taiwan facing the Taiwan Strait, bordering Tainan City to the north, Chiayi and Nantou County to the northwest, Taitung County to its northeast and Pingtung County to the south and southeast. The downtown areas are centered on Kaohsiung Harbor with Cijin Island on the other side of the harbor acting as a natural breakwater. The Love River (Ai River) flows into the harbor through the Old City and downtown. Zuoying Military Harbor lies to the north of Kaohsiung Harbor and the city center. Kaohsiung's natural landmarks include Ape Hill and Mount Banping.


Located about a degree south of the Tropic of Cancer, Kaohsiung has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), [19] with monthly mean temperatures between 20 and 29 °C (68 and 84 °F) and relative humidity ranging between 71 and 81%.

Kaohsiung's warm climate is very much dictated by its low latitude and its exposure to warm sea temperatures year-round, with the Kuroshio Current passing by the coast of southern Taiwan, [20] and the Central Mountain Range on the northeast blocking out the cool northeastern winds during the winter. The city, therefore, has a noticeably warmer climate than nearby cities located at similar latitudes such as Hong Kong, Guangzhou as well as various cities further south in northern Vietnam, such as Hanoi. Although the climate is classified as tropical, Kaohsiung has a defined cooler season unlike most other cities in Asia classified with this climate but located closer to the equator such as Singapore or Manila. Daily maximum temperature typically exceeds 30 °C (86 °F) during the warmer season (April to November) and 25 °C (77 °F) during the cooler season (December to March), with the exception when cold fronts strikes during the winter months, when the daily mean temperature of the city can drop between 10~12 °C depending on the strength of the cold front. Also, besides the high temperatures occurring during the usual summer months, daytime temperatures of inland districts of the city can often exceed 33 °C (91 °F) from mid-March to late April before the onset of the monsoon season, with clear skies and southwesterly airflows. Average annual rainfall is around 1,885 millimetres (74.2 in), focused primarily from June to August. At more than 2,210 hours of bright sunshine, the city is one of the sunniest areas in Taiwan. [21]

The sea temperature of Kaohsiung Harbor remains above 22 °C (72 °F) year-round, [22] the second highest of Southern Taiwan after Liuqiu island. [23] According to recent records, the average temperature of the city has risen around 1 degree Celsius over the past 3 decades, from about 24.2 °C (75.6 °F) in 1983 to around 25.2 °C (77.4 °F) by 2012.


Kaohsiung banner.jpg
Kaohsiung's skyline viewed from Kaohsiung Lighthouse in Cijin District, with the 85 Sky Tower right of center.


Historical population
1985 2,379,610    
1990 2,505,986+5.3%
1995 2,619,947+4.5%
2000 2,725,267+4.0%
2005 2,760,180+1.3%
2010 2,773,483+0.5%
2015 2,778,918+0.2%
2019 2,773,198−0.2%
Source: "Populations by city and county in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census.

As of December 2018, Kaohsiung city has a population of 2,773,533 people, making it the third-largest city after New Taipei and Taichung, and a population density of 939.59 people per square kilometer. [4] Within the city, Fongshan District is the most populated district with a population of 359,519 people, while Sinsing District is the most densely populated district with a population density of 25,820 people per square kilometer.

Population change
Amount2,773,483 [25] 2,774,470 [25] 2,778,659 [25] 2,779,877 [25] 2,778,992 [25] 2,778,918 [25] 2,779,371 [25] 2,776,912 [25] 2,773,533 [25] 2,773,198 [25]

Ethnic composition

Han People

As in most Taiwanese cities or counties, the majority of the population are Han Chinese. The Hans are then divided into 3 subgroups, Hoklo, Hakka, and Waishengren. The Hoklo and Waishengren mostly live in flatland townships and the city centre, while the majority of the Hakka population live in the suburbs or rural townships of the northeastern hills.

Indigenous peoples

The indigenous peoples of Kaohsiung, who belong to various ethnic groups that speak languages belonging to the Austronesian language family, live mostly in the mountain indigenous district such as Taoyuan or Namasia. The main indigenous groups in the city include the Bunun, Rukai, Saaroa and the Kanakanavu.

Other ethnicities

As of December 2010, Kaohsiung city hosts around 21,000 foreign spouses. Around 12,353 are People's Republican Chinese, 4,244 are Vietnamese, around 800 Japanese and Indonesians and around 4,000 other Asians or foreigners from Europe or the Americas.

As of April 2013, Kaohsiung hosts 35,074 foreign workers who mainly work as factory workers or foreign maids (not including foreign specialists such as teachers and other professionals). Within around half of which are Indonesians, and the other half being workers from other Southeast Asian countries mainly from Vietnam, the Philippines or Thailand.


Kaohsiung Harbor Gao Xiong Gang Kaohsiung Harbor Quan Mao  (62571253).jpeg
Kaohsiung Harbor
The skyline of downtown Kaohsiung Kaohsiung Skyline.jpg
The skyline of downtown Kaohsiung

Kaohsiung is a major international port and industrial city in the southwest of Taiwan. As an exporting center, Kaohsiung serves the agricultural interior of southern Taiwan, as well as the mountains of the southeast. Major raw material exports include rice, sugar, bananas, pineapples, peanuts (groundnuts) and citrus fruits. The 2,200-hectare (5,400-acre) Linhai Industrial Park, on the waterfront, was completed in the mid-1970s and includes a steel mill, shipyard, petrochemical complex, and other industries. The city has an oil refinery, aluminum and cement works, fertilizer factories, sugar refineries, brick and tile works, canning factories, salt-manufacturing factories, and papermaking plants. Designated an export-processing zone in the late 1970s, Kaohsiung also attracted foreign investment to process locally purchased raw materials for export.

The ongoing Nansing Project is a plan to reclaim 250 hectares (620 acres) of land along the coast by 2011. [26] The Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau plans to buy 49 hectares of the reclaimed land to establish a solar energy industrial district that would be in the harbor's free trade zone. [26]

The gross domestic product (GDP) in nominal terms of Kaohsiung City is estimated to be around US$45 billion, and US$90 billion for the metropolitan region. As of 2008, the GDP per capita in nominal terms was approximately US$24,000.[ citation needed ]

Despite early success and heavy governmental investment, the city suffers from the economic north–south divide in Taiwan, which continues to be the centre of political debate. [27] There has been public aims to shift the local economy towards tourism and cultural industries, with projects such as Pier-2 Art Center, National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts and Kaohsiung Music Center.


The main agricultural produce in Kaohsiung are vegetables, fruits and rice with a total arable land of 473 km2, which accounts to 16% of the total area of the municipality. Kaohsiung has the highest production of guava, jujube and lychee in Taiwan. The main animal husbandry are chicken, dairy cattle, deer, duck, goose, pigs and sheep. The total annual agricultural outcome in Kaohsiung is NT$24.15 billion. [28]

Future investment

Investment inflow of returned-Taiwanese mercahndisers from China due to US-China trade war.
Numbers of merchantsInvestment amounts of money in billions NTDJobs-created
Taoyuan City 39154.015000
Taichung City 35133.810000
Kaohsiung City20146.010000
Tainan City 23123.07500
New Taipei City 921.02650
Taipei City 34.0600




The 85 Sky Tower seen from the Love River Kaohsiung Tuntex Sky Tower.jpg
The 85 Sky Tower seen from the Love River

Main landmarks of Kaohsiung city include the 85 Sky Tower, the ferris wheel of the Kaohsiung Dream Mall, the Kaohsiung Arena and Kaohsiung Harbor. The newly developed city is also known for having a large number of shopping streets, organized night markets and newly developed leisure parks such as the Pier-2 Art Center, E-DA Theme Park, Metropolitan Park, the Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts and Taroko Park.

Natural attractions of the city include Shoushan (Monkey mountain), the Love River, Cijin Island, Sizihwan, the Dapingding Tropical Botanical Garden and Yushan National Park at the northeastern tip of the city. The city also features various historical attractions such as the Old City of Zuoying, a historical town built during the early 17th century, the Former British Consulate at Takao built during the late 19th century, and various sugar and crop factories built under Japanese rule.

Natural attractions

Kaohsiung city includes a wide range of different natural attractions due to its large size and geographical variation, as it is bordered by the Central Mountain Range in the northeast and the warm South China Sea to the west and southwest. The year-round warm climate allows coral reefs to grow along the coasts around Kaohsiung Harbor, with Shoushan Mountain being a small mountain completely made up of coral reefs and calcium carbonate, while the mountainous districts in the northeast include Taiwan's highest mountain, Yushan. Other notable natural attractions include the Mount Banping, Lotus Lake, and Dongsha Atoll National Park, which is currently inaccessible by the public due to military occupation.

Historical sites

Former British Consulate at Takao Former British Consulate at Takao.jpg
Former British Consulate at Takao

A large number of historical sites and monuments were left in the city after the colonization of the Dutch in the 17th century, the Qing dynasty during the 18th and 19th century and the Japanese empire from the late 19th century to the mid 20th century. The city government has protected various sites and monuments from further damage and many have been opened to the public since the early 1980s. Notable historical sites include the Cemetery of Zhenghaijun, Fengshan Longshan Temple, Former British Consulate at Takao, Former Dinglinzihbian Police Station, Meinong Cultural and Creative Center, Former Sanhe Bank, and the Cihou Lighthouse, one of the oldest lighthouses of the city.


Confucius Temple of Kaohsiung Confucius temple Kaohsiung amk.jpg
Confucius Temple of Kaohsiung

Kaohsiung is home to many museums, including the Chung Li-he Museum, Cijin Shell Museum, Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum, Jiasian Petrified Fossil Museum, Kaohsiung Astronomical Museum, Kaohsiung Hakka Cultural Museum, Kaohsiung Harbor Museum, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung Museum of History, Kaohsiung Museum of Labor, Kaohsiung Vision Museum, Meinong Hakka Culture Museum, National Science and Technology Museum, Republic of China Air Force Museum, Soya-Mixed Meat Museum, Taiwan Sugar Museum, Takao Railway Museum and YM Museum of Marine Exploration Kaohsiung.

Parks and Zoos

As the largest municipality in Taiwan, Kaohsiung has a number of newly built leisure areas and parks. Notable parks or pavilions in the city include the Central Park, Siaogangshan Skywalk Park, Fo Guang Shan Monastery, the Dragon and Tiger Pagodas, Spring and Autumn Pavilions, the Love Pier, Singuang Ferry Wharf and Kaohsiung Fisherman's Wharf. Notable zoo in the city includes the Kaohsiung City Shousan Zoo. [30]


Liuhe Night Market Liouho-Night-Market-Kaohsiung.jpg
Liuhe Night Market

Kaohsiung is home to many night markets, such as Jin-Zuan Night Market, Liuhe Night Market Ruifeng Night Market and Zhonghua Street Night Market, and the Kaisyuan Night Market. Other attractions include the Chi Jin Mazu Temple, Dome of Light of Kaohsiung MRT's Formosa Boulevard Station, the Kaohsiung Mosque and the Tower of Light of Sanmin District.

Traditional "wet" markets have long been the source of meat, fish, and produce for many residents. With the arrival of western-style supermarkets in the 1980s and 1990s, such markets have encountered fierce competition. In 1989, the global leader in hypermarkets, Carrefour, entered Asia, opening its first store in Kaohsiung. Due to the success of its Taiwan operation, the French retailer expanded throughout the country and Asia. Jean-Luc Chéreau, the general manager in Taiwan from 1993 to 1999, used this newfound understanding of Chinese culture and ways of doing business with Chinese customers to lead its China expansion starting in 1999. [31] As of February 2020, Carrefour has opened 137 hypermarkets and supermarkets in Taiwan. [32] Despite the fierce competition from "westernized" supermarkets, Taiwan's traditional markets and mom-and-pop stores remain "one of the most popular retail formats for many Asian families when they purchase daily food items and basic household goods." [33]


The majority of those living in Kaohsiung can communicate in both Taiwanese Hokkien and Standard Chinese. Some of the elderly who grew up during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan can communicate in Japanese, while most of the younger population has basic English skills.

Since the spread of Standard Chinese after the Nationalist Government retreated to Taiwan in 1949, Hakka Chinese and various Formosan languages are gradually no longer spoken with the new generation and many Formosan languages are therefore classified as moribund or endangered languages by the United Nations. Nowadays, only elder Hakka people mostly living in Meinong, Liouguei, Shanlin and Jiasian districts can communicate in Hakka and elder Taiwanese aborigines living mostly in the rural districts of Namasia and Taoyuan can communicate with the aboriginal languages. The Taiwanese government has established special affairs committees for both the Aboriginals and the Hakkas to protect their language, culture, and minority rights.


The Dome of Light at Formosa Boulevard Station of Kaohsiung MRT FormosaBoulevardStation.JPG
The Dome of Light at Formosa Boulevard Station of Kaohsiung MRT

Kaohsiung has rich resources of ocean, mountains and forests which shape a unique and active multi-faceted art and cultural aesthetic in public infrastructure and transport, public art, and city architecture, from MRT stations and city space to art galleries. The "Dome light" in the concourse of Formosa Boulevard Station of Kaohsiung MRT is one of the world's largest public glass works of art. [34] The city also has the Urban Spotlight Arcade spanning along the street in Cianjin District. In October 2018, Weiwuying (the National Kaohsiung Centre for the Arts), designed by Mecanoo, opened. [35]


Religion in Taiwan (Government statistics, 2005) [36]

   Buddhism (35.1%)
   Taoism (33%)
  Christianity (3.9%)
   Yiguandao (3.5%)
   Tiandism (2.2%)
   Miledadao (1.1%)
   Zailiism (0.8%)
  Other or undeclared (2.4%)
   Non-religious (18.7%)

The religious population of Kaohsiung is mainly divided into five main religious groups: Buddhist, Taoist, Muslim and Christian (Catholicism and Protestantism). As of 2015, Kaohsiung City has 1,481 temples, the second highest in Taiwan after Tainan. Kaohsiung has also 306 churches. [37]


Buddhism is one of the major religions in Taiwan, with over 35% of Taiwan's population identifying as Buddhist. The same applies to Kaohsiung city. Kaohsiung also hosts the largest Buddhist temple in Taiwan, the Fo Guang Shan Monastery with its Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum. There are also other Buddhist temples such as Fengshan Longshan Temple and Hong Fa Temple.


Around 33% of the Taiwanese population are Taoists, making it the second largest religion of Taiwan. Most people who believe in Taoism also ascribe to Buddhism at the same time, as the differences and boundaries between the two religions are not always clear. Many residents of the area also worship the sea goddess known as Tian Shang Sheng Mu (天上聖母) or Mazu, who is variously syncretized as a Taoist immortal or embodiment of the bodhisattva Guanyin. Her temple on Cijin Island, Chi Jin Mazu Temple, is the oldest in the city, with its original bamboo-and-thatch structure first opened in 1673. The area surrounding it formed the center of the city's early settlement. [38] There are also other prominent Taoist temples such as Fengshan Tiangong Temple, dedicated to the Jade Emperor, Cih Ji Palace, dedicated to Bao Sheng Da Di, Qing Shui Temple, dedicated to Qing Shui Zu Shi and Gushan Daitian Temple dedicated to Wang Ye worship.


Christianity is a growing religion in Taiwan. It was first brought onto the island when the Dutch and Spanish colonized Taiwan during the 17th century, mostly to the aboriginals. Kaohsiung currently hosts around 56,000 Christians.


Besides the majority population of Buddhists and Taoists, Kaohsiung also includes a rather small population of Muslims. During the Chinese Civil War, some 20,000 Muslims, mostly soldiers and civil servants, fled mainland China with the Kuomintang to Taiwan. During the 1980s, another few thousand Muslims from Myanmar and Thailand, whom are mostly descendants of Nationalist soldiers who fled Yunnan as a result of the communist takeover, migrated to Taiwan in search of a better life, resulting in an increase of Muslim population within the country. More recently, with the rise of Indonesian workers working in Taiwan, an estimated number of 88,000 Indonesian Muslims currently live in the country, in addition to the existing 53,000 Taiwanese Muslims. Combining all demographics, Taiwan hosts around 140,000 Muslims, with around 25,000 living in Kaohsiung. Kaohsiung Mosque is the largest mosque in Kaohsiung and the main gathering site of Muslims within the city.



Sometimes Kaohsiung used to be seen as the political opposite of Taipei. While northern Taiwan leans towards the Pan-Blue Coalition in the state-level elections, southern Taiwan, including Kaohsiung, leaned towards the Pan-Green Coalition since the late 1990s. Frank Hsieh of the Democratic Progressive Party was reelected twice as Mayor of Kaohsiung, where he was widely credited for transforming the city from an industrial sprawl into an attractive modern metropolis. Hsieh resigned from the office of mayor to take up the office of Premier of the Republic of China in 2005. The municipal election, held on 9 December 2006, resulted in a victory for the Democratic Progressive Party's candidate Chen Chu, the first elected female mayor of special municipality in Taiwan, defeating her Kuomintang rival and former deputy mayor, Huang Chun-ying. The current mayor of Kaohsiung City is Chen Chi-mai..


Kaohsiung is divided into 38 districts, three of which are mountain indigenous districts. [39] [40] [41] [42] There are a total of 651 villages in which each village is subdivided into neighborhoods (鄰). There are 18,584 neighborhoods in Kaohsiung City. Lingya and Fongshan districts are the administrative centers of the city while Lingya and Sinsing Districts are the two most densely populated districts of the city. Kaohsiung has the most numbers of districts among other special municipalities in Taiwan.

Kaohsiung City's population density 2009 Population density map of Kaohsiung (Dec 2009).svg
Kaohsiung City's population density 2009
Kaohsiung City with its districts before merger with Kaohsiung County in 2010 Kaohsiung Districts.PNG
Kaohsiung City with its districts before merger with Kaohsiung County in 2010
Note: There are several romanization systems used in Taiwan. This table contains both Hanyu Pinyin (the official standard of the central government), [43] and Tongyong Pinyin (the official standard of the Kaohsiung City Government). The major order of districts referred to the code of administrative area.
CodeEnglish nameNative namePopulation [lower-alpha 1] Area
Population density (/km2)Population 2010 [lower-alpha 2] Population change [lower-alpha 3]
64000010 Yancheng District 鹽埕區23,9181.4216,843.6627,399-12.7%
64000020 Gushan District 鼓山區141,20814.759,573.42131,728+7.2%
64000030 Zuoying District 左營區197,87719.3810,210.37191,991+3.1%
64000040 Nanzih District 楠梓區188,24125.837,287.69173,053+8.8%
64000050 Sanmin District 三民區339,52819.7917,156.54354,022−4.1%
64000060 Sinsing District 新興區51,0361.9825,775.7655,287−7.7%
64000070 Cianjin District 前金區26,9081.8614,466.6728,859−6.8%
64000080 Lingya District 苓雅區168,8268.1520,714.85183,948−15,122
64000090 Cianjhen District 前鎮區187,56019.129,809.62199,144−11,584
64000100 Cijin District 旗津區28,0691.4619,225.3429,968−1,899
64000110 Siaogang District 小港區157,90145.443,474.93154,548+3,353
64000120 Fongshan District 鳳山區360,10826.7613,456.95341,120+18,988
64000130 Linyuan District 林園區69,59832.292,155.4070,512−914
64000140 Daliao District 大寮區112,28671.041,580.60108,984+3,302
64000150 Dashu District 大樹區42,08266.98628.2843,955−1,873
64000160 Dashe District 大社區34,42026.581,294.9632,941+1,479
64000170 Renwu District 仁武區89,80536.082,489.0572,202+17,603
64000180 Niaosong District 鳥松區44,92524.591,826.9642,595+2,330
64000190 Gangshan District 岡山區97,15047.942,026.4997,102+48
64000200 Ciaotou District 橋頭區38,32225.941,477.3336,415+1,907
64000210 Yanchao District 燕巢區29,67365.40453.7230,790−1,117
64000220 Tianliao District 田寮區7,03692.6875.928,214−1,178
64000230 Alian District 阿蓮區28,50834.62823.4530,383−1,875
64000240 Lujhu District 路竹區52,18848.431,077.6053,791−1,603
64000250 Hunei District 湖內區29,72120.161,474.2628,827+894
64000260 Qieding District 茄萣區30,03115.761,905.5231,433−1,402
64000270 Yong'an District 永安區13,76622.61608.8514,301−535
64000280 Mituo District 彌陀區19,02514.781,287.2120,433−1,408
64000290 Ziguan District 梓官區35,74111.603,081.1236,726−985
64000300 Cishan District 旗山區36,28794.61383.5439,873−3,586
64000310 Meinong District 美濃區39,092120.03325.6942,993−3,901
64000320 Liouguei District 六龜區12,619194.1664.9914,833−2,214
64000330 Jiasian District 甲仙區5,925124.0347.777,228−1,303
64000340 Shanlin District 杉林區11,662104.00112.1311,842−180
64000350 Neimen District 內門區14,18495.62148.3415,951−11.08%
64000360 Maolin District 茂林區1,941194.0010.011,874+3.58%
64000370 Taoyuan District 桃源區4,256928.984.584,817-11.65%
64000380 Namasia District 那瑪夏區3,148252.9912.443,401-7.44%


Port of Kaohsiung

Northern portion of Kaohsiung harbor viewed from Cijin island lighthouse hill. Ddm 2004 028 Kaohsiung Harbor.jpg
Northern portion of Kaohsiung harbor viewed from Cijin island lighthouse hill.

A major port, through which pass most of Taiwan's marine imports and exports, is located in the city but is not managed by the city government. Also known as the "Harbour Capital" of Taiwan, Kaohsiung has always had a strong link with the ocean and maritime transportation. Ferries play a key role in everyday transportation, especially for transportation across the harbor. With five terminals and 23 berths, the Port of Kaohsiung is Taiwan's largest container port and the 13th largest in the world. [44] In 2007 the port reached its handling capacity with a record trade volume of 10.2 million  twenty-foot equivalent units  (TEU). [45] A new container terminal is under construction, increasing future handling capacity by 2 million  TEU by 2013. [45]

The Port of Kaohsiung is not officially a part of Kaohsiung City, instead, it is administrated by Kaohsiung Port Authority, under the Ministry of Transportation. There is a push for Kaohsiung City to annex the Port of Kaohsiung to facilitate better regional planning.

Kaohsiung is one of the biggest ports in the world for importing shark fins, sold at high prices in the restaurants and shops of Taiwan and China. They are brought in from overseas and are placed out to dry in the sun on residential rooftops near the port.

Kaohsiung International Airport

Kaohsiung International Airport Gao Xiong Guo Ji Ji Chang .JPG
Kaohsiung International Airport

Kaohsiung City is also home to Taiwan's second-largest international airport, the Kaohsiung International Airport, located in Siaogang District near the city's center. It is one of the three major international airports of Taiwan, serving passengers of the entire southern and southeastern part of the country. However, the size of the airport is relatively small, with short runways compared to other major airports of Taiwan due to its age and its location near the city center, making it impossible for large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 to land at the airport. As a result, plans for runway expansion or building a new airport in replacement have been proposed.

Rapid transit

The Kaohsiung MRT Kaohsiung MRT Train at World Games Station.jpg
The Kaohsiung MRT
The Kaohsiung Circular Light Rail KMRT CAF train 2016-08-27.jpg
The Kaohsiung Circular Light Rail

Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit opened for service in March 2008. The MRT is made up of two lines with 37 stations covering a distance of 42.7 km (26.5 mi). [46]

Notably, two of Kaohsiung's MRT stations, Formosa Boulevard Station and Central Park Station, were ranked among the top 50 most beautiful subway systems in the world by Metrobits.org in 2011. [47] In 2012, the two stations respectively are ranked as the 2nd and the 4th among the top 15 most beautiful subway stops in the world by BootsnAll. [48]

Circular Light Rail

Skyline of Kaohsiung viewed from Cianjhen Star light rail station. Kaohsiung-skyline-2018.jpg
Skyline of Kaohsiung viewed from Cianjhen Star light rail station.
Zuoying Station of THSR THSR Zuoying Station and TRA New Zuoying Station 20080712.jpg
Zuoying Station of THSR

The Circular Light Rail Line (also known as the Kaohsiung LRT, Kaohsiung Tram) for Kaohsiung City is a planned light rail line. Construction of Phase 1, known as the Waterside Light Rail began in June 2013 and is in full operation since September 2017. To combat air pollution, usage of the light rail, was well as buses, was made free of charge for electronic ticket holders from December to February, when air pollution is at its peak. [49]


The city is served by the Taiwan Railways Administration's Western Line and Pingtung Line. Kaohsiung Main Station is an underground station, replacing the old ground level station. Taiwan High Speed Rail also serves Kaohsiung City at Zuoying Station in northern Kaohsiung City.


National Stadium WorkdGame2009 Stadium completed.jpg
National Stadium

Kaohsiung is home to Taiwan's largest stadium, the National Stadium, and Kaohsiung Arena. National Stadium is Taiwan's largest international-class stadium with a maximum capacity of 55,000 seats.

Kaohsiung hosted the 2009 World Games at the National Stadium. Nearly 6,000 athletes, officials, coaches, referees and others from 103 countries participated in the 2009 Kaohsiung World Games.

Kaohsiung was also home to the Kaohsiung Truth of the ASEAN Basketball League. They were the first team in the history of the league that was based outside Southeast Asia. The team folded in 2017.


The campus of National Sun Yat-sen University NSYSU campus day03.JPG
The campus of National Sun Yat-sen University
Kaohsiung Municipal Kaohsiung Senior High School KSHS.JPG
Kaohsiung Municipal Kaohsiung Senior High School
Front gate of the Republic of China Military Academy Lu Jun Jun Guan Xue Xiao Da Men .jpg
Front gate of the Republic of China Military Academy
Front gate of the Republic of China Air Force Academy Republic of China Air Force Academy Main Gate Front 20111015b.jpg
Front gate of the Republic of China Air Force Academy

Kaohsiung has a number of colleges and junior colleges offering training in commerce, education, maritime technology, medicine, modern languages, nursing, and technology, as well as various international schools and eight national military schools, including the three major military academies of the country, the Republic of China Military Academy, Republic of China Naval Academy and Republic of China Air Force Academy.


High Schools and Junior High Schools

International Schools

Military Schools

(Note: The lists above are not comprehensive.)

Conferences and events

The Kaohsiung Exhibition Center, built by the Kaohsiung City Government, was opened on 14 April 2014. It includes an exhibition space for 1,500 booths, and a convention hall for 2,000 pax.

The center hosted the Taiwan International Boat Show in May 2014. [50] Another conference and event-related venue is the newly renovated International Convention Center Kaohsiung in 2013.

Sister cities and twin towns

Kaohsiung is twinned with the following locations.

Relative location

See also


  1. January 2020
  2. December 2010
  3. January 2020−December 2010

Words in native languages

  1. 1 2

Related Research Articles

Taichung Special municipality in Republic of China

Taichung, officially Taichung City, is a special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of approximately 2.82 million people and is Taiwan's second most populous city. It serves as the core of the Taichung–Changhua metropolitan area, which is the second largest metropolitan area in Taiwan. The current city was formed when Taichung County merged with the original provincial Taichung City to form the special municipality on 25 December 2010. It is classified as a "Gamma" level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

Pingtung County County of Taiwan

Pingtung County is a county in Southern Taiwan. It has a warm tropical monsoon climate and is known for its agriculture and tourism. Kenting National Park, Taiwan's oldest and largest national park, is located in the county. The county seat is Pingtung City.

Fongshan District District in Kaohsiung, Republic of China

Fongshan District is a district located in southern Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Fongshan is one of the administrative centers of Kaohsiung and is home to the Chinese Military Academy. There are three military units currently located in Fongshan. Both Chinese Military Academy and R.O.C. Army Infantry School were migrated from mainland China and re-established here in 1950. Chung Cheng Armed Forces Preparatory School was established in 1976. These three units used to be the main economic driving force, but their importance seems to diminish gradually as Fongshan has established itself as a conjunction between Pingtung City and Kaohsiung.

Siaogang District District in Southern Taiwan, Taiwan

Siaogang District is the southernmost district of Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan. The second largest airport in Taiwan, Kaohsiung International Airport, is located here.

Cishan District District in Southern Taiwan, Taiwan

Cishan District is a suburban district in northeastern Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Cianjhen District District in Southern Taiwan, Taiwan

Cianjhen District is a district in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. It covers an area of 19,1207 km2 and is subdivided into 59 basic units of municipal administration. Moreover, Cianjhen District has a population is 192,484, as of 2016.

Port of Kaohsiung

The Port of Kaohsiung is the largest harbor in Taiwan, handling approximately 10.26 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) worth of cargo in 2015. The port is located in southern Taiwan, adjacent to Kaohsiung City, and surrounded by the city districts of Gushan, Yancheng, Lingya, Cianjhen, Siaogang, as well as Cijin. It is operated by Taiwan International Ports Corporation, Taiwan's state-owned harbor management company.

Cijin District, Kaohsiung District in Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Cijin District is a district of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, covering Cijin Island (旗津島) and islands in the South China Sea. It is the second smallest district in Kaohsiung City after Yancheng District.

Lingya District District in Southern Taiwan, Taiwan

Lingya District is a district of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The 85 Sky Tower and the Kaohsiung City Hall are located here. Lingya District is the administrative center of Kaohsiung City along with Fongshan District. Its population is around 174,419 as of December 2014.

History of Kaohsiung

The written history of Kaohsiung can be traced back to the early 17th century, though archeological studies have found signs of human activity in the region from as long as 7000 years ago. Prior to the 17th century, the region was inhabited by the Makatau clan of the Siraya aboriginal tribe, who settled on what they named Ta-kau Isle ; "Takau" meaning "bamboo forest" in the aboriginal language. Dutch settlers colonizing Taiwan in 1624 referred to the region as Tankoya and named the harbor Tancoia. The first Chinese records of the region were written in 1603 by Chen Di, a member of Ming admiral Shen You-rong's expedition to rid the waters around Taiwan and Penghu of pirates. In his report on the "Eastern Barbarian Lands", Chen Di referred to a Ta-kau Isle:

It is unknown when the barbarians of the Eastern Lands arose on this island in the ocean beyond Penghu, but they are present at 起魍港, 加老灣, 歷大員, 堯港, Ta-kau Isle, 小淡水, 雙溪口, 加哩林, 沙巴里, and 大幫坑.

Ciaotou District District in Southern Taiwan, Taiwan

Ciaotou District is a rural district in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

Liouguei District, Kaohsiung District in Southern Taiwan, Taiwan

Liouguei District is a rural district of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. It is the third largest district in Kaohsiung City after Tauyuan District and Namasia District. The place-name is derived from the name of a Taivoan community Lakuri or Lakkuli, which emigrated from Vogavon in Tainan, driven to Kaohsiung by the invasion of Han immigrants and Siraya in the late 17th century.

Cianjin District, Kaohsiung District in Southern Taiwan, Taiwan

Cianjin District is a downtown district of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. It is the third smallest district in Kaohsiung City.

Zuoying District District in Southern Taiwan, Taiwan

Zuoying District is a district of Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan. Zuoying District has the most populous village in Taiwan: Fushan Village.

Tainan Special municipality in Republic of China

Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a city in southern Taiwan. The city proper is a special municipality facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan Strait in the west and south. Tainan is the oldest city on the island of Taiwan and also commonly known as the "Capital City" for its over 200 years of history as the capital of Taiwan under Koxinga and later Qing rule. Tainan's complex history of comebacks, redefinitions and renewals inspired its popular nickname "the Phoenix City". Tainan is classified as a "Sufficiency" level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

Special municipality (Taiwan)

A special municipality is an administrative division unit in the Republic of China (Taiwan). Under the administrative structure of the ROC, it is the highest rank of division and is equivalent to a province. Since the streamlining of provinces in 1998, the special municipalities along with provincial cities and counties have all been directly under the central government.

Kaohsiung City Government

The Kaohsiung City Government is the municipal government of Kaohsiung. It was formed after the merger of Kaohsiung County and Kaohsiung City in December 2010. Its chief administrator is the directly elected Mayor of Kaohsiung.

Kaohsiung City's legislative districts consist of 8 single-member constituencies, each represented by a member of the Republic of China Legislative Yuan. From the 2020 election onwards, the number of Kaohsiung's seats was decreased from 9 to 8. This mandatory redistricting eliminated Kaohsiung City Constituency 9, and separated the previous Kaohsiung City Constituency 5 into three parts: West Sanmin to the new Kaohsiung City Constituency 5, Gushan and Yancheng to the new Kaohsiung City Constituency 6, and Cijin to the new Kaohsiung City Constituency 8.


  1. 《中華民國統計資訊網》縣市重要統計指標查詢系統網. Statdb.dgbas.gov.tw (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  2. 1 2 "Demographia World Urban Areas PDF" (PDF). Demographia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  3. 高雄市政府主計處全球資訊網 – 首頁. dbaskmg.kcg.gov.tw (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  4. 1 2 人口統計查詢:本市各區里戶口數月統計. Kaoshiung City Government. Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  5. "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC - Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  6. "Kaohsiung Harbor volume down 1.9 percent last year - Taipei Times". www.taipeitimes.com. 8 January 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  7. "Siraya activists slam ministry over letter - Taipei Times". www.taipeitimes.com. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  8. Davidson, James W. (1903). The Island of Formosa, Past and Present : history, people, resources, and commercial prospects : tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions. London and New York: Macmillan. p. iii. OCLC   1887893. OL   6931635M. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  9. "Kaohsiung Celebrates 100th Anniversary - A Personal Take". The Taiwan Times. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  10. Campbell, William (1903). "Explanatory Notes". Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. p. 548. OCLC   644323041.
  11. "History of Kaohsiung". HotelTravel.com. 1999. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  12. Editor (9 February 2019). "Taiwan's Cultural Plurality and Immigration Policy". Taiwan Insight. Retrieved 26 February 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  13. "Discover Kaohsiung > History". Welcome to Kaohsiung City. 2013. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  14. "US bombing of Taiwan and Han's ignorance - Taipei Times". www.taipeitimes.com. 12 November 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  15. What's in changing a name? Archived 30 June 2007 at Archive.today Taiwan Journal Vol. XXVI No. 19 May 15, 2009 "...while name Kaohsiung is technically the Mandarin pronunciation of the Japanese written version of a Holo Taiwanese rendition of an old aboriginal name..."
  16. "Rezoning Taiwan". Taiwan Today. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  17. News, Taiwan. "Taiwan government approves merger and upgrade of Tainan City and County | Taiwan News | 2009/06/29". Taiwan News. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  18. "Many dead in Taiwan city gas blasts". Taiwan's News.Net. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. "Taiwan sea temperatures of February 2012". Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  21. 1 2 "Climate". Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  22. "Kaohsiung Average Sea Temperatures". Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  23. "Liuqiu island Average Sea Temperatures". Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  24. "Climate". Wunderground. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "內政部戶政司全球資訊網-人口資料庫". 內政部戶政司. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  26. 1 2 "Kaohsiung City to open solar energy industrial zone". Focus Taiwan News Channel. 27 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  27. News, Taiwan. "Major Kaohsiung mayoral candidates face off i..." Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  28. "Current Conditions and Theme for Agriculture". Agriculture Bureau of Kaohsiung City Government. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  29. 鄭鴻達 (21 November 2019). 台商回台投資真假?蘇貞昌秀一張圖揭六都受益高低 – 政經大事 – 產業 (in Chinese). Universal Daily News. Archived from the original on 21 November 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  30. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. Child, Peter (2006). "Lessons from a global retailer: An interview with the president of Carrefour China" (PDF).
  32. "分店資訊". Carrefour 家樂福.
  33. Chen, Yu-Chih; Huang, Chi-tsun; Tsai, Kuen-Hung (2015). "How do wet markets still survive in Taiwan?". British Food Journal. 117: 234–256. doi:10.1108/BFJ-05-2013-0136 via Emerald Insight.
  34. "Art&Culture". Kaohsiung City Government. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  35. Wainwright, Oliver (20 October 2018). "Grand vision: The world's biggest arts venue opens in Taiwan". The Guardian (53545). London. p. 19. Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  36. "Taiwan Yearbook 2006". Government of Information Office. 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
  37. Lee Hsin-fang; Chung, Jake (15 July 2015). "Tainan has most of nation's 12,106 temples". Taipei Times. p. 5. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  38. "Tianhou Temple at Cihou", Official site, Kaohsiung: Bureau of Cultural Affairs of the Kaohsiung City Government, 2008, archived from the original on 6 October 2016, retrieved 16 December 2016. (in Chinese) & (in English)
  39. "Administrative Districts". Kaohsiung City Government. Archived from the original on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2019. Taoyuan District Maolin District Namasia District Jiasian District Liouguei District Shanlin District Meinong District Neimen District Cishan District Dashu District Daliao District Zihguan District Linyuan District Tianliao District Yanchao District Dashe District Renwu District Siaogang District Fongshan District Mituo District Alian District Gangshan District Niaosong District Ciaotou District Nanzih District Zuoying District Gushan District Sanmin District Sinsing District Cianjin District Yancheng District Lingya District Cijin District Cianjhen District Hunei District Lujhu District Cheting District Yongan District
  40. 認識高雄 [Understanding Kaohsiung] (in Chinese). Kaoshiung City Government. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019. 高雄市行政區劃分District 楠梓區 左營區 鼓山區 三民區 苓雅區 新興區 前金區 鹽埕區 前鎮區 旗津區 小港區 鳳山區 茂林區 甲仙區 六龜區 杉林區 美濃區 內門區 仁武區 田寮區 旗山區 梓官區 阿蓮區 湖內區 岡山區 茄萣區 路竹區 鳥松區 永安區 燕巢區 大樹區 大寮區 林園區 彌陀區 橋頭區 大社區 那瑪夏區 桃源區
  41. 臺灣地區鄉鎮市區級以上行政區域名稱中英對照表 (PDF). Online Translation System of Geographic Name, Ministry of Interior. 16 June 2011. pp. 4–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2012. 高雄市 Kaohsiung City Gaoxiong City 直轄市、縣(市)級以上 行政區域名稱係依國際 慣用方式譯寫 鹽埕區 Yancheng District 鼓山區 Gushan District 左營區 Zuoying District{...}楠梓區 Nanzi District 三民區 Sanmin District 新興區 Xinxing District 前金區 Qianjin District 苓雅區 Lingya District 前鎮區 Qianzhen District 旗津區 Qijin District 小港區 Xiaogang District 鳳山區 Fengshan District 林園區 Linyuan District 大寮區 Daliao District 大樹區 Dashu District 大社區 Dashe District 仁武區 Renwu District 鳥松區 Niaosong District 岡山區 Gangshan District 橋頭區 Qiaotou District 燕巢區 Yanchao District 田寮區 Tianliao District 阿蓮區 Alian District 路竹區 Luzhu District 湖內區 Hunei District 茄萣區 Qieding District 永安區 Yong’an District 彌陀區 Mituo District 梓官區 Ziguan District 旗山區 Qishan District 美濃區 Meinong District 六龜區 Liugui District 甲仙區 Jiaxian District 杉林區 Shanlin District 內門區 Neimen District{...}茂林區 Maolin District 桃源區 Taoyuan District 那瑪夏區 Namaxia District
  42. 1.7-鄉鎮市區戶口數 [Population for Township and District]. Ministry of the Interior (in Chinese and English). August 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020. 高雄市 Kaohsiung City鹽埕區 Yancheng District鼓山區 Gushan District左營區 Zuoying District楠梓區 Nanzih District三民區 Sanmin District新興區 Sinsing District前金區 Cianjin District苓雅區 Lingya District前鎮區 Cianjhen District旗津區 Cijin District小港區 Siaogang District鳳山區 Fongshan District林園區 Linyuan District大寮區 Daliao District大樹區 Dashu District大社區 Dashe District仁武區 Renwu District鳥松區 Niaosong District岡山區 Gangshan District橋頭區 Ciaotou District燕巢區 Yanchao District田寮區 Tianliao District阿蓮區 Alian District路竹區 Lujhu District湖內區 Hunei District茄萣區 Jiading District永安區 Yongan District彌陀區 Mituo District梓官區 Zihguan District旗山區 Cishan District美濃區 Meinong District六龜區 Liouguei District甲仙區 Jiasian District杉林區 Shanlin District內門區 Neimen District茂林區 Maolin District桃源區 Taoyuan District那瑪夏區 Namasia District
  43. "Glossary of Names for Admin Divisions" (PDF). placesearch.moi.gov.tw. Ministry of Interior of the ROC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  44. "Top 50 World Container Ports | World Shipping Council". www.worldshipping.org. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  45. 1 2 Dale, Jamie (17 January 2008). "Kaohsiung container port hits full capacity". Lloyd's List Daily Commercial News. Informa Australia. p. 16.
  46. "Introduction: Welcome to MBTU". Mass Rapid Transit Bureau, Kaohsiung City. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  47. "A guide to the fifty most beautiful subway systems in the world". Metrobits.org. 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 December 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  48. "15 of the Most Beautiful Subway Stops in the World". BootsnAll. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  49. "Kaohsiung makes public transport free – Taipei Times". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 30 November 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  50. "Kaohsiung's new venue". TTGmice. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  51. "Yancheng District of Kaohsiung and Dipolog City of Philippines". International Federation of Business and Professional Women, Taiwan. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  52. "Dipolog women's group inks sisterhood agreement with Kaoshiung,Taiwan". Philippine Information Agency. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  53. "Kaohsiung, Panama City forge sister city relations – Politics – FOCUS TAIWAN – CNA ENGLISH NEWS". Focustaiwan.tw. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  54. "Lei Ordinária". Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved 14 May 2015.