Chinese Taipei

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Chinese Taipei
Traditional Chinese 中華臺北 or
中華台北
Simplified Chinese 中华台北
Separate Customs Territory of
Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu
Traditional Chinese 個別 關稅 領域
Simplified Chinese 台澎金马个别关税领域
National Emblem of the Republic of China.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Republic of China
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwanportal

"Chinese Taipei" is the name for Taiwan designated in the Nagoya Resolution whereby the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) recognize each other when it comes to the activities of the International Olympic Committee. The ROC participates under this name in various international organizations and events, including the Olympic Games, the Little League World Series, International Tennis Federation sanctioned tournaments, the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon, the US Open, Paralympic Games, Asian Games, Asian Para Games, Universiade, International Powerlifting Federation, FIFA, the World Kendo Championship, the Overwatch world cup and other eSports, Miss Universe, Miss Chinese International Pageant, FIRST Global, the Metre Convention, and the World Health Organization.

Taiwan state in East Asia

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations (UN).

China State in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

International Olympic Committee ruling body of the Olympic movement

The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

Contents

The term is deliberately ambiguous. To the PRC, "Chinese Taipei" is ambiguous about the political status or sovereignty of the ROC/Taiwan; to the ROC, it is a more inclusive term than just "Taiwan" (which the Kuomintang political party of the ROC, in power at the time, considers just one part of "China", which it, similarly to the PRC, claims to be the rightful government of "China" in its entirety, and to the PRC the use of "Taiwan" as a national name is associated with independence of the area from the PRC) and "Taiwan, China" might be construed as a subordinate area to the PRC. [1]

A policy of deliberate ambiguity is the practice by a country of being intentionally ambiguous on certain aspects of its foreign policy. It may be useful if the country has contrary foreign and domestic policy goals or if it wants to take advantage of risk aversion to abet a deterrence strategy. Such a policy can be very risky as it may cause misinterpretation of a nation's intentions, leading to actions that contradict that nation's wishes.

Taipei Special municipality in Republic of China

Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan. Sitting at the northern tip of the island, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City that sits about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern port city Keelung. Most of the city is located in the Taipei Basin, an ancient lakebed. The basin is bounded by the relatively narrow valleys of the Keelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui River along the city's western border.

Kuomintang political party in the Republic of China

The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

Origins

Chinese Taipei Olympic flag Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg
Chinese Taipei Olympic flag
Flag of the Republic of China, origin of the sun symbol used in Olympic and other "Chinese Taipei" flags Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Flag of the Republic of China, origin of the sun symbol used in Olympic and other "Chinese Taipei" flags
Chinese Taipei Paralympic flag Chinese Taipei Paralympic Flag.svg
Chinese Taipei Paralympic flag
The ROC team at the 2010 Winter Olympics opening ceremony with Chinese Taipei flag 2010 Opening Ceremony - Chinese Taipei entering cropped.jpg
The ROC team at the 2010 Winter Olympics opening ceremony with Chinese Taipei flag

Before the 1600s, the island of Taiwan had numerous independent Taiwanese Aborigines tribes, before suffering colonization by the Dutch and Spanish colonizers in the northern areas. Small portions of Taiwan were colonized by the Chinese and these few southern areas were governed by the Kingdom of Tungning before being annexed by the Qing dynasty in 1683. The central and mountainous areas were still under Indigenous control. Following the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Taiwan was annexed by Japan.

Geography of Taiwan geography of the island in East Asia

Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some 180 kilometres off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait. It has an area of 36,104 km2 (13,940 sq mi), which includes other nearby islands such as Penghu. The East China Sea lies to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest. The island makes up 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China, which is also known as "Taiwan".

Dutch Formosa Dutch colony, 1624–1662

The island of Taiwan, before World War II and until 1970s also commonly known as Formosa, was partly under colonial Dutch rule from 1624 to 1662. In the context of the Age of Discovery, the Dutch East India Company established its presence on Formosa to trade with the Chinese and Japanese, and also to interdict Portuguese and Spanish trade and colonial activities in East Asia.

Spanish Formosa Spanish colony from 1626 to 1642

Spanish Formosa was a small Spanish colony established in the northern tip of the island known to Europeans at the time as Formosa from 1626 to 1642. It was conquered by the Dutch in the Eighty Years War.

After the Surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, the island of Taiwan was placed under the administration of Nationalist Republic of China (ROC) in 1945 and became their newest province. Near the end of Chinese Civil War in 1949, before the post-war treaties were to be signed, the Kuomintang were driven out of the mainland by the Communists who would later establish the People's Republic of China (PRC) in October 1949. The then ruling-party Kuomintang, however, retreated to the occupied Taiwan, thus becoming government in exile and remained for a time as the internationally recognized government of the Republic of China. Most democratic countries (including the United States) initially continued to support the Nationalist government while communist nations recognized the Communist government.

Surrender of Japan surrender of the Empire of Japan during the World War II

The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) was incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with the British Empire and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders were privately making entreaties to the still-neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese. Meanwhile, the Soviets were preparing to attack Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea in fulfillment of promises they had secretly made to the United States and the United Kingdom at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Taiwan Province Streamlined Province in Republic of China

Taiwan Province is a province of the Republic of China without administrative function. Its administrative powers have been transferred to the central and county governments.

As time went on, the increased official recognition of the PRC in international activities, such as when accorded recognition in 1971 by the United Nations, instead of that accorded previously to the ROC saw previously existing diplomatic relations transfer from Taipei to Beijing. [2] The ROC needed to come to a beneficial conclusion to how it would be referred when there was in the same forum participation by the PRC.[ citation needed ]

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 United Nations General Assembly resolution adopted in 1971

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was passed in response to the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1668 that required any change in China's representation in the UN be determined by a two-thirds vote referring to Article 18 of the UN Charter. The resolution, passed on 25 October 1971, recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) as "the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations" and removed the collective representatives of Chiang Kai-shek and the Republic of China from the United Nations.

Beijing Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.

The International Olympic Committee (IOC), had informally been using in international Olympic activities a number of names to differentiate the ROC from the PRC. "Taiwan" was used at the Tokyo Games. [1] In 1979, the PRC agreed to participate in IOC activities if the Republic of China was referred to as "Chinese Taipei". The Nagoya Resolution sanctioned that the Beijing Olympic Committee would be called the "Chinese Olympic Committee" and another name would need to be found for the ROC Olympic Committee (ROCOC).

1964 Summer Olympics Games of the XVIII Olympiad, celebrated in Tokyo in 1964

The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before ultimately being cancelled because of World War II.

Chinese Olympic Committee

The Chinese Olympic Committee has been the officially designated body of the People's Republic of China (PRC) regarding the Olympic Games and other affiliated international sport federations since 1979, when the Nagoya Resolution was adopted by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

The majority view of the ROC leadership at the time was that they did not want to change, "Taiwan" might imply without China or Chinese being in the name subordination to the PRC, did not represent all the regions/islands of the ROC and did not give the ROC an opportunity to assert when wanted a claim to territory outside of the ROC. [1]

What people refer to as Taiwan is one of several areas or islands (Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu in addition to Taiwan) and Taiwan alone did not reflect the "territorial extent" of the ROC. Furthermore, although it is true that most products from the area controlled by the ROC are labeled "made in Taiwan", the trade practices of the ROC are such that the regional area of production is used for labeling. Some wines from Kinmen are labeled "made in Kinmen", just as some perfume is labeled "made in Paris" and not "made in France". [1]

Taiwan's own government, the ROC government under the Kuomintang (KMT), rejected the designation of "Taiwan, China" on the grounds that this would imply subordination to the PRC. [1] However, it also refused the names "Taiwan" and "Formosa (simplified Chinese :福尔摩沙; traditional Chinese :福爾摩沙)" as a means of reasserting both its claim as the only legitimate government of all of China, and its uncompromising rejection of Taiwan independence. Instead, deriving from the name of its capital city, the ROC government finally formulated the name “Chinese Taipei,” instead of accepting the offer of “Taiwan,” because “Chinese Taipei” signified an uncertain boundary that could exceed the ROC’s actual territory of control of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, whenever the ROC government wished to assert it. It regarded the term Chinese Taipei as both acceptably neutral and hopeful of assent from other interested parties. Its proposal found agreement. Beijing accepted the compromise position that the ROC Olympic Committee could be named the "Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee". [1]

In April 1979, in a plenary session of the IOC, He Zhenliang, a representative of the PRC, stated:

According to the Olympic Charter, only one Chinese Olympic Committee should be recognized. In consideration of the athletes in Taiwan having an opportunity to compete in the Olympic Games, the sports constitution in Taiwan could function as a local organization of China and still remain in the Olympic Movement in the name of the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee. However, its anthem, flag and constitutions should be changed correspondingly. [3]

In November 1979, in Nagoya, Japan, the International Olympic Committee, and later all other international sports federations, adopted a resolution under which the National Olympic Committee of the ROC would be recognized as the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee, and its athletes would compete under the name Chinese Taipei. [4] [5] The National Olympic Committee of the ROC boycotted the Summer and Winter Games in protest of not being allowed to use the Republic of China's official flag and national anthem. [6]

The name "Chinese Taipei" was formally accepted by the Government of the Republic of China in 1981. [7] [8] A flag bearing the emblem of its Olympic Committee against a white background as the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag was confirmed in January 1981. [4] The agreement was signed March 23 in Lausanne by Shen Chia-ming, the President of Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee, and Juan Antonio Samaranch, the President of the IOC. In 1983, the National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China was chosen as the anthem of the Chinese Taipei delegation. The Republic of China has competed under this flag and name exclusively at each Games since the 1984 Winter Olympics, as well as at the Paralympics and at other international events (with the Olympic rings replaced by a symbol appropriate to the event).

Translation compromise

Both the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) agree to use the English name "Chinese Taipei". This is possible because of the ambiguity of the English word "Chinese", which may mean either the state or the culture. In 1979, the International Olympic Committee passed a resolution in Nagoya, Japan, restoring the rights of the Chinese Olympic Committee within the IOC, meanwhile renaming the Taipei-based Olympic Committee "Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee". Since then, and until 1989 the PRC translated "Chinese Taipei" as "Zhongguo Taipei" (simplified Chinese :中国台北; traditional Chinese :中國臺北; pinyin :Zhōngguó Táiběi), similar to "Zhongguo Hong Kong", connoting that Taipei is a part of the Chinese state. By contrast, the Republic of China government translated it as "Zhonghua Taipei" (simplified Chinese :中华台北; traditional Chinese :中華臺北; pinyin :Zhōnghuá Táiběi) in Chinese, which references the term "China" as the cultural or ethnic entity, rather than the state. In 1981 the former Republic of China Olympic Committee confirmed its acceptance of the Nagoya resolution, but translated "Chinese Taipei" to "Zhonghua Taipei". In 1989, the two Olympic committees signed a pact in Hong Kong, clearly defining the use of "Zhonghua Taipei". [9] The PRC had been observing the Hong Kong pact and using "Zhonghua Taipei" in stipulated areas ever since, but on other occasions, the version of "Zhongguo Taipei" was still in use following past practice, especially in official media references. [10] In the London 2012 Olympic Games opening ceremony, when each country's team proceeds in alphabetical order in English (the host country's language), the Chinese Taipei (TPE) team did not follow China (CHN), but instead took a place in the procession as if its name were "Taipei" or Taiwan, following Syria and preceding Tajikistan instead. In Beijing 2008 it followed Japan and preceded the Central African Republic. [11] This ordering was based on the stroke number and order of each team's name in simplified Chinese, the official script in the PRC.

Other East Asian nations have also had to make unique translation decisions. In Japan, the PRC is referred to by its official Japanese name Chūka Jinmin Kyōwakoku (中華人民共和国), but an English transliteration, Chainīzu Taipei (チャイニーズタイペイ), is used for Chinese Taipei. While in South Korea, the PRC is referred to by its official Hanja name Junghua Inmin Gonghwaguk (중화인민공화국) or (中華人民共和國 in Hanja), whereas Chinese Taipei is referred to as Junghua Taibei (중화 타이베이), which is very similar to the Chinese transliteration.

Use of the name

Chinese Taipei Universiade flag Flag of Chinese Taipei for Universiade.svg
Chinese Taipei Universiade flag

The name "Chinese Taipei" has spilled into apolitical arenas. The PRC has successfully pressured some religious organizations and civic organizations to refer to the ROC as "Chinese Taipei". [12] The Lions Club used to refer to the Republic of China as "Chinese Taipei", but it now uses the name "Taiwan MD 300". [13] Both the International Monetary Fund [14] and the World Bank [15] refer to the Taiwan as "Chinese Taipei", and "Taiwan" does not appear on the member countries list of either organization. The ICSU also refers to the Republic of China as "China Taipei", right below "China CAST". [16] The Republic of China is a member economy of APEC, and its official name in the organization is "Chinese Taipei". [17] It has also participated as an invited in the World Health Organization (WHO) under the name Chinese Taipei. It is the only agency of the United Nations that the ROC is able, provided it is invited each year, to participate in since 1971. [18]

Chinese Taipei Deaflympics flag Flag of Chinese Taipei for Deaf.svg
Chinese Taipei Deaflympics flag

In the Miss World 1998, the government of the People's Republic of China pressured the Miss World Organization to rename Miss Republic of China 1998 to "Miss Chinese Taipei"; it has been competing ever since under that designation. [19] The same happened in 2000, but with the Miss Universe Organization. Three years later at the Miss Universe pageant in Panama, the first official Miss China and Miss Taiwan competed alongside each other for the first time in history, prompting the PRC government to again demand that Miss Taiwan assume the title "Miss Chinese Taipei". The contestant in question, Chen Szu-yu, was famously photographed holding her two sashes. [20] [21] Today, neither Miss Universe nor Miss World, the two largest pageant contests in the world, allow Taiwan's entrants to compete under the Taiwan label. In 2005, the third largest pageant contest, Miss Earth, initially allowed beauty contestant Li Fan Lin to compete as "Miss Taiwan"; a week into the pageant, however, her sash was updated to "Taiwan ROC". In 2008, the official name for the ROC, was changed to "Chinese Taipei". [22]

The title "Chinese Taipei" leads some people to believe that "Taipei" is a country. During the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, while Chinese and Taiwanese news channels referred to the team as Chinese Taipei, most foreign outlets simply called the team Taiwan. [23] For sporting events, the ROC team is abbreviated in Taiwan as the Zhonghua Team (中華隊; Zhonghua being a more cultural rather than political variation of the term China), which, in effect, labels it the "Chinese Team", in the sense of a "team that is of Chinese ethnicity" as opposed to a "team from China".

Starting around the time of the 2004 Summer Olympics, there has been a movement in Taiwan to change all media references to the team to the "Taiwanese Team", and the mainstream Taiwan Television (TTV) is one of the first Taiwanese media outlets to do so. Such usage remains relatively rare, however, and other cable TV channels currently refer to the ROC as the Zhonghua Team and the PRC as the Zhongguo Team, the China team or the mainland China team.

In the 2005 International Children's Games in Coventry, United Kingdom as well as the National Geographic World Championship, the name Chinese Taipei was used too. Chinese Taipei was also the term used by Major League Baseball for the Taiwanese teams that participated in the World Baseball Classic competitions in 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2017, competing under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag. The Little League World Series also refers to the Taiwanese teams as Chinese Taipei (although the uniforms states Asia-Pacific). Tennis players play for teams using the Chinese Taipei name and olympic flag in national competitions such as the Davis Cup, Fed Cup and Hopman Cup.

ROC participating as Chinese Taipei in 2008 APEC Summit in Peru Dmitry Medvedev at APEC Summit in Peru 22-23 November 2008-8.jpg
ROC participating as Chinese Taipei in 2008 APEC Summit in Peru

Recent criticism

Use of the label came under vigorous renewed criticism during the run-up to the 2017 Summer Universiade, hosted in Taiwan. Changing demographics and opinions in the country mean that more than 80% of citizens now see themselves as Taiwanese, not Chinese [24] whereas in 1991 this figure was only 13.6%. [25] This radical upswell in Taiwanese national identity has seen a re-appraisal and removal of "sinocentric" labels and figures established by the government during the period of Martial Law. Moved by a desire to use the country's own national flag and anthem [26] this has included ridiculing the term "Chinese Taipei" not only in the national and international press [27] but by Taiwanese legislators; New Power Party (NPP) Executive Chairman Huang Kuo-chang in particular lambasted the English-language guide to the Universiade for its "absurd" use of the label, illustrating this with statements extracted from the guide rendered nonsensical by their author's insistence on completely avoiding the name "Taiwan" not only when referring to the label under which Taiwanese athletes compete, but even when referring to geographical features such as the island of Taiwan itself. These statements included "Introduction of our Island: [...] Chinese Taipei is long and narrow that lies north to south [sic]," and "Chinese Taipei is a special island and its Capital Taipei is a great place to experience Taipei's culture." Huang added sarcastically, "Welcome to Taipei, Chinese Taipei!" [28]

In response, the guide was withdrawn and shortly thereafter re-issued with the designation "Taiwan" reinstated. The Department of Information and Tourism's division chief explained that Taipei Mayor Ko Wen-Je originally wrote "Taiwan" throughout his introduction of the guide, but that it was changed to "Chinese Taipei" by the International University Sports Federation (FISU) during their review of the document. Due to the public outcry over the controversy, the re-issued "Taiwan" guide was sent for printing without waiting for the response of the FISU. [29]

Taiwan's Social Democratic Party (SDP) member Miao Po-Ya separately criticized the FISU's indiscriminate substitution of "Taiwan" with "Chinese Taipei", pointing out that the "Olympic model" does not prohibit the use of "Taiwan" and citing the example of the 2009 Kaohsiung World Games, in whose material Taiwan was referred to extensively by name, and as a country, without issue. [30]

Miao also claimed that the FISU had also asked organizers to change "Taiwan" to "Chinese Taipei Island" and "New Taiwan Dollar" to "Chinese Taipei Dollar", suggesting that FISU Vice President Liguo Yang (who is also Secretary-General of the Federation of University Sports of China, which is under the control of the Chinese Communist Party) and Xue Yangquing (member of the Federation's media and communication committee) might have exerted China's political influence over the ostensibly non-partisan FISU to downplay Taiwan's national status. [30]

Despite these corrections, hundreds of Taiwanese demonstrated in Taipei, demanding that Taiwan cease using "Chinese Taipei" at sporting events. In a bid to raise international awareness demonstrators unfurled huge banners reading, in English, “Taiwan is not Chinese Taipei” and “Let Taiwan be Taiwan”. [31] [32]

In an apparent error, the re-issued guide still contained a passage reading, "Bravo the Bear, the Universiade mascot, is based on the Formosan black bear, a species endemic to Chinese Taipei." [30]

Reporting on the controversy at the opening of the Universiade, the New York Times shared Taiwanese indignation over the designation, writing "Imagine if the United States were to hold a major international event, but one of the conditions was for it to call itself 'British Washington.'" [33]

2018 referendum

However, the Taiwanese people voted during a referendum in November 2018 to reject a proposal to change their official Olympic-designated name from Chinese Taipei to Taiwan. [34] The main argument for opposing the name change was worrying that Taiwan may lose its Olympic membership under Chinese pressure, which would result in athletes unable to compete in the Olympics. [35] [36]

Other alternative references to the Republic of China

References used in the international context to refer to the Republic of China or Taiwan differ according to the type of the organization.

Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu

The World Trade Organization officially uses "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu" for the Republic of China, but "Chinese Taipei" is frequently used in official documents and elsewhere. [37]

Taiwan

International organizations in which the PRC participates generally do not recognize Taiwan or allow its membership. The ROC is recognized by 16 UN member states and the Holy See. Thus, for example, whenever the United Nations makes reference to Taiwan, which does not appear on its member countries list, [38] it uses the designation "Taiwan, Province of China", and organizations that follow UN standards usually do the same, such as the International Organization for Standardization in its listing of ISO 3166-1 country codes. Certain web-based postal address programs also label the country designation name for Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". Inter-governmental organizations use a variety of terms to designate Taiwan.

In a rare reversal of this tendency, the PRC's state news agency, Xinhua, in July 2017 issued a style guide prohibiting the use of "Taiwan Province" in favor of the preferred name "Taiwan" or "Taiwan Area". Its reason for doing so was ostensibly to "[take] into account the psychological feelings of Taiwanese." [39]

China or Republic of China

President Chen Shui-bian (far left) who attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II was seated in the first row in French alphabetical order beside the then first lady and president of Brazil. Pope johnpaul funeral politics.jpeg
President Chen Shui-bian (far left) who attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II was seated in the first row in French alphabetical order beside the then first lady and president of Brazil.

Some non-governmental organizations which the PRC does not participate in continue to use "China" or the "Republic of China". The World Organization of the Scout Movement is one of few international organizations that continue to use the name of "Republic of China", and the ROC affiliate as the Scouts of China. This is because such Scouting in Mainland China is very limited or not really active. [40] Likewise, Freemasonry is outlawed in the PRC and thus the Grand Lodge of China is based in Taiwan.

Countries that maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan, especially the ROC's older diplomatic affiliates, also refer to the ROC as "China" on occasion; for example, during the funeral of Pope John Paul II, the President of the Republic of China, Chen Shui-bian, was seated as part of the French alphabetical seating arrangement as the head of state of "Chine" between the first lady of Brazil, and the president of Cameroon.

Other non-specified areas

Taiwan is categorized in the United Nations population projections as "Other non-specified areas" within East Asia. [41] [42]

See also

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Chinese Taipei at the 1998 Winter Olympics

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Chinese Taipei at the 1994 Winter Olympics

Due to the political status of Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway. The International Olympic Committee mandates that the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag is used, and not the flag of the Republic of China. In the People's Republic of China (PRC), the team is known as Zhongguo Taibei (中国台北队) or, Taipei, China, where China implies the PRC. China's doing so violates a treaty signed by both countries, Taiwan and China, in which the agreement states that the official name for Taiwan in sporting events is "Chinese Taipei" (中華台北) and not "Taipei, China" (中國台北).

Chinese Taipei at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Due to the political status of Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France. The International Olympic Committee mandates that the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag is used, and not the flag of the Republic of China. In the People's Republic of China (PRC), the team is known as Zhongguo Taibei (中国台北队) or, Taipei, China, where China implies the PRC.

Chinese Taipei at the 1988 Winter Olympics

Due to the political status of Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The International Olympic Committee mandates that the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag is used, and not the flag of the Republic of China. In the People's Republic of China (PRC), the team is known as Zhongguo Taibei (中国台北队) or, Taipei, China, where China implies the PRC.

Chinese Taipei at the Olympics

The Republic of China currently competes as "Chinese Taipei" at the Olympic Games. The ROC first participated at the Summer Olympic Games in 1932. After the Chinese Civil War the ROC retreated to the island of Taiwan and only Taiwan-based athletes have competed in its team since then. The ROC boycotted the Olympics starting from the 1976 Summer Games until it returned to the 1984 Winter Games, and started participating as Chinese Taipei.

Republic of China at the Olympics

The Republic of China (ROC) participated in its first Summer Olympics in 1932 under the name of "China". After the Chinese Civil War the ROC retreated to the island of Taiwan, and only Taiwan-based athletes have competed on behalf of the country since then. The ROC protested the 1979 Nagoya Resolution by boycotting the 1976 Summer Olympics; this continued until the ROC competed under the deliberately ambiguous name "Chinese Taipei" in the 1984 Winter Olympics. China also took part in the Opening Ceremony of the 1924 Summer Olympics, but its four athletes withdrew from competition.

Outline of Taiwan

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Taiwan:

Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee

The Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee is the National Olympic Committee representing the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Chinese Taipei Olympic flag

The Chinese Taipei Olympic flag is used by the Republic of China (ROC) team, which competes under the title "Chinese Taipei" during the Olympic Games and other events, in place of the flag of the Republic of China. This is a result of the complex Cross-Strait relations between the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. The Olympic flag has been in use since 1980, following the decision by the International Olympic Committee that the ROC could not compete under the country's name or flag.

Beer in Taiwan

Beer in Taiwan was dominated by monopoly products until 2002, when free trade became law in Taiwan. The main domestic brand remains Taiwan Beer, brewed by the publicly owned Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation that succeeded the government's monopoly bureau in 2002. Taiwan Beer is primarily sold domestically, though the brewery does make some beer for export to Taiwanese living abroad. In recent years Taiwan Beer has stepped up export to People's Republic of China. Other products such as Zhujiang Beer are also popular.

This narrow-focus article concerns Chinese Olympic politics only. This is the politics, historical and present-day, surrounding the participation in the Olympics of the Chinese Olympic Team, the Chinese Taipei Olympic Team and to a much lesser extent the Hong Kong Olympic Team. This article is not concerned with Sport.

Events in the year 1949 in China.

2017 Summer Universiade

The 2017 Summer Universiade, the XXIX Summer Universiade, commonly known as the Taipei 2017 Universiade, took place in Taipei, Chinese Taipei from 19 August to 30 August 2017.

References

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