Miss Universe

Last updated

Miss Universe
Miss Universe logo.svg
MottoConfidently Beautiful
FormationJune 28, 1952;67 years ago (1952-06-28)
Type Beauty pageant
Headquarters New York City, New York
Location
Official language
English
Key people
Paula Shugart (since 1997)
(President)
Parent organization
IMG/Endeavor
Affiliations William Morris Endeavor
Budget
US$100 million (annually)
Website MissUniverse.com

Miss Universe is an annual international beauty pageant that is run by the United States-based Miss Universe Organization. [1] This is the largest pageant in the world in terms of live TV coverage, airing yearly in more than 190 countries worldwide to an audience of over 500 million people. [2] [3] Along with Miss World, Miss International, and Miss Earth, Miss Universe is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants- the most coveted beauty titles among all the international pageant competitions. [4]

Contents

The Miss Universe Organization and its brand, along with Miss USA and Miss Teen USA, are currently owned by the WME/IMG talent agency. [5] The pageant's advocacy is "humanitarian issues and be a voice to affect positive change in the world." [6] [7]

The current Miss Universe is Zozibini Tunzi of South Africa, who was crowned on December 8, 2019 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

History

Miss Universe sash since 2001-present Miss Universe Sash.jpg
Miss Universe sash since 2001–present

The title "Miss Universe" was first used by the International Pageant of Pulchritude in 1926. This contest was held annually until 1935, when the Great Depression and other events preceding World War II led to its demise.

The current Miss Universe pageant was founded in 1952 by Pacific Knitting Mills, a California-based clothing company and manufacturer of Catalina Swimwear. The company was the sponsor of the Miss America pageant until 1951, when the winner, Yolande Betbeze, refused to pose for publicity pictures wearing one of their swimsuits. In 1952, Pacific Knitting Mills organized the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants, co-sponsoring them for decades to follow.

The first Miss Universe Pageant was held in Long Beach, California in 1952. It was won by Armi Kuusela from Finland, who gave up her title, though not officially, to get married, shortly before her year was completed. [8] Until 1958, the Miss Universe title, like that of Miss America, was dated by the year following the contest, so at the time Ms. Kuusela's title was Miss Universe 1953. Since its founding by Pacific Mills, the pageant has been organized and conducted by the Miss Universe Organization. Eventually Pacific Mills and its subsidiaries were acquired by the Kayser-Roth Corporation, which was in turn acquired by Gulf and Western Industries.

The pageant was first televised in 1955. CBS began broadcasting the combined Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants in 1960, and as separate contests in 1965. More than 30 years later, Donald Trump bought the pageant in 1996 from ITT Corp. [9] Trump struck a broadcasting arrangement with CBS until 2002. In 1998, Miss Universe, Inc. changed its name to the Miss Universe Organization, and moved its headquarters from Los Angeles to New York City. [10] [11] In late 2002, Trump entered into a joint venture with NBC, [1] [12] which in 2003 outbid the other markets for the TV rights. [13] From 2003 to 2014, the pageant was broadcast in the United States on NBC.

In June 2015, NBC canceled all business relationships with Trump and the Miss Universe Organization in response to controversial statements about illegal immigrants who crossed the border from Mexico. [14] [15] As part of the legal settlement, in September 2015, Trump bought out NBC's 50% stake in the company, making him the company's sole owner. Three days later he sold the whole company to WME/IMG. [16] [17] Following the change of ownership, in October 2015, Fox and Azteca became the official broadcasters of the Miss Universe and Miss USA pageants. [18] The current president of the Miss Universe Organization is Paula Shugart, who has held this position since 1997. [19]

During the CBS telecast era, John Charles Daly hosted the Miss Universe Pageant from 1955 to 1966, Bob Barker from 1967 to 1987, Alan Thicke in 1988, John Forsythe in 1989, Dick Clark from 1990 to 1993, Bob Goen from 1994 to 1996, and Jack Wagner in 1998 and 1999. During the NBC telecast era, Billy Bush hosted the Miss Universe Pageant from 2003 to 2005 and 2009, Andy Cohen in 2011 and 2012, and Thomas Roberts in 2013 and 2014. Daisy Fuentes, Nancy O'Dell, Mel B and Natalie Morales are currently the only females to have hosted the event multiple times (from 2002 to 2004, 2005 and 2006, 2008 and 2013, and from 2010 to 2011 and 2014, respectively).

Since its transfer to Fox in 2015, Miss Universe has been hosted annually by Steve Harvey.

Contestant selection

For a country to participate in Miss Universe, a local company or a person should buy the local rights of the competition, through a franchise fee, which involves the rights of image, brand and everything related to the pageant. Often, the owner of this franchise, for contractual breaches or financial reasons, returns the franchise to the Miss Universe Organization, which resells it to a new stakeholder. The reselling of the franchise from one owner to the next is recurrently common in the history of the event. The number of candidates in the contest is inconstant because of the question of the franchisees. In addition, there are problems related to the calendar of the pageant.

Usually a country's candidate selection involves pageants in the nation's local subdivisions, whose winners compete in a national pageant, but there are some countries who opt for an internal selection. For example, from 2000 to 2004, Australian delegates were chosen by a modelling agency. Although such "castings" are generally discouraged by the Miss Universe Organization, Jennifer Hawkins was chosen to represent the country in Miss Universe in 2004 (where she would eventually win the crown). When Australia resumed its national pageant in the following year, Michelle Guy became Miss Universe Australia 2005.

Recent arrivals in the pageant for the 2010s decade include Gabon and Lithuania (2012), Azerbaijan (2013), Sierra Leone (2016), Cambodia, Laos and Nepal (2017), Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia (2018), Bangladesh and Equatorial Guinea (2019), and Uganda and Rwanda (2020). Nepal is the most recent newcomer to place in the semifinals in Miss Universe after making into the Top 10 in 2018, while Botswana remains the most recent first-time entry to ever win Miss Universe on its debut year (in Mpule Kwelagobe in 1999), and Angola is the most recent country to pose its first ever national win in Miss Universe (in Leila Lopes in 2011).

There have also been efforts to revive strong national pageants in Canada, Spain, India and Japan. The organization makes continual efforts to expand the pageant, but the participation of some countries has proven difficult due to cultural barriers to the swimsuit competition, while others such as Mozambique have balked at sending representatives due to the cost. The Miss Universe has historically proven popular in regions like the Americas, Africa and Asia, especially in countries like U.S.A., Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, South Africa, Philippines and Thailand, all of which have appeared in the semifinals multiple times in the last decade.

As of 2020, only three countries have been present at every Miss Universe since its inception in 1952: Canada, France and Germany (West Germany until 1990, as a result of reunification with the East). Since its inception, Miss Universe strictly prohibits age fabrication, and all contestants are not allowed to be pregnant throughout the entire competition (and for winners, up to their reign). This posts a problem, however, for several European countries, which allow 17-year-old contestants to compete in their pageants. Since Miss Universe's minimum age is 18, national titleholders often have to be replaced by their runners-up or another candidate. In recent years, virtually all Miss Universe candidates are required to be at least university degree holders or working professionals from their onset of stints in their national pageants.

Beginning in 2012, openly transgender women were allowed to compete, as long as they won their national pageants. [20] Six years after this rule went into effect, Angela Ponce of Spain became the first openly transgender candidate to compete in the contest, in the 2018 [21] edition. In 2019, Swe Zin Htet became the first openly lesbian woman to compete in Miss Universe. Spain's Patricia Yurena Rodríguez is currently the highest-placed LGBT member at Miss Universe, placing second to Venezuela's Gabriela Isler in 2013, but did not come out until years after the competition. [22] [23] [24] [25]

Main pageant

Throughout the history of Miss Universe, the main contest has varied widely in terms of annual scheduling, but has been held over a two-week period in the -ber months of the year since 2017. From the 1970s through the 1990s, the pageant was a month long. This allowed time for rehearsals, appearances, and the preliminary competition, with the winner being crowned by the previous year's titleholder during the final competition.

According to the organizers, the Miss Universe contest is more than a beauty pageant. Women aspiring to become Miss Universe must be intelligent, well-mannered, and cultured. Often a candidate has lost because she did not have a good answer during the question and answer round, a round that has gained significant importance in recent decades. Delegates also participate in swimsuit and evening gown competitions.

Currently, the final placement of the finalists is determined by a ranked vote, where each judge ranks each of the final three/five candidates, with the contestant posting the lowest cumulative score (thus often, but not necessarily always, the contestant with the most number one votes) becoming the winner. If there is a tie, the higher semifinal scores become decisive. Since 2015, all scores are all tallied from the preliminaries up to the finale.

The winner is assigned a one-year contract with the Miss Universe Organization, going overseas to spread messages about the control of diseases, peace, and public awareness of AIDS. Aside from the job, the winner also receives a cash allowance for her entire reign, a New York Film Academy scholarship, a modelling portfolio, beauty products, clothes, shoes, as well as styling, healthcare, and fitness services by different sponsors of the pageant. She also gains exclusive access to events such as fashion shows and opening galas, as well as access to casting calls and modelling opportunities throughout New York City. From 1996 to 2015, the winner is given the use of a Trump Place apartment in New York City during her reign, which she shares with the Miss USA and Miss Teen USA titleholders. [26]

If the winner, for any reason, cannot fulfill her duties as Miss Universe, the 1st runner-up takes over. This protocol has happened only once as of 2020, when Panama's Justine Pasek succeeded Russia's Oxana Fedorova as Miss Universe in 2002 after the latter's dethronement later that same year. Aside from the main winner and her runners-up, special awards are also given to the winners of the best National Costume, Miss Photogenic, and Miss Congeniality. The Miss Congeniality award is chosen by the delegates themselves. In recent years, Miss Photogenic has been chosen by popular internet vote (the winner used to be chosen by media personnel covering the event).

Final judgment

The competition for the Miss Universe title has seen many changes, although there have been several constants throughout its history. All the contestants compete in a preliminary round of judging (nowadays called the "Preliminary Competition") where the field is narrowed to a select number of semifinalists. This number has fluctuated over the years. The first Miss Universe pageant had ten semifinalists. For the next two years, the number of semifinalists grew to 16. In 1955, the number dropped to a stable 15, which remained through 1970. In 1971, the number was reduced to 12. That number was further reduced to 10 in 1984. This lasted until 2003, when the contest reinstated the Top 15. This selection continued to be the norm until 2015, except in 2006 and 2011 to 2013. In 2006 and since 2018, there are 20 semifinalists, the highest number of contestants through to the semifinals (and with 2018 currently featuring the most competing contestants overall).

From 2011 to 2013, there were 16 semifinalists, 15 chosen by judges and one chosen through Internet votes. In the 2016 edition, there were 13 semifinalists - 12 chosen by judges panel from the quarantine to the preliminary night and one chosen by Twitter and Vodi app. In 2017, 16 semifinalists were selected from 4 different groups each hailing from a different region in the world - Africa & Asia-Pacific, Europe, The Americas - and a wild card group (all regions covered). The wild card spots have been in place since 2017, but 5 semifinalists are chosen per group since 2018.

In the early years, the contestants were judged in swimsuit and evening gown only. Since the 1990s, the contestants are now also judged based on their live interviews with their question and answer responses during the coronation night. The crowning moment usually involves the three (or five) remaining finalists. However, since 2015, the climax round for the live pageant is the question and answer portion of the Top 3 remaining contestants. The contestants also competed in a preliminary interview round in a one-on-one meeting with each individual judge, mostly closed-door sessions, as well as in the national costume show in the preliminaries. The live interview round for the semifinalists was dropped as a separate segment with bearing to determine the winner in 2004, and was integrated in the introduction of the semifinalists since 2016.

The 2018 edition marked the first time that the Miss Universe pageant included the live opening statements after the semifinalists have been announced, to be included in the overall tallies in determining the winner of the competition. The 2019 edition marked the first time ever in Miss Universe pageant's history that the remaining Top 3 contestants are required to deliver their live closing statements, to be included in the overall tallies, right before the announcement of the winner of the competition.

Crowns of Miss Universe

The crown of Miss Universe has changed nine times over the course of its 67-year history. [27]

Recent titleholders

EditionCountryTitleholderNational TitleVenue of CompetitionNumber of Entrants
2019 Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Zozibini Tunzi Miss South Africa Atlanta, United States 90
2018 Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Catriona Gray Binibining Pilipinas Bangkok, Thailand 94
2017 Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters Miss South Africa Las Vegas, United States 92
2016 Flag of France.svg  France Iris Mittenaere Miss France Manila, Philippines 86
2015 Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Pia Wurtzbach Binibining Pilipinas Las Vegas, United States 80

Miss Universe Organization

The Miss Universe Organization is the organization that currently owns and runs the Miss Universe, Miss USA [36] and Miss Teen USA beauty contests. Based in New York, the organization is owned by WME/IMG. The current president is Paula Shugart. The organization sells television rights to the pageants in other countries.

Miss Universe Organization titleholders

The following is a list of all Miss Universe Organization titleholders over the years.

EditionMiss UniverseCountryMiss USAStateMiss Teen USAState
2020TBATBATBA
2019 Zozibini Tunzi Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa Cheslie Kryst Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina Kaliegh Garris Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut
2018 Catriona Gray Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines Sarah Rose Summers Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska Hailey Colborn Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas
2017 Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa Kára McCullough Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia Sophia Dominguez-Heithoff Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri
2016 Iris Mittenaere Flag of France.svg France Deshauna Barber Karlie Hay Flag of Texas.svg Texas
2015 Pia Wurtzbach Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines Olivia Jordan Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma Katherine Haik Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana
2014 Paulina Vega Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia Nia Sanchez Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada K. Lee Graham Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina
2013 Gabriela Isler Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela Erin Brady Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut Cassidy Wolf Flag of California.svg California
2012 Olivia Culpo Flag of the United States.svg United States Nana Meriwether [lower-alpha 1] Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland Logan West Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut
2011 Leila Lopes Flag of Angola.svg Angola Alyssa Campanella Flag of California.svg California Danielle Doty Flag of Texas.svg Texas
2010 Ximena Navarrete Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico Rima Fakih Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan Kamie Crawford Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland
2009 Stefanía Fernández Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela Kristen Dalton Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina Stormi Henley Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee
2008 Dayana Mendoza Crystle Stewart Flag of Texas.svg Texas Stevi Perry Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas
2007 Riyo Mori Flag of Japan.svg Japan Rachel Smith Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee Hilary Cruz Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado
2006 Zuleyka Rivera Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico Tara Conner Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky Katie Blair Flag of Montana.svg Montana
2005 Natalie Glebova Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada Chelsea Cooley Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina Allie LaForce Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio
2004 Jennifer Hawkins Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia Shandi Finnessey Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri Shelley Hennig Flag of Louisiana (1912-2006).svg Louisiana
2003 Amelia Vega Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic Susie Castillo Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts Tami Farrell Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon
2002 Oxana Fedorova [lower-alpha 2] Flag of Russia.svg Russia Shauntay Hinton Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia Vanessa Semrow Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin
Justine Pasek [lower-alpha 3] Flag of Panama.svg Panama
2001 Denise Quiñones Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico Kandace Krueger Flag of Texas.svg Texas Marissa Whitley Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri
2000 Lara Dutta Flag of India.svg India Lynnette Cole Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee Jillian Parry Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania
1999 Mpule Kwelagobe Flag of Botswana.svg Botswana Kimberly Pressler Flag of New York.svg New York Ashley Coleman Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware
1998 Wendy Fitzwilliam Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago Shawnae Jebbia Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts Vanessa Minnillo Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina
1997 Brook Lee Flag of the United States.svg United States Brandi Sherwood [lower-alpha 1] Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho Shelly Moore Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee
1996 Alicia Machado Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg Venezuela Ali Landry Flag of Louisiana (1912-2006).svg Louisiana Christie Lee Woods Flag of Texas.svg Texas
1995 Chelsi Smith Flag of the United States.svg United States Shanna Moakler [lower-alpha 1] Flag of New York.svg New York Keylee Sue Sanders Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas
1994 Sushmita Sen Flag of India.svg India Lu Parker Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina Shauna Gambill Flag of California.svg California
1993 Dayanara Torres Flag of Puerto Rico (1952-1995).svg Puerto Rico Kenya Moore Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan Charlotte Lopez Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont
1992 Michelle McLean Flag of Namibia.svg Namibia Shannon Marketic Flag of California.svg California Jamie Solinger Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa
1991 Lupita Jones Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico Kelli McCarty Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas Janelle Bishop Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire
1990 Mona Grudt Flag of Norway.svg Norway Carole Gist Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan Bridgette Wilson Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon
1989 Angela Visser Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Gretchen Polhemus Flag of Texas.svg Texas Brandi Sherwood Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho
1988 Porntip Nakhirunkanok Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand Courtney Gibbs Mindy Duncan Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon
1987 Cecilia Bolocco Flag of Chile.svg Chile Michelle Royer Kristi Addis Flag of Mississippi (1894-1996).png Mississippi
1986 Bárbara Palacios Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg Venezuela Christy Fichtner Allison Brown Flag of Oklahoma (1941-1988).svg Oklahoma
1985 Deborah Carthy-Deu Flag of Puerto Rico (1952-1995).svg Puerto Rico Laura Martinez-Herring Kelly Hu Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii
1984 Yvonne Ryding Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Mai Shanley Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico Cherise Haugen Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois
1983 Lorraine Downes Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand Julie Hayek Flag of California.svg California Ruth Zakarian Flag of New York.svg New York
1982 Karen Baldwin Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada Terri Utley Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas ↑ No Pageant Held
(established in 1983)
1981 Irene Sáez Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg Venezuela Kim Seelbrede Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio
1980 Shawn Weatherly Flag of the United States.svg United States Jineane Ford [lower-alpha 1] Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona
1979 Maritza Sayalero Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg Venezuela Mary Therese Friel Flag of New York.svg New York
1978 Margaret Gardiner Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg South Africa Judi Andersen Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii
1977 Janelle Commissiong Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago Kimberly Tomes Flag of Texas.svg Texas
1976 Rina Messinger Flag of Israel.svg Israel Barbara Peterson Flag of Minnesota (1957-1983).svg Minnesota
1975 Anne Marie Pohtamo Flag of Finland.svg Finland Summer Bartholomew Flag of California.svg California
1974 Amparo Muñoz Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg Spain Karen Morrison Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois
1973 Margarita Moran Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg Philippines Amanda Jones
1972 Kerry Anne Wells Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia Tanya Wilson Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii
1971 Georgina Rizk Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon Michele McDonald Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania
1970 Marisol Malaret Flag of Puerto Rico (1952-1995).svg Puerto Rico Deborah Shelton Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia
1969 Gloria Diaz Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg Philippines Wendy Dascomb
1968 Martha Vasconcellos Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg Brazil Dorothy Anstett Flag of Washington.svg Washington
1967 Sylvia Hitchcock Flag of the United States.svg United States Cheryl Patton [lower-alpha 1] Flag of Florida.svg Florida
1966 Margareta Arvidsson Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Maria Remenyi Flag of California.svg California
1965 Apasra Hongsakula Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand Sue Downey Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio
1964 Corinna Tsopei Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Greece Bobbi Johnson Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia
1963 Iêda Maria Vargas Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg Brazil Marite Ozers Flag of Illinois (1915-1969).svg Illinois
1962 Norma Nolan Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina Macel Leilani Wilson Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii
1961 Marlene Schmidt Flag of Germany.svg Germany Sharon Brown Flag of Louisiana (1912-2006).svg Louisiana
1960 Linda Bement Flag of the United States (1959-1960).svg United States Linda Bement Flag of Utah (1913-2011).svg Utah
1959 Akiko Kojima Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Japan Terry Huntingdon Flag of California.svg California
1958 Luz Marina Zuluaga Flag of Colombia (WFB 2013).gif Colombia Arlene Howell Flag of Louisiana (1912-2006).svg Louisiana
1957 Gladys Zender Flag of Peru.svg Peru Charlotte Sheffield [lower-alpha 4] Flag of Utah (1913-2011).svg Utah
Mary Leona Gage [lower-alpha 5] Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland
1956 Carol Morris Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg United States Carol Morris Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa
1955 Hillevi Rombin Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Carlene Johnson Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont
1954 Miriam Stevenson Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg United States Miriam Stevenson Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina
1953 Christiane Martel Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France Myrna Hansen Flag of Illinois (1915-1969).svg Illinois
1952 Armi Kuusela Flag of Finland.svg Finland Jackie Loughery Flag of New York.svg New York
Notes
  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Inherited the Miss USA title after the original titleholder became Miss Universe
  2. In 2002, Fedorova was dethroned by the Miss Universe Organization.
  3. Inherited the Miss Universe title after Fedorova was dethroned.
  4. Inherited the Miss USA title after Gage was stripped of the crown
  5. In 1957, Gage was stripped of her Miss USA title when it was revealed that she was married and the mother of two children.

Licensing

Electronic Arts was reportedly developing a video game based on the pageant, but development status is currently uncertain due to the closure of EA Black Box, the studio allegedly developing the game. [37]

See also

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 Natalie Tadena (July 2, 2015).Donald Trump’s Miss USA Pageant Lands on Reelz Cable Channel. Wall Street Journal.
  2. Mthonti, Fezokuhle, By: Fezokuhle (December 20, 2019). "The politics and presence of Zozibini Tunzi". New Frame.
  3. "WME/IMG Acquires The Miss Universe Organization". Archived from the original on December 20, 2015.
  4. Enriquez, Amee (February 2, 2014). "Beauty Pageant Basics". bbc.com. British Broadcasting Corporation . Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  5. Bundel, Ani (December 16, 2018). "Miss Universe is the only major beauty pageant worth watching. Here's why". NBC News . Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  6. Miss Universe, Website (April 20, 2020). "About Miss Universe" . Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  7. Scott, H. Allan (December 16, 2018). "Catriona Gray of Philippines Crowned". Newsweek . Retrieved April 26, 2020.
  8. FUNFARE by Ricky Lo (June 28, 2006). "A misty-eyed look at Armi Kuusela, the 1st Miss Universe". philstar.com. The Philippine Star . Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  9. Prestigious Beauty Pageant (November 18, 2013). "Four Big Ships Dominate International Beauty Pageants". Prestigious Beauty Pageants. Archived from the original on December 17, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
  10. "Miss USA Olivia Culpo is Miss Universe 2012!". India Today . December 19, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  11. Foreman, Jonathan (January 18, 1999). "Mistress of the Universe". New York Post . Retrieved February 24, 2011.
  12. Littleton, Cynthia; Littleton, Cynthia (September 14, 2015). "WME/IMG Acquires Miss Universe Organization From Donald Trump".
  13. Rutenberg, Jim (June 22, 2002). "Three Beauty Pageants Leaving CBS for NBC". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  14. Stanhope, Kate (June 29, 2015). "NBC Cuts Ties With Donald Trump Over "Derogatory Statements," Pulls Miss USA and Miss Universe Pageants". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  15. "NBCUniversal cuts ties with Donald Trump". CNN Money. June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  16. "Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency". The New York Times. September 15, 2015. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  17. Nededog, Jethro (September 14, 2015). "Donald Trump sells the Miss Universe Organization". Business Insider. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  18. "Miss Universe and Miss USA Pageants to Air on Fox". TV Insider. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  19. "PAULA M. SHUGART". Miss Universe. Miss Universe Organization. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  20. Dillon, Nancy (April 10, 2012). "Transgender contestants can compete in Miss Universe". Daily News. New York..
  21. "ÁNGELA PONCE: LA TRANSEXUAL MÁS HERMOSA DE ESPAÑA QUE CAMBIARÁ PARA SIEMPRE MISS UNIVERSO". be Miss Universe Spain (in Spanish). July 9, 2018.
  22. "Hoa hậu Myanmar thừa nhận đồng tính ngay khi thi Miss Universe 2019: Đầy bản lĩnh và đáng nể phục!" (in Vietnamese). November 30, 2019.
  23. "#MissUniverseMyanmar2019 #RoadToMissUniverse2019". Swe Zin Htet. November 29, 2019.
  24. "Miss Universe Myanmar 2019 Comes Out Of The Closet — Reveals She's a Proud Lesbian!". Missosology. November 29, 2019.
  25. Herbst, Diane (December 6, 2019). "Miss Universe's First Openly Gay Contestant Came Out Days Ago: 'I Just Started a New Chapter'". People.
  26. Felicia R. Lee (October 10, 2007). "Three Crowns Sharing One Apartment". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "IN PHOTOS: Miss Universe crowns through the years". Rappler. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  28. "Mikimoto History Timeline". mikimotoamerica.com. Archived from the original on August 1, 2014.
  29. "Connection to MISS UNIVERSE®". diamondnexus.com.
  30. "Diamond Nexus Labs Announced as The Official Jewelry of The Miss Universe Organization". redorbit.com. redOrbit. February 3, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  31. "Miss Philippines, Pia Alonzo Wurzbach, wins "Miss Universe-2015"". armenpress.am.
  32. 4every1 s.r.o. "New Miss Universe to be decorated by crown made by Czech company DIC, for the first time in the pageant's history". Archived from the original on December 25, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  33. "Miss Universe sues". www.usnews.com. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  34. https://www.ajc.com/news/local/miss-universe-unveils-million-crown-used-atlanta-pageant/NP5VPCKzlJv6LDPRvSTNVO/amp.html
  35. https://www.instagram.com/p/B5s0FhYH4z6/
  36. Chareunsy, Don. "Philippines crowned Miss Universe after Harvey wrongly names Colombia winner". LasVegasSun.com. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  37. "10 Awful-Sounding Video Games That (Fortunately) Got Cancelled". WhatCulture.com. November 14, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2017.

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Miss Polonia is a national Beauty pageant in Poland to select the official ambassador of Poland at the Miss World, Miss Grand International and Miss Intercontinental pageants. This pageant is the oldest beauty pageant in Poland.

Miss Earth DR Congo organization

Miss Earth Democratic Republic of the Congo(Miss Earth DR Congo) is the official title given to Democratic Republic of the Congo's delegate to the Miss Earth pageant. This pageant, unlike Miss World or Miss Universe focuses mainly on promoting environmental causes and winners are chosen equally on their physical attributes as well as their understanding and knowledge of the issues affecting the Earth.

Nuestra Belleza Mundo El Salvador was a national Beauty pageant in El Salvador. The winner represented El Salvador at Miss World. Between 2006 - 2015, the winner was given the title of Nuestra Belleza Universo and competed at Miss Universe.

Miss Earth United States Beauty contest

Miss Earth USA is an annual beauty pageant which selects the United States representative to Miss Earth which is an annual international beauty pageant promoting environmental awareness.

This is a list of the Philippines' representatives and their placements at the Big Four international beauty pageants. The Philippines, widely considered a beauty pageant powerhouse, has won in all four pageants with a total of ninety-three placements and fifteen victories:

Marisela de Montecristo is a Salvadoran-American model, television presenter, actress, and beauty pageant titleholder who has been crowned Nuestra Belleza Latina 2013 and Miss El Salvador 2018.

Wendolly Esparza Delgadillo is a Mexican-American journalist, model and beauty pageant titleholder who won Nuestra Belleza México 2014 and represented Mexico at Miss Universe 2015 pageant where she placed in the top fifteen.

Miss Universe 2015 64th edition of the Miss Universe pageant

Miss Universe 2015, the 64th Miss Universe pageant, was held on 20 December 2015 at The AXIS in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States. Paulina Vega of Colombia crowned her successor Pia Alonzo Wurtzbach of the Philippines at the end of the event. After 42 years, this is the third time the Philippines won Miss Universe, after Margarita Moran in 1973. 80 contestants competed for the crown.

Miss USA 2016 65th Miss USA pageant

Miss USA 2016 was the 65th Miss USA pageant. It was held at the T-Mobile Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada on June 5, 2016. Terrence J and Julianne Hough all hosted for the first time, while Ashley Graham served as the backstage host. All fifty states and the District of Columbia competed. Olivia Jordan of Oklahoma crowned her successor, Deshauna Barber of the District of Columbia, at the end of the event. Barber represented the United States at the Miss Universe 2016 pageant, where she placed in the Top 9.

Miss Universe Puerto Rico is a national Beauty pageant in Puerto Rico.

Mikimoto Crown Pageant crown worn by Miss Universe titleholders

The Phoenix Mikimoto Crown, also informally known as the Mikimoto Crown is a pageant crown worn by Miss Universe titleholders.