Deaflympics

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Deaflympics Games
Comité International des Sports des Sourds
Deaflympics logo.svg
Deaflympics Logo
MottoPER LUDOS AEQUALITAS (Equality through sport)
First event1924 in Paris, France1924 Summer Deaflympics [1]
Occur every4 years
Last event2017 in Samsun, Turkey2017 Summer Deaflympics (Summer)
2019 in Province of Sondrio, Italy2019 Winter Deaflympics (Winter)
Next event1-15 May 2022 in Caxias do Sul, Brazil2021 Summer Deaflympics (Summer)
2023 in Quebec City, Canada2023 Winter Deaflympics (Winter)
PurposeProvision of opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports
Website www.deaflympics.com
www.ciss.org

The Deaflympics also known as Deaflympiad (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. Unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (e.g., the starter's guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles). [2] The games have been organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS, "The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf") since the first event in 1924.

Contents

History

The Deaflympics are held every four years, and are the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves. [3] The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability. [4] The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II, and an additional event, the Deaflympic Winter Games, was added in 1949. [5] The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations competing in the International Silent Games in Paris, France, in 1924; now, they have grown into a global movement. [2]

Officially, the games were originally called the "International Games for the Deaf" from 1924 to 1965, but were sometimes also referred to as the "International Silent Games". From 1966 to 1999 they were called the "World Games for the Deaf", and occasionally referred to as the "World Silent Games". From 2001, the games have been known by their current name Deaflympics (often mistakenly called the Deaf Olympics). [5]

To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their "better ear". Hearing aids, cochlear implants and the like are not allowed to be used in competition, to place all athletes on the same level. [5] Other examples of ways the games vary from hearing competitions are the manner in which they are officiated. To address the issue of Deaflympians not being able to be guided by sounds, certain sports use alternative methods of commencing the game. For example, the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather to wave – usually with both hands.

Host nations and cities

To date, the Summer Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 21 cities in 17 countries, but by cities outside Europe on only five occasions (Washington, D.C. 1965, Los Angeles 1985, Christchurch 1989, Melbourne 2005 and Taipei 2009). The last summer games were held in Samsun, Turkey in 2017. The Winter Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 16 cities in 11 countries. The last winter games were held in Sondrio, Italy in 2019.

The 2011 Winter Games scheduled to be held in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia were cancelled due to the lack of readiness by the organizing committee to host the games. [6] [7] The International Committee of Deaf Sports filed a criminal complaint against the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee and its President, Mr. Jaromír Ruda. [8] The criminal complaint demands reimbursement of the funds that were transferred to the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee from national deaf sports federations, to cover hotel accommodations and other Deaflympics-related expenses. [8] According to the Slovak newspaper, SME, "Jaromír Ruda, head of the Slovak Organising Committee, [is] a champion of promises and someone who is accused of a 1.6 million Euro Deaflympics-related fraud". [9] In a letter to the United States Deaflympians, International Committee of Sports for the Deaf ICSD President Craig Crowley expressed "his deep apologies for the cancellation of the 17th Winter Deaflympics". [10] Currently, the Slovak Deaflympic Committee and the Slovakia Association of Deaf Sportsmen Unions have been suspended. [11] In 2013 the Special Criminal Court in Banská Bystrica sentenced Ruda to a prison term of 14 and a half years for defrauding €1.6 million that should have been used for Winter Deaflympics. [12]

The host cities and NOCs for all past and scheduled games are as follows: [4] [13]

List of Summer Deaflympics hosts

GamesYearHostOpened byDatesNationsCompetitorsSportsEventsTop Nation
TotalMenWomen
1 1924 Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg Paris, France Gaston Doumergue 10–17 August91481471631Flag of France.svg  France
2 1928 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam, Netherlands Wilhelmina of the Netherlands 18–26 August1021219814538Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
3 1931 Flag of Germany.svg Nuremberg, Germany 19–23 August1431628828643Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Germany
4 1935 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London, Great Britain 17–24 August1222117843541Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
5 1939 Flag of Sweden.svg Stockholm, Sweden 24–27 August1325020842643Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
6 1949 Flag of Denmark.svg Copenhagen, Denmark 12–16 August1439134249751Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
7 1953 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Brussels, Belgium 15–19 August1647343241757Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
8 1957 Flag of Italy.svg Milan, Italy 25–30 August2563556570969Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
9 1961 Flag of Finland.svg Helsinki, Finland 6–10 August246135031101094Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
10 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Washington, D.C., United States Lyndon B. Johnson 27 June – 3 July27687575112985Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
11 1969 Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Belgrade, Yugoslavia 9–16 August331,18996422512105Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
12 1973 Flag of Sweden.svg Malmö, Sweden 21–28 August311,1168932231197Flag of the United States.svg  United States
13 1977 Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Bucharest, Romania Nicolae Ceauşescu 17–27 July321,15091323711106Flag of the United States.svg  United States
14 1981 Flag of Germany.svg Cologne, West Germany 23 July – 1 August321,19889330511110Flag of the United States.svg  United States
15 1985 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles, United States Ronald Reagan 10–20 August299957452501196Flag of the United States.svg  United States
16 1989 Flag of New Zealand.svg Christchurch, New Zealand David Cargill7–17 January3095572622912120Flag of the United States.svg  United States
17 1993 Flag of Bulgaria.svg Sofia, Bulgaria Zhelyu Zhelev 24 July – 2 August521,6791,29538412126Flag of the United States.svg  United States
18 1997 Flag of Denmark.svg Copenhagen, Denmark John M. Lovett 13–26 July652,0281,49653414140Flag of the United States.svg  United States
19 2001 Flag of Italy.svg Rome, Italy Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 22 July – 1 August672,2081,56264614143Flag of the United States.svg  United States
20 2005 Flag of Australia (converted).svg Melbourne, Australia Marigold Southey 5–16 January632,0381,40263614147Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
21 2009 Flag of Chinese Taipei for Deaf.png Taipei, Chinese Taipei 1 Ma Ying-jeou 5–15 September802,6701,71477917177Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
22 2013 Flag of Bulgaria.svg Sofia, Bulgaria Rosen Plevneliev 26 July – 4 August832,7111,79291916203Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
23 2017 Flag of Turkey.svg Samsun, Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 18–30 July972,8561,89795918219Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
24 2022 Flag of Brazil.svg Caxias do Sul, Brazil
25 2025 Flag of Japan.svg Tokyo, Japan TBA

1The Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by CISS and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.

List of Winter Deaflympics hosts

World location map (equirectangular 180).svg
Host cities of the Winter Deaflympics
GamesYearHostOpened byDatesNationsCompetitorsSportsEventsTop Nation
TotalMenWomen
1 1949 Flag of Austria.svg Seefeld, Austria 26–30 February53333025 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Switzerland
2 1953 Flag of Norway.svg Oslo, Norway 20–24 February64442249Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
3 1955 Flag of Germany.svg Oberammergau, West Germany 10–13 February859545411Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
4 1959 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Montana-Vermala, Switzerland 27–31 January1042314Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
5 1963 Flag of Sweden.svg Åre, Sweden 12–16 March960213Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
6 1967 Flag of Germany.svg Berchtesgaden, West Germany 20–25 February1289211Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
7 1971 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Adelboden, Switzerland 25–30 February13145211 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Switzerland
8 1975 Flag of the United States.svg Lake Placid, United States 2–8 February13136412Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
9 1979 Flag of France.svg Méribel, France 21–27 January14180312Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
10 1983 Flag of Italy.svg Madonna di Campiglio, Italy 13–23 January15147317Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
11 1987 Flag of Norway.svg Oslo, Norway 7–14 February15169318Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
12 1991 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Banff, Canada 2–9 March16175518Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
13 1995 Flag of Finland.svg Ylläs, Finland 14–19 March18260415Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
14 1999 Civil Ensign of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Davos, Switzerland 6–14 March18273517Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
15 2003 Flag of Sweden.svg Sundsvall, Sweden 26 February – 9 March21259423Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
16 2007 Flag of the United States.svg Salt Lake City, United States 1–10 February23302526Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
17 2011 Flag of Slovakia.svg Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia 16–28 FebruaryCancelled
18 2015 Flag of Russia.svg Khanty-Mansiysk and Magnitogorsk, Russia 28 March – 5 April27344531Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
19 2019 Flag of Italy.svg Sondrio Province, Italy 12–21 December34461636Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
20 2023 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Quebec City, Canada TBA
21 2027Flag placeholder.svg -, - TBA

All-time medal table

Sports

Summer Deaflympics

The following sports have been contested in a Summer Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 24 28 31 35 39 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 01 05 09 13 17 21
 
Current summer sports
 
Aquatics – Swimming710111011141814141517172626343134323838383840
 
Athletics 1720232323242632323334343530323640404342434443
Badminton 556666656
Basketball DIBF 111111112222222222
Bowling 10101010812
 
Cycling – Mountain 22
Cycling – Road 33111113333334444444478
 
Football 11111111111111111122222
 
Golf 2
Handball 2111211121111
Judo 101717
Karate 51518
Orienteering 66589
Shooting 112334333444487766101112
Table Tennis 557757777777777
Taekwondo 81313
Tennis 22555555555555555555555
 
Volleyball – Beach 2222
Volleyball – Indoor 2222222222222
 
Wrestling – Freestyle 888101010101010887778
Wrestling – Greco-Roman 888101010101010887778
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Aquatics – Diving 1111111111
Aquatics – Water Polo 11111111111
 
Gymnastics – Artistic 22131212
 
Demonstration summer sports
 
Gymnastics – Artistic
Gymnastics – Rhythmic
 
Total313843454751576994851059710611096120126140143147177203219

Winter Deaflympics

The following sports have been contested in a Winter Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 49535559636771757983879195990307 15 19 23
 
Current winter sports
 
Chess 44
Curling 2222
Futsal 2
Ice hockey 11111111
 
Skiing – Alpine 346108666688688810101010
Skiing – Snowboarding 65101010
Skiing – NordicCross-Country 2333555666666889899
 
Discontinued winter sports
 
Skiing – Nordic – Nordic Combined 11
Skiing – Nordic – Ski jumping 111
 
Speed skating 345
 
Demonstration winter sports
 
Curling
Ice hockey
 
Skiing – Snowboarding
 
Speed skating
 
Total591114131111121217181815172327313638

See also

Related Research Articles

Parasports Sports adapted for players with a disability

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Para-athletics Paralympic sport

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2009 Summer Deaflympics

The 2009 Summer Deaflympics, officially known as the 21st Summer Deaflympics, is an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from September 5 to September 15, 2009 in Taipei, Taiwan. It is the third Summer Deaflympics to be held in Asia/Pacific region. Judo, Karate, and Taekwondo have been recognized as new summer disciplines in the Deaflympics sports competition program.

Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS) is the apex body organizing international sports events for the deaf, particularly the Deaflympics. It is also called the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf.

The First International Silent Games, or First International Games for the Deaf, now referred to retroactively as the 1924 Summer Deaflympics, were the inaugural edition of the Deaflympics. The Games were held in Paris, France, from 10 to 17 August 1924, as an equivalent to the Olympic Games for deaf athletes. They were organised on the initiative of deaf Frenchman Eugène Rubens-Alcais, who, just after the Games, co-founded the Comité International des Sports des Sourds with other "deaf sporting leaders". The 1924 Games were "the first games ever" for athletes with a disability, preceding the World Wheelchair and Amputee Games in 1948, which became the Paralympic Games in 1960 but which did not include events for deaf athletes.

A number of deaf people have competed in the modern Olympic Games, with the earliest known being Carlo Orlandi, an Italian boxer who competed in the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam.

Karim Raeisinia Iranian wrestler

Karim Raeisinia is an Iranian deaf wrestler and a Deaflympics gold medalist. He won four freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling Deaflympics medals in 62–67 kg category of 1957 Milan and 1961 Helsinki. However, he was unable to gain a medal in the 73–79 kg category of the 1965 Washington DC games because of an injury and was ranked 4th in both Freestyle and Greco-Roman. He was a friend of Abolhassan Ilchi Kabir and Gholamreza Takhti. Mansour Raeisi is also his cousin.

South African Deaf Sports Federation

South African Deaf Sports Federation (SADSF) is the official governing body of Deaf Sports in South Africa responsible for sending, supporting, funding the teams representing South Africa and the deaf sportspeople at the Deaflympics, Deaf World Championships. The organisation took the responsibility for sending deaf sportspeople at the Deaflympics since 1993.

Turkish Deaf Sport Federation is the official national sport governing body of Deaf sports in Turkey.

Eugène Rubens-Alcais Founder of Deaflympics

Eugène Rubens-Alcais was a French deaf activist in the field of sports. He is known for introducing the Deaflympics in 1924 for deaf sportspeople. He was determined to establish international competitions for the deaf, as they were considered as intellectually disabled people during his lifetime. Alcais believed that deaf athletes should have their own independent international competitions and promoted the idea in his own deaf sports magazine called The Silent Sportsman. In 1924, he was instrumental in hosting the inaugural Summer Deaflympics in his home country, France. Alcais is also the founder of Comité International des Sports des Sourds, the world governing body of deaf sports. He is often called the "father of Deaflympics" or "father of Olympics for the deaf".

Antoine Dresse

Antoine Dresse (1902-1998) was a Belgian deaf sport activist and the co-founder of the Comite International des Sports des Sourds, which is the world governing body of deaf sports. Antoine Dresse has also represented Belgium at the Deaflympics from 1924 to 1939. Dresse competed for Belgium in tennis and in the track events. Antoine served as the first founding secretary-general of the CISS from 1924-1967.

Valery Nikititch Rukhledev is a Russian sports activist. He is also a 6 time gold medalist in wrestling for the Soviet Union at the Deaflympics from 1969 to 1977. He served as the president of the Comite International des Sports des Sourds from 2013 to 2018. He retired from the position as President of ICSD on 31 July 2018 after being charged on embezzlement charges in a corruption scandal, in which he was accused of embezzling $803,800 from the All-Russian Society of the Deaf. He was later replaced by Australian Rebecca Adam as ICSD President on 1 August 2018 which created further controversy in the Deaf sports world.

The 2011 Winter Deaflympics officially known as the 17th Winter Deaflympics was originally scheduled to be held from 18 February 2011 to 26 February 2011 in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia. This was the first time that Slovakia was selected to host a Deaflympic event. But the multi-sporting event was cancelled due to the lack of preparations, lack of readiness and reluctance by the Deaflympic Committee of Slovakia prior to the event. The event was also cancelled mainly due to the alleged fraud by the former President of the Deaflympic Committee of Slovakia, Jaromir Ruda. The Winter Games was cancelled and was postponed to 2015, which was the 18th Winter Deaflympics.

Donalda Ammons Kay is an American educator and author. She served as a teacher at several deaf schools in United States. Ammons was also the former President of the Comite International des Sports des Sourds (CISS) from 2003 to 2009.

Shi Ce is a Chinese deaf female table tennis player. She has represented China at the Deaflympics four times from 2005-2017. Shi Ce has been regarded as one of the finest athletes to have represented China at the Deaflympics, having won 14 medals at the event since making her debut in the 2005 Summer Deaflympics.

Dawn Jani Birley is a Canadian deaf actress, television anchor, educator and a popular taekwondo practitioner. She was engaged with her sport, taekwondo in her early parts of the life before becoming a professional actor in the mid 2000s. She graduated at the Gallaudet University.

Tereza Kmochová Czech deaf alpine skier

Tereza Kmochová is a Czech deaf female alpine skier. She has represented Czech Republic in Winter Deaflympics, Winter Universiade and in the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships. She generally competes in the women's combined, slalom, giant slalom, Super-G events at international alpine skiing competitions. She is considered as one of the finest deaflympic alpine skiers to have competed at the Deaflympics and also regarded as a finest athlete to have represented Czech Republic at the Deaflympics with a record haul of 10 medals including 7 gold medals. In the 2015 Winter Deaflympics she created history after winning gold medals in all five events such as giant slalom, super combined, slalom, downhill and Super-G.

Margareta Trnková-Hanne also known as Margareta Hanne is a former Czech deaf female track and field athlete and tennis player. She has represented Czech Republic at the Deaflympics in tennis and athletics sporting events.

Malaysian Deaf Sports Association also simply known as MSDeaf is the national governing body of deaf sports in Malaysia which was formed in 1993. It is also affiliated with the Comite International des Sports des Sourds since 1993. Despite its establishment in 1993, the sports council got recognition as the Deaf Sports Association of Malaysia from the government of Malaysia under the leadership of Najib Razak in 2018.

Rebecca Adam is an Australian lawyer and business executive. She is also the current President of the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf (ICSD) who also served as a former President of Deaf Sports Australia. On 1 August 2018, she was appointed as the 10th ICSD president replacing Valery Rukhledev who was found guilty of embezzlement from the All-Russian Society of the Deaf and was sacked from May 2018. The appointment of Rebecca Adam created further controversy among the deaf sports authorities which cautioned to sue against ICSD in International Olympic Committee. She became only the second woman after Donalda Ammons to be elected as President of International Committee of Sports for the Deaf.

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