Phoenix (mythology)

Last updated
A depiction of a phoenix by Friedrich Justin Bertuch, 1806) Phoenix-Fabelwesen.jpg
A depiction of a phoenix by Friedrich Justin Bertuch, 1806)

The phoenix is a long-lived, immortal bird associated with Greek mythology (with analogs in many cultures) that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again. Associated with the sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. Some legends say it dies in a show of flames and combustion, others that it simply dies and decomposes before being born again. [1] In the Motif-Index of Folk-Literature , a tool used by folklorists, the phoenix is classified as motif B32. [2]

Contents

The origin of the phoenix has been attributed to Ancient Egypt by Herodotus and later 19th-century scholars, but other scholars think the Egyptian texts may have been influenced by classical folklore. Over time the phoenix motif spread and gained a variety of new associations; Herodotus, Lucan, Pliny the Elder, Pope Clement I, Lactantius, Ovid, and Isidore of Seville are among those who have contributed to the retelling and transmission of the phoenix motif. Over time, extending beyond its origins, the phoenix could variously "symbolize renewal in general as well as the sun, time, the Empire, metempsychosis, consecration, resurrection, life in the heavenly Paradise, Christ, Mary, virginity, the exceptional man, and certain aspects of Christian life". [3] Some scholars have claimed that the poem De ave phoenice may present the mythological phoenix motif as a symbol of Christ's resurrection. [4]

Etymology

The modern English word phoenix entered the English language from Latin, later reinforced by French. The word first entered the English language by way of a borrowing of Latin phoenīx into Old English (fenix). This borrowing was later reinforced by French influence, which had also borrowed the Latin noun. In time, the word developed specialized use in the English language: For example, the term could refer to an "excellent person" (12th century), a variety of heraldic emblem (15th century), and the name of a constellation (17th century). [5]

The Latin word comes from Greek φοῖνιξ phoinīx. [6] The Greek word is first attested in the Mycenaean Greek po-ni-ke, which probably meant 'griffin', though it might have meant 'palm tree'. That word is probably a borrowing from a West Semitic word for madder, a red dye made from Rubia tinctorum . The word Phoenician appears to be from the same root, meaning 'those who work with red dyes'. So phoenix may mean 'the Phoenician bird' or 'the purplish-red bird'. [7]

Early texts

Exterior to the Linear B mention above from Mycenaean Greece, the earliest clear mention of the phoenix in ancient Greek literature occurs in a fragment of the Precepts of Chiron , attributed to 6th century BC Greek poet Hesiod. In the fragment, the wise centaur Chiron tells a young hero Achilles the following,[ clarification needed ] [8] describing the phoenix's lifetime as 972 times the length of a long-lived human's:

A chattering crow lives out nine generations of aged men,
but a stag's life is four time a crow's,
and a raven's life makes three stags old,
while the phoenix outlives nine ravens,
but we, the rich-haired Nymphs
daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder,
outlive ten phoenixes.

Disputed origins

Classical discourse on the subject of the phoenix attributes a potential origin of the phoenix to Ancient Egypt. Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, provides the following account of the phoenix: [9]

[The Egyptians] have also another sacred bird called the phoenix which I myself have never seen, except in pictures. Indeed it is a great rarity, even in Egypt, only coming there (according to the accounts of the people of Heliopolis) once in five hundred years, when the old phoenix dies. Its size and appearance, if it is like the pictures, are as follow: The plumage is partly red, partly golden, while the general make and size are almost exactly that of the eagle. They tell a story of what this bird does, which does not seem to me to be credible: that he comes all the way from Arabia, and brings the parent bird, all plastered over with myrrh, to the temple of the Sun, and there buries the body. In order to bring him, they say, he first forms a ball of myrrh as big as he finds that he can carry; then he hollows out the ball and puts his parent inside, after which he covers over the opening with fresh myrrh, and the ball is then of exactly the same weight as at first; so he brings it to Egypt, plastered over as I have said, and deposits it in the temple of the Sun. Such is the story they tell of the doings of this bird.

In the 19th century, scholastic suspicions appeared to be confirmed by the discovery that Egyptians in Heliopolis had venerated the Bennu, a solar bird similar in some respects to the Greek phoenix. However, the Egyptian sources regarding the bennu are often problematic and open to a variety of interpretations. Some of these sources may have actually been influenced by Greek notions of the phoenix, rather than the other way around. [10]

Depictions

According to the Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, the "Numidian crane" represents the phoenix on the coinage of Antoninus Pius (r. 138-161) 2016-09 zoo sauvage de Saint-Felicien - Grus virgo 03.jpg
According to the Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, the "Numidian crane" represents the phoenix on the coinage of Antoninus Pius (r. 138–161)
According to Harris Rackham, Pliny the Elder's description of a phoenix in Natural History "tallies fairly closely with the golden pheasant of the Far East" Golden Pheasant, Tangjiahe Nature Reserve, Sichuan.jpg
According to Harris Rackham, Pliny the Elder's description of a phoenix in Natural History "tallies fairly closely with the golden pheasant of the Far East"

The phoenix is sometimes pictured in ancient and medieval literature and medieval art as endowed with a halo, which emphasizes the bird's connection with the Sun. [14] In the oldest images of phoenixes on record these nimbuses often have seven rays, like Helios (the Greek personification of the Sun). [15] Pliny the Elder [16] also describes the bird as having a crest of feathers on its head, [14] and Ezekiel the Dramatist compared it to a rooster. [17]

The phoenix came to be associated with specific colors over time. Although the phoenix was generally believed to be colorful and vibrant, sources provide no clear consensus about its coloration. Tacitus says that its color made it stand out from all other birds. [18] Some said that the bird had peacock-like coloring, and Herodotus's claim of the Phoenix being red and yellow is popular in many versions of the story on record. [19] Ezekiel the Tragedian declared that the phoenix had red legs and striking yellow eyes, [17] but Lactantius said that its eyes were blue like sapphires [20] and that its legs were covered in yellow-gold scales with rose-colored talons. [21]

Herodotus, Pliny, Solinus, and Philostratus describe the phoenix as similar in size to an eagle, [22] but Lactantius and Ezekiel the Dramatist both claim that the phoenix was larger, with Lactantius declaring that it was even larger than an ostrich. [23]

According to Pliny's Natural History , [24]

aquilae narratur magnitudine, auri fulgore circa colla, cetero purpureus, caeruleam roseis caudam pinnis distinguentibus, cristis fauces, caputque plumeo apice honestante.

The story is that it is as large as an eagle, and has a gleam of gold round its neck and all the rest of it is purple, but the tail blue picked out with rosecoloured feathers and the throat picked out with tufts, and a feathered crest adorning its head.

Pliny the Elder,"Naturalis historia", X: 2—translated by Harris Rackham, 1940, LCL: 353, pp. 292–294

According to Claudian's poem "The Phoenix", [25]

arcanum radiant oculi iubar. igneus ora
cingit honos. rutilo cognatum vertice sidus
attollit cristatus apex tenebrasque serena
luce secat. Tyrio pinguntur crura veneno.
antevolant Zephyros pinnae, quas caerulus ambit
flore color sparsoque super ditescit in auro.

A mysterious fire flashes from its eye,
and a flaming aureole enriches its head. Its crest
shines with the sun's own light and shatters the
darkness with its calm brilliance. Its legs are of Tyrian
purple
; swifter than those of the Zephyrs are its wings
of flower-like blue dappled with rich gold.

Claudian,"Phoenix", ll. 17–22—translated by Henry Maurice Platnauer, 1922, LCL: 136, pp. 224–225
5th-century mosaic of a nimbate phoenix from Daphne, Antioch, in Roman Syria (Louvre) Mosaique Phenix 01.JPG
5th-century mosaic of a nimbate phoenix from Daphne, Antioch, in Roman Syria (Louvre)

Appearances

According to Pliny the Elder, Marcus Manilius had written that the phoenix appeared at the end of each Great Year, which he took to have occurred "in the consulship of Gnaeus Cornelius and Publius Licinius", that is, in 96 BC. [24] Another of Pliny's sources, Cornelius Valerianus, is cited for an appearance of the phoenix in 36 AD "in the consulship of Quintus Plautius and Sextus Papinius". [24] Pliny states that a purported phoenix seen in Egypt in 47 AD was brought to the capital and exhibited in the Comitium in time for the 800th anniversary of the foundation of Rome by Romulus, though he added that "nobody would doubt that this phoenix was a fabrication". [24]

Diffusion in later culture

In time, the motif and concept of the phoenix extended from its origins in ancient Greek folklore. For example, the classical motif of the phoenix continues into the Gnostic manuscript On the Origin of the World from the Nag Hammadi Library collection in Egypt generally dated to the 4th century: [27]

Thus when Sophia Zoe saw that the rulers of darkness had laid a curse upon her counterparts, she was indignant. And coming out of the first heaven with full power, she chased those rulers out of their heavens and cast them into the sinful world, so that there they should dwell, in the form of evil spirits upon the earth.
[...], so that in their world it might pass the thousand years in paradise—a soul-endowed living creature called "phoenix". It kills itself and brings itself back to life as a witness to the judgement against them, for they did wrong to Adam and his race, unto the consummation of the age. There are [...] three men, and also his posterities, unto the consummation of the world: the spirit-endowed of eternity, and the soul-endowed, and the earthly. Likewise, there are three phoenixes in paradise—the first is immortal, the second lives 1,000 years; as for the third, it is written in the sacred book that it is consumed. So, too, there are three baptisms—the first is spiritual, the second is by fire, the third is by water. Just as the phoenix appears as a witness concerning the angels, so the case of the water hydri in Egypt, which has been a witness to those going down into the baptism of a true man. The two bulls in Egypt posses a mystery, the Sun and the Moon, being a witness to Sabaoth: namely, that over them Sophia received the universe; from the day that she made the Sun and Moon, she put a seal upon her heaven, unto eternity. And the worm that has been born out of the phoenix is a human being as well. It is written concerning it, "the just man will blossom like a phoenix". And the phoenix first appears in a living state, and dies, and rises again, being a sign of what has become apparent at the consummation of the age.

Detail from the 12th-century Aberdeen Bestiary, featuring a phoenix Phoenix detail from Aberdeen Bestiary.jpg
Detail from the 12th-century Aberdeen Bestiary , featuring a phoenix
The phoenix rising from flames was the symbol of the Greek Mountain Government and the Regime of the Colonels in the mid-20th century Greek Phoenix.svg
The phoenix rising from flames was the symbol of the Greek Mountain Government and the Regime of the Colonels in the mid-20th century

The anonymous 10th century Old English Exeter Book contains an anonymous 677-line 9th-century alliterative poem consisting of a paraphrase and abbreviation of Lactantius, followed by an explication of the Phoenix as an allegory for the resurrection of Christ. [28]

Þisses fugles gecynd   fela gelices
bi þam gecornum   Cristes þegnum;
beacnað in burgum   hu hi beorhtne gefean
þurh Fæder fultum   on þar frecnan tid
healdaþ under heofonum   & him heanna blæd
in þam uplican   eðle gestrynaþ.

This bird's nature   is much like
to the chosen   servants of Christ;
pointeth out to men   how they bright joy
through the Father's aid   in this perilous time
may under heaven possess,   and exalted happiness
in the celestial   country may gain.

—In the original Old English[ citation needed ]—In Modern English translation (1842) [29]

In the 14th century, Italian poet Dante Alighieri refers to the phoenix in Inferno Canto XXIV:

Così per li gran savi si confessa
che la fenice more e poi rinasce,
quando al cinquecentesimo anno appressa;

erba né biado in sua vita non pasce,
ma sol d'incenso lagrime e d'amomo,
e nardo e mirra son l'ultime fasce.

Even thus by the great sages 'tis confessed
The phoenix dies, and then is born again,
When it approaches its five-hundredth year;

On herb or grain it feeds not in its life,
But only on tears of incense and amomum,
And nard and myrrh are its last winding-sheet.

—In the original Italian —In English translation

In the 17th century play Henry VIII by English playwrights William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, Archbishop Cranmer says in Act V, Scene v in reference to Elizabeth (who was to become Queen Elizabeth I):

... Nor shall this peace sleep with her; but as when
The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phoenix,
Her ashes new create another heir
As great in admiration as herself;
So shall she leave her blessedness to one,
When heaven shall call her from this cloud of darkness,
Who from the sacred ashes of her honour
Shall star-like rise as great in fame as she was,
And so stand fix'd ...

Phoenixes are present and relatively common in European heraldry, which developed during the High Middle Ages. They most often appear as crests, and more rarely as charges. The heraldic phoenix is depicted as the head, chest and wings of an eagle rising from a fire; the entire creature is never depicted. [30]

The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix, a Cherokee language newspaper named after (and depicting) the phoenix. Published in New Echota by the Cherokee Nation, 1823. Cherokee Phoenix first issue.jpg
The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix , a Cherokee language newspaper named after (and depicting) the phoenix. Published in New Echota by the Cherokee Nation, 1823.

In the modern era, the phoenix motif continues to see use in a variety of contexts. Elon University's sports teams became known as the Phoenix in 2000, stemming from the colleges fire and subsequent recovery in 1923. University trustees at the time announced their intentions to make Elon "rise from the ashes".

Swarthmore College's newspaper has been named "The Phoenix" since the college's fire in 1881; [31] the phoenix bird was considered emblematic of the college's rebirth from its ashes. More recently, "Phineas the Phoenix" has become the official mascot [32] of Swarthmore College, with a dancing student inside a costume of plush plumage.

The flag of San Francisco features a phoenix in its center, symbolic of the city's rebuilding following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.

The club crest of Coventry City Football Club features a phoenix rising from the flames, in recognition of how the City of Coventry was rebuilt after being destroyed by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during the Blitz bombing campaigns of World War II.

Coventry University use a phoenix rising from the flames as their emblem, tying in with the city they are based, and the same reason Coventry City Football Club carry a phoenix on their club crest.

Portland, Maine's city seal depicts a phoenix rising from ashes, a reference to recovery from four devastating fires. [33]

Analogues

Scholars have observed analogues to the phoenix in a variety of cultures. These analogues include the Hindu garuda (गरुड) and bherunda (भेरुण्ड), the Russian firebird (жар-птица), the Persian simorgh (سیمرغ), the Georgian paskunji, the Arabian anqa (عنقاء), the Turkish Konrul, also called Zümrüdü Anka ("emerald anqa"), the Tibetan Me byi karmo, the Chinese Fenghuang (鳳凰) and Zhuque (朱雀), and the Japanese Hō-ō (鳳凰). [34] These perceived analogues are sometimes included as part of the Motif-Index of Folk-Literature phoenix motif (B32). [2]

See also

Notes

  1. Van der Broek 1972, p.  146.
  2. 1 2 Thompson (2001: 581).
  3. Van der Broek 1972, p.  9.
  4. White, Carolinne (2000). Early Christian Latin Poets. ISBN   9780415187824.
  5. "phoenix, n.1". OED Online. September 2020. Oxford University Press. https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/142601?rskey=BIj1L3&result=1&isAdvanced=false (accessed November 06, 2020).
  6. Barnhart 1995, p. 564.
  7. Van der Broek 1972, p. 62–66.
  8. Evelyn-White (1920: 75-75).
  9. Herodotus, The Histories (1858 translation) , Book II Trans. G. Rawlinson (1858)
  10. Van der Broek 1972, p. 14–25.
  11. "coin | British Museum". The British Museum. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  12. Poole, Reginald Stuart (1892). Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Alexandria and the Nomes (PDF). London: British Museum Publications. pp. 117, No. 1004.
  13. Rackham, H., ed. (1940), Pliny. Natural History, Volume III: Books 8-11, Loeb Classical Library 353, translated by Rackham, H., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, p. 293, doi:10.4159/DLCL.pliny_elder-natural_history.1938
  14. 1 2 Van der Broek 1972, p. 233.
  15. Van der Broek 1972, pp. 246–247.
  16. Ancient Magic and the Supernatural in the Modern Visual and Performing Arts, edited by Filippo Carlà-Uhink, Irene Berti, 2016, page 172
  17. 1 2 Van der Broek 1972, p. 257.
  18. Van der Broek 1972, p. 253.
  19. Van der Broek 1972, p. 259.
  20. Van der Broek 1972, p. 256.
  21. Van der Broek 1972, pp. 257–258.
  22. Van der Broek 1972, p. 251.
  23. Van der Broek 1972, p. 252.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Rackham, H., ed. (1940), Pliny. Natural History, Volume III: Books 8-11, Loeb Classical Library 353, translated by Rackham, H., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 292–294, doi:10.4159/DLCL.pliny_elder-natural_history.1938
  25. Loeb Claudian Volume II (1922), Platnauer, M. (ed.), translated by Platnauer, M., "Claudian: Shorter Poems: "Phoenix"", Claudian: On Stilicho's Consulship 2-3. Panegyric on the Sixth Consulship of Honorius. The Gothic War. Shorter Poems. Rape of Proserpina, Loeb Classical Library 136, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 222–231, doi:10.4159/DLCL.claudian_claudianus-shorter_poems.1922
  26. Lepetoukha, Charlotte. "Œuvre: Mosaïque du phénix". Musée du Louvre . Retrieved 2021-01-28.
  27. James M. Robinson (1988). The Nag Hammadi Library. pp.  291-292. HarperCollins Publishers.
  28. Blake 1964, p. 1.
  29. Thorpe, Benjamin; Corson, Hiram (1842). "Codex exoniensis. A collection of Anglo-Saxon poetry, from a manuscript in the library of the dean and chapter of Exeter". p. 244. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  30. Arthur Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, T.C. and E.C. Jack, London, 1909, 240, https://archive.org/details/completeguidetoh00foxduoft.
  31. "1882 The Phoenix Founded". www.swarthmore.edu. 2016-05-13. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  32. "The Phoenix". www.swarthmore.edu. 2014-07-08. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  33. ""Facts and Links - City of Portland"". Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  34. Garry & El-Shamy 2005, pp. 84–87.

Related Research Articles

Lactantius Early Christian author

Lucius Caecilius FirmianussignoLactantius was an early Christian author who became an advisor to Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his Christian religious policy in its initial stages of emergence, and a tutor to his son Crispus. His most important work is the Institutiones Divinae, an apologetic treatise intended to establish the reasonableness and truth of Christianity to pagan critics.

A panegyric is a formal public speech or written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing. The original panegyrics were speeches delivered at public events in ancient Athens.

<i>Argo</i> Ship in Greek mythology

In Greek mythology, the Argo was a ship built with the help of the gods which Jason and the Argonauts sailed from Iolcos to Colchis to retrieve the Golden Fleece. The ship has gone on to be used as a motif in a variety of sources beyond the original legend from books, movies, and more.

Sphinx Egyptian mythological creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion

A sphinx is a mythical creature with the head of a human, a falcon, a cat, or a sheep and the body of a lion with the wings of a falcon.

Heliopolis (ancient Egypt) Ancient Egyptian city located in present-day Ayn Shams, Cairo

Heliopolis was a major city of ancient Egypt. It was the capital of the 13th or Heliopolite Nome of Lower Egypt and a major religious centre. It is now located in Ayn Shams, a northeastern suburb of Cairo.

Bastet Ancient Egyptian goddess

Bastet or Bast was a goddess of ancient Egyptian religion, worshiped as early as the Second Dynasty. Her name also is rendered as B'sst, Baast, Ubaste, and Baset. In ancient Greek religion, she was known as Ailuros.

Claudius Claudianus, known in English as Claudian, was a Latin poet associated with the court of the Roman emperor Honorius at Mediolanum (Milan), and particularly with the general Stilicho. His work, written almost entirely in hexameters or elegiac couplets, falls into three main categories: poems for Honorius, poems for Stilicho, and mythological epic.

Magi were priests in Zoroastrianism and the earlier religions of the western Iranians. The earliest known use of the word magi is in the trilingual inscription written by Darius the Great, known as the Behistun Inscription. Old Persian texts, predating the Hellenistic period, refer to a magus as a Zurvanic, and presumably Zoroastrian, priest.

Thule Fictional island in Ancient Greek and Roman literature

Thule is the farthest north location mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography. Modern interpretations have included Orkney, Shetland, northern Scotland, the island of Saaremaa (Ösel) in Estonia, and the Norwegian island of Smøla.

<i>Histories</i> (Herodotus) Work by Herodotus

The Histories of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature. Written in 430 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Greece, Western Asia and Northern Africa at that time. Although not a fully impartial record, it remains one of the West's most important sources regarding these affairs. Moreover, it established the genre and study of history in the Western world.

Pelusium Place in Egypt

Pelusium was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said. It became a Roman provincial capital and Metropolitan archbishopric and remained a multiple Catholic titular see and an Eastern Orthodox active archdiocese.

Sesostris

Sesostris was the name of a king of ancient Egypt who, according to Herodotus, led a military expedition into parts of Europe.

Bennu Ancient Egyptian deity

Bennu is an ancient Egyptian deity linked with the Sun, creation, and rebirth. He may have been the original inspiration for the phoenix legends that developed in Greek mythology.

Caspians

The Caspians were a people of antiquity who dwelt along the southwestern shores of the Caspian Sea, in the region known as Caspiane. Caspian is the English version of the Greek ethnonym Kaspioi, mentioned twice by Herodotus among the Achaemenid satrapies of Darius the Great and applied by Strabo. The name is not attested in Old Iranian.

Erythraean Sea Ancient name of water between the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula

The Erythraean Sea was a former maritime designation that always included the Gulf of Aden and at times other seas between Arabia Felix and the Horn of Africa. Originally an ancient Greek geography, it was used throughout Europe until the 18-19th century. At times the name frequently extended beyond the Gulf of Aden—as in the famous 1st-century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea—to include the present-day Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Indian Ocean as a single maritime area.

The Phoenix is an anonymous Old English poem. It is composed of 677 lines and is for the most part a translation and adaptation of the Latin poem De Ave Phoenice attributed to Lactantius.

Rhodopis (hetaera) Greek hetaera

Rhodopis or Rodopis was a celebrated 6th-century BCE Greek hetaera, of Thracian origin. She is one of only two hetaerae mentioned by name in Herodotus' discussion of the profession.

<i>Cyranides</i>

The Cyranides is a compilation of magico-medical works in Greek first put together in the 4th century. Latin and Arabic translations also exists. It has been described as a "farrago" and a texte vivant, owing to the complexities of its transmission: it has been abridged, rearranged, and supplemented. The resulting compilation covers the magical properties and practical uses of gemstones, plants, and animals, and is a virtual encyclopedia of amulets; it also contains material pertinent to the history of western alchemy, and to New Testament studies, particularly in illuminating meanings of words and magico-religious practices. As a medical text, the Cyranides was held in relatively low esteem even in antiquity and the Middle Ages because of its use of vernacular language and reliance on lore rather than Hippocratic or Galenic medical theory.

Stauros Greek word for a stake or cross and was an implement of capital punishment

Stauros (σταυρός) is a Greek word for a stake or an implement of capital punishment. The Greek New Testament uses the word stauros for the instrument of Jesus' crucifixion, and word is generally translated cross in Christian contexts. This article covers the use of the word for other contexts.

Saulaces was a king of Colchis known from Naturalis Historia by the 1st-century Roman author Pliny the Elder and identified by one hypothesis as a king mentioned on eight coins found on the eastern Black Sea coast.

References