|Comité International des Sports des Sourds|
|Motto||PER LUDOS AEQUALITAS (Equality through sport)|
|First event||1924 in Paris, France – 1924 Summer Deaflympics|
|Occur every||4 years|
|Last event||2017 in Samsun, Turkey – 2017 Summer Deaflympics (Summer)|
2019 in Province of Sondrio, Italy – 2019 Winter Deaflympics (Winter)
|Next event||1-15 May 2022 in Caxias do Sul, Brazil – 2021 Summer Deaflympics (Summer)|
2023 in Quebec City, Canada – 2023 Winter Deaflympics (Winter)
|Purpose||Provision of opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports|
The Deaflympics also known as Deaflympiad (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. Unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (e.g., the starter's guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles).The games have been organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS, "The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf") since the first event in 1924.
The Deaflympics are held every four years, and are the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves.The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability. The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II, and an additional event, the Deaflympic Winter Games, was added in 1949. The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations competing in the International Silent Games in Paris, France, in 1924; now, they have grown into a global movement.
Officially, the games were originally called the "International Games for the Deaf" from 1924 to 1965, but were sometimes also referred to as the "International Silent Games". From 1966 to 1999 they were called the "World Games for the Deaf", and occasionally referred to as the "World Silent Games". From 2001, the games have been known by their current name Deaflympics (often mistakenly called the Deaf Olympics).
To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their "better ear". Hearing aids, cochlear implants and the like are not allowed to be used in competition, to place all athletes on the same level.Other examples of ways the games vary from hearing competitions are the manner in which they are officiated. To address the issue of Deaflympians not being able to be guided by sounds, certain sports use alternative methods of commencing the game. For example, the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather to wave – usually with both hands.
To date, the Summer Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 21 cities in 17 countries, but by cities outside Europe on only five occasions (Washington, D.C. 1965, Los Angeles 1985, Christchurch 1989, Melbourne 2005 and Taipei 2009). The last summer games were held in Samsun, Turkey in 2017. The Winter Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 16 cities in 11 countries. The last winter games were held in Sondrio, Italy in 2019.
The 2011 Winter Games scheduled to be held in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia were cancelled due to the lack of readiness by the organizing committee to host the games. million Euro Deaflympics-related fraud". In a letter to the United States Deaflympians, International Committee of Sports for the Deaf ICSD President Craig Crowley expressed "his deep apologies for the cancellation of the 17th Winter Deaflympics". Currently, the Slovak Deaflympic Committee and the Slovakia Association of Deaf Sportsmen Unions have been suspended. In 2013 the Special Criminal Court in Banská Bystrica sentenced Ruda to a prison term of 14 and a half years for defrauding €1.6 million that should have been used for Winter Deaflympics.The International Committee of Deaf Sports filed a criminal complaint against the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee and its President, Mr. Jaromír Ruda. The criminal complaint demands reimbursement of the funds that were transferred to the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee from national deaf sports federations, to cover hotel accommodations and other Deaflympics-related expenses. According to the Slovak newspaper, SME, "Jaromír Ruda, head of the Slovak Organising Committee, [is] a champion of promises and someone who is accused of a 1.6
The host cities and NOCs for all past and scheduled games are as follows:
|Games||Year||Host||Opened by||Dates||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top Nation|
|1||1924||Paris, France||Gaston Doumergue||10–17 August||9||148||147||1||6||31||France|
|2||1928||Amsterdam, Netherlands||Wilhelmina of the Netherlands||18–26 August||10||212||198||14||5||38||Great Britain|
|3||1931||Nuremberg, Germany||19–23 August||14||316||288||28||6||43||Germany|
|4||1935||London, Great Britain||17–24 August||12||221||178||43||5||41||Great Britain|
|5||1939||Stockholm, Sweden||24–27 August||13||250||208||42||6||43||Great Britain|
|6||1949||Copenhagen, Denmark||12–16 August||14||391||342||49||7||51||Great Britain|
|7||1953||Brussels, Belgium||15–19 August||16||473||432||41||7||57||Germany|
|8||1957||Milan, Italy||25–30 August||25||635||565||70||9||69||Soviet Union|
|9||1961||Helsinki, Finland||6–10 August||24||613||503||110||10||94||Soviet Union|
|10||1965||Washington, D.C., United States||Lyndon B. Johnson||27 June – 3 July||27||687||575||112||9||85||Soviet Union|
|11||1969||Belgrade, Yugoslavia||9–16 August||33||1,189||964||225||12||105||Soviet Union|
|12||1973||Malmö, Sweden||21–28 August||31||1,116||893||223||11||97||United States|
|13||1977||Bucharest, Romania||Nicolae Ceauşescu||17–27 July||32||1,150||913||237||11||106||United States|
|14||1981||Cologne, West Germany||23 July – 1 August||32||1,198||893||305||11||110||United States|
|15||1985||Los Angeles, United States||Ronald Reagan||10–20 August||29||995||745||250||11||96||United States|
|16||1989||Christchurch, New Zealand||David Cargill||7–17 January||30||955||726||229||12||120||United States|
|17||1993||Sofia, Bulgaria||Zhelyu Zhelev||24 July – 2 August||52||1,679||1,295||384||12||126||United States|
|18||1997||Copenhagen, Denmark||John M. Lovett||13–26 July||65||2,028||1,496||534||14||140||United States|
|19||2001||Rome, Italy||Carlo Azeglio Ciampi||22 July – 1 August||67||2,208||1,562||646||14||143||United States|
|20||2005||Melbourne, Australia||Marigold Southey||5–16 January||63||2,038||1,402||636||14||147||Ukraine|
|21||2009||Taipei, Chinese Taipei 1||Ma Ying-jeou||5–15 September||80||2,670||1,714||779||17||177||Russia|
|22||2013||Sofia, Bulgaria||Rosen Plevneliev||26 July – 4 August||83||2,711||1,792||919||16||203||Russia|
|23||2017||Samsun, Turkey||Recep Tayyip Erdoğan||18–30 July||97||2,856||1,897||959||18||219||Russia|
|24||2022||Caxias do Sul, Brazil|
1The Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by CISS and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.
|Games||Year||Host||Opened by||Dates||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top Nation|
|1||1949||Seefeld, Austria||26–30 February||5||33||33||0||2||5||Switzerland|
|2||1953||Oslo, Norway||20–24 February||6||44||42||2||4||9||Norway|
|3||1955||Oberammergau, West Germany||10–13 February||8||59||54||5||4||11||Norway|
|4||1959||Montana-Vermala, Switzerland||27–31 January||10||42||3||14||Norway|
|5||1963||Åre, Sweden||12–16 March||9||60||2||13||Austria|
|6||1967||Berchtesgaden, West Germany||20–25 February||12||89||2||11||Norway|
|7||1971||Adelboden, Switzerland||25–30 February||13||145||2||11||Switzerland|
|8||1975||Lake Placid, United States||2–8 February||13||136||4||12||Canada|
|9||1979||Méribel, France||21–27 January||14||180||3||12||Soviet Union|
|10||1983||Madonna di Campiglio, Italy||13–23 January||15||147||3||17||Soviet Union|
|11||1987||Oslo, Norway||7–14 February||15||169||3||18||Norway|
|12||1991||Banff, Canada||2–9 March||16||175||5||18||Soviet Union|
|13||1995||Ylläs, Finland||14–19 March||18||260||4||15||Russia|
|14||1999||Davos, Switzerland||6–14 March||18||273||5||17||Russia|
|15||2003||Sundsvall, Sweden||26 February – 9 March||21||259||4||23||Russia|
|16||2007||Salt Lake City, United States||1–10 February||23||302||5||26||Russia|
|17||2011||Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia||16–28 February||Cancelled|
|18||2015||Khanty-Mansiysk and Magnitogorsk, Russia||28 March – 5 April||27||344||5||31||Russia|
|19||2019||Sondrio Province, Italy||12–21 December||34||461||6||36||Russia|
|20||2023||Quebec City, Canada||TBA|
An all-time Summer Deaflympics from 1924 Summer Deaflympics to 2017 Summer Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Summer Deaflympics.
An all-time Winter Deaflympics from 1949 Winter Deaflympics to 2019 Winter Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Winter Deaflympics.
The following sports have been contested in a Summer Deaflympic Games programme:
|Current summer sports|
|Aquatics – Swimming||7||10||11||10||11||14||18||14||14||15||17||17||26||26||34||31||34||32||38||38||38||38||40|
|Cycling – Mountain||2||2|
|Cycling – Road||3||3||1||1||1||1||1||3||3||3||3||3||3||4||4||4||4||4||4||4||4||7||8|
|Volleyball – Beach||2||2||2||2|
|Volleyball – Indoor||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2|
|Wrestling – Freestyle||8||8||8||10||10||10||10||10||10||8||8||7||7||7||8|
|Wrestling – Greco-Roman||8||8||8||10||10||10||10||10||10||8||8||7||7||7||8|
|Discontinued summer sports|
|Aquatics – Diving||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Aquatics – Water Polo||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Gymnastics – Artistic||2||2||13||12||12|
|Demonstration summer sports|
|Gymnastics – Artistic||•|
|Gymnastics – Rhythmic||•|
The following sports have been contested in a Winter Deaflympic Games programme:
|Current winter sports|
|Skiing – Alpine||3||4||6||10||8||6||6||6||6||8||8||6||8||8||8||10||10||10||10|
|Skiing – Snowboarding||6||5||10||10||10|
|Skiing – Nordic – Cross-Country||2||3||3||3||5||5||5||6||6||6||6||6||6||8||8||9||8||9||9|
|Discontinued winter sports|
|Skiing – Nordic – Nordic Combined||1||1|
|Skiing – Nordic – Ski jumping||1||1||1|
|Demonstration winter sports|
|Skiing – Snowboarding||•|
Parasports are sports played by people with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. Some parasports are variations on existing able-bodied sports, while others such as goalball have been specifically created for persons with a disability and do not have an able-bodied equivalent. Disability exists in four categories: physical, mental, permanent and temporary. At a competitive level, disability sport classifications are applied to allow people of varying abilities to face similar opposition.
Para-athletics is the sport of athletics practised by people with a disability as a parasport. The athletics events within the parasport are mostly the same as those available to able-bodied people, with two major exceptions in wheelchair racing and the club throw, which are specific to the division. The sport is known by various names, including disability athletics, disabled track and field and Paralympic athletics. Top-level competitors may be called elite athletes with disability.
The 2009 Summer Deaflympics, officially known as the 21st Summer Deaflympics, is an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from September 5 to September 15, 2009 in Taipei, Taiwan. It is the third Summer Deaflympics to be held in Asia/Pacific region. Judo, Karate, and Taekwondo have been recognized as new summer disciplines in the Deaflympics sports competition program.
Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS) is the apex body organizing international sports events for the deaf, particularly the Deaflympics. It is also called the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf.
The First International Silent Games, or First International Games for the Deaf, now referred to retroactively as the 1924 Summer Deaflympics, were the inaugural edition of the Deaflympics. The Games were held in Paris, France, from 10 to 17 August 1924, as an equivalent to the Olympic Games for deaf athletes. They were organised on the initiative of deaf Frenchman Eugène Rubens-Alcais, who, just after the Games, co-founded the Comité International des Sports des Sourds with other "deaf sporting leaders". The 1924 Games were "the first games ever" for athletes with a disability, preceding the World Wheelchair and Amputee Games in 1948, which became the Paralympic Games in 1960 but which did not include events for deaf athletes.
A number of deaf people have competed in the modern Olympic Games, with the earliest known being Carlo Orlandi, an Italian boxer who competed in the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam.
Karim Raeisinia is an Iranian deaf wrestler and a Deaflympics gold medalist. He won four freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling Deaflympics medals in 62–67 kg category of 1957 Milan and 1961 Helsinki. However, he was unable to gain a medal in the 73–79 kg category of the 1965 Washington DC games because of an injury and was ranked 4th in both Freestyle and Greco-Roman. He was a friend of Abolhassan Ilchi Kabir and Gholamreza Takhti. Mansour Raeisi is also his cousin.
South African Deaf Sports Federation (SADSF) is the official governing body of Deaf Sports in South Africa responsible for sending, supporting, funding the teams representing South Africa and the deaf sportspeople at the Deaflympics, Deaf World Championships. The organisation took the responsibility for sending deaf sportspeople at the Deaflympics since 1993.
Turkish Deaf Sport Federation is the official national sport governing body of Deaf sports in Turkey.
Eugène Rubens-Alcais was a French deaf activist in the field of sports. He is known for introducing the Deaflympics in 1924 for deaf sportspeople. He was determined to establish international competitions for the deaf, as they were considered as intellectually disabled people during his lifetime. Alcais believed that deaf athletes should have their own independent international competitions and promoted the idea in his own deaf sports magazine called The Silent Sportsman. In 1924, he was instrumental in hosting the inaugural Summer Deaflympics in his home country, France. Alcais is also the founder of Comité International des Sports des Sourds, the world governing body of deaf sports. He is often called the "father of Deaflympics" or "father of Olympics for the deaf".
Antoine Dresse (1902-1998) was a Belgian deaf sport activist and the co-founder of the Comite International des Sports des Sourds, which is the world governing body of deaf sports. Antoine Dresse has also represented Belgium at the Deaflympics from 1924 to 1939. Dresse competed for Belgium in tennis and in the track events. Antoine served as the first founding secretary-general of the CISS from 1924-1967.
Valery Nikititch Rukhledev is a Russian sports activist. He is also a 6 time gold medalist in wrestling for the Soviet Union at the Deaflympics from 1969 to 1977. He served as the president of the Comite International des Sports des Sourds from 2013 to 2018. He retired from the position as President of ICSD on 31 July 2018 after being charged on embezzlement charges in a corruption scandal, in which he was accused of embezzling $803,800 from the All-Russian Society of the Deaf. He was later replaced by Australian Rebecca Adam as ICSD President on 1 August 2018 which created further controversy in the Deaf sports world.
The 2011 Winter Deaflympics officially known as the 17th Winter Deaflympics was originally scheduled to be held from 18 February 2011 to 26 February 2011 in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia. This was the first time that Slovakia was selected to host a Deaflympic event. But the multi-sporting event was cancelled due to the lack of preparations, lack of readiness and reluctance by the Deaflympic Committee of Slovakia prior to the event. The event was also cancelled mainly due to the alleged fraud by the former President of the Deaflympic Committee of Slovakia, Jaromir Ruda. The Winter Games was cancelled and was postponed to 2015, which was the 18th Winter Deaflympics.
Donalda Ammons Kay is an American educator and author. She served as a teacher at several deaf schools in United States. Ammons was also the former President of the Comite International des Sports des Sourds (CISS) from 2003 to 2009.
Shi Ce is a Chinese deaf female table tennis player. She has represented China at the Deaflympics four times from 2005-2017. Shi Ce has been regarded as one of the finest athletes to have represented China at the Deaflympics, having won 14 medals at the event since making her debut in the 2005 Summer Deaflympics.
Dawn Jani Birley is a Canadian deaf actress, television anchor, educator and a popular taekwondo practitioner. She was engaged with her sport, taekwondo in her early parts of the life before becoming a professional actor in the mid 2000s. She graduated at the Gallaudet University.
Tereza Kmochová is a Czech deaf female alpine skier. She has represented Czech Republic in Winter Deaflympics, Winter Universiade and in the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships. She generally competes in the women's combined, slalom, giant slalom, Super-G events at international alpine skiing competitions. She is considered as one of the finest deaflympic alpine skiers to have competed at the Deaflympics and also regarded as a finest athlete to have represented Czech Republic at the Deaflympics with a record haul of 10 medals including 7 gold medals. In the 2015 Winter Deaflympics she created history after winning gold medals in all five events such as giant slalom, super combined, slalom, downhill and Super-G.
Margareta Trnková-Hanne also known as Margareta Hanne is a former Czech deaf female track and field athlete and tennis player. She has represented Czech Republic at the Deaflympics in tennis and athletics sporting events.
Malaysian Deaf Sports Association also simply known as MSDeaf is the national governing body of deaf sports in Malaysia which was formed in 1993. It is also affiliated with the Comite International des Sports des Sourds since 1993. Despite its establishment in 1993, the sports council got recognition as the Deaf Sports Association of Malaysia from the government of Malaysia under the leadership of Najib Razak in 2018.
Rebecca Adam is an Australian lawyer and business executive. She is also the current President of the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf (ICSD) who also served as a former President of Deaf Sports Australia. On 1 August 2018, she was appointed as the 10th ICSD president replacing Valery Rukhledev who was found guilty of embezzlement from the All-Russian Society of the Deaf and was sacked from May 2018. The appointment of Rebecca Adam created further controversy among the deaf sports authorities which cautioned to sue against ICSD in International Olympic Committee. She became only the second woman after Donalda Ammons to be elected as President of International Committee of Sports for the Deaf.