Winter sports

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Ski resort Jasna in Central Slovakia Lukova building.jpg
Ski resort Jasná in Central Slovakia

Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. [1] Most are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditionally, such games were only played in cold areas during winter, but artificial snow and artificial ice allow more flexibility. Artificial ice can be used to provide ice rinks for ice skating, ice hockey, and bandy in a milder climate.

Contents

Common individual sports include cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating, luge, skeleton, bobsleigh, ski orienteering and snowmobiling. Common team sports include ice hockey, curling, and bandy. Based on the number of participants, ice hockey is by far the world's most popular winter sport, followed by bandy. [2] Winter sports have their own multi-sport events, such as the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Universiade.

History

Snow and ice during the winter time has led to other means of transportation, such as sledges, skis and skates. This also led to different pastimes and sports being developed in the winter season as compared to other times of the year. Naturally, winter sports are more popular in countries with longer winter seasons.

While most winter sports are played outside, ice hockey, speed skating and to some extent bandy have moved indoors starting in the mid-20th century. Indoor ice rinks with artificial ice allow ice skating and hockey to be played in hot climates.

Outdoor winter sports will likely be severely impacted because of climate change in the next century. [3]

List of winter sports

Note: the Olympic rings next to a sport indicates that this particular sport is included in the Winter Olympic Games, as of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. The Paralympic logo indicates the same for a sport not in the Olympics but in the Winter Paralympic Games.

Ice skating

Skiing

Skiing Skier-carving-a-turn.jpg
Skiing
United States biathlete Jeremy Teela at the 2002 Winter Olympics. Jeremy Teela 2002 Olympics.jpg
United States biathlete Jeremy Teela at the 2002 Winter Olympics.

Sledding

An East German bobsleigh in 1951, Oberhof track, Germany Bundesarchiv Bild 183-09740-0004, Oberhof, II. Wintersportmeisterschaften, Bobfahren.jpg
An East German bobsleigh in 1951, Oberhof track, Germany

Sports that use sleds going down ice tracks or pulled by something:

Snowboarding

Snowmobiling

A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. SnowmobilesYellowstone.jpg
A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park.

Team sports

Based on the number of participating athletes, bandy is the second most popular winter sport in the world Bandy in Medeu Kazakhstan.JPG
Based on the number of participating athletes, bandy is the second most popular winter sport in the world

Other sports

[4]

Recreational sports

Snowman Bonhomme de neige (MuseumBellerive).JPG
Snowman

Some sports are competed in (or simply enjoyed) on a more casual basis, often by children:

Notable winter sporting events

A postage stamp issued by East Germany in 1968 in commemoration of their first Winter Olympics as an independent country under a communist regime Stamps of Germany (DDR) 1968, MiNr 1339.jpg
A postage stamp issued by East Germany in 1968 in commemoration of their first Winter Olympics as an independent country under a communist regime

World Cup

World championships

See also

Related Research Articles

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1964 Winter Olympics

The 1964 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IX Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in Innsbruck, Austria, from January 29 to February 9, 1964. The Games included 1091 athletes from 36 nations, and the Olympic Torch was carried by Joseph Rieder, a former alpine skier who had participated in the 1956 Winter Olympics.

2022 Winter Olympics 24th Olympic Winter Games, to be held in Beijing, China

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Outline of skiing Overview of and topical guide to skiing

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World Cup commonly refers to the FIFA World Cup.

2020 Winter Youth Olympics 3rd Winter Youth Olympic Games, held in Lausanne, Switzerland

The 2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games, officially known as the III Winter Youth Olympic Games and commonly known as Lausanne 2020, was the third edition of the Winter Youth Olympics; a major international multi-sport event and cultural festival for teenagers was held in Lausanne, Switzerland, the home of the International Olympic Committee, between 9 and 22 January 2020.

For the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, a total of six sports venues were used. Alpine skiing events took place for the first time and were held in three different locations. Riessersee held the speed skating and some of the ice hockey matches while the bobsleigh events took place south of the lake. The ski jump and its neighboring stadium played host to the cross-country skiing, Nordic combined, and ski jumping events. Even though figure skating and some of the ice hockey matches took place outdoors at the ice stadium, the ice itself was artificially refrigerated to prevent ice thawing.

For the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria, a total of eight sports venues were used. Luge made its debut at these games, but were marred by the death of a British slider two weeks prior to the Games. A second ski jumping event debuted and the best two out of three jumps were used in both events for the only time in the history of the Winter Olympics. All eight venues would be used again when the Winter Games returned to Innsbruck twelve years later though the venues would undergo renovations in time for the 1976 Games.

For the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, Japan, a total of twelve sports venues were used. A thirteenth venue which was a reserved luge course was constructed, but never used in actual competition. Construction on all but of the venues used took place between 1968 and early 1971 in time for the test events. The Tsuskisamu Indoor Skating Rink was not completed until late 1971 or early 1972 because the number of teams scheduled to compete at the 1972 Games was not known. At the actual luge venue used, a malfunctioning starting gate during the first run led to the results being cancelled and rerun being ordered. The results of this event led to the only tie in Olympic luge history. The ski jumps at Miyanomori and Okurayama served as host venues for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships thirty-five years later.

Venues of the 1980 Winter Olympics

For the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York, United States, a total of seven sports venues were used. All five of the venues used for the 1932 Winter Olympics were also used at the 1980 Winter Games with adjustments. These adjustments included electronic scoreboards, increased refrigeration, and the addition of a separate luge track. This was the last Winter Olympics where there were separate bobsleigh and luge tracks. The closest finish in Olympic history in cross-country skiing led skiing officials to time future events in hundredths of a second rather than tenths of a second. This would also apply to biathlon events. Eric Heiden of the United States won five gold medals at the speed skating oval while the "Miracle on Ice" took place between Americans and Soviets at the Olympic Center. In the late 1990s, the luge track was demolished and a new combination track was constructed in time for the only Winter Goodwill Games held. The sliding venue was named to the American National Register of Historical Places in February 2010.

Venues of the 2006 Winter Olympics

For the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy, a total of fifteen sports venues were used. Venue construction ran from 2002 to 2005. Cesana Pariol had to have turns 17 and 18 modified following the Luge World Cup in January 2005, but they were not cleared out until October 2005. Winds postponed the Nordic combined team event for a day. Many of the venues served as host for the Winter Universidade the following year.

Venues of the 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics

The compactness of the venue locations for the 2018 Winter Olympics and 2018 Winter Paralympics, hosted by the county of Pyeongchang, was one of the winning arguments of the bid. The Games were gathered around two main venues: these were the mountain resort of Alpensia in Pyeongchang for the outdoor (snow) sports and the coastal city of Gangneung for the indoor (ice) sports There were also two stand-alone mountain venues.

2026 Winter Olympics 25th Olympic Winter Games, to be held in Milan and Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy

The 2026 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXV Olympic Winter Games, and commonly known as Milano Cortina 2026 or Milan Cortina 2026, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 6 to 22 February 2026 in the Italian cities of Milan and Cortina d'Ampezzo. Milan–Cortina d'Ampezzo beat another joint bid from Swedish cities Stockholm–Åre by 47–34 votes to be elected host cities at the 134th Session of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 June 2019.

Beijing bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics

Beijing 2022 was a successful bid by Beijing, China and the Chinese Olympic Committee for the 2022 Winter Olympics. The IOC selected the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympics at the 128th IOC Session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on July 31, 2015, which Beijing won.

Lviv bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics

Lviv 2022 was a bid by the city of Lviv and the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine for the 2022 Winter Olympics. Lviv withdrew its bid on 30 June 2014. The IOC ultimately selected Beijing as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympics at the 128th IOC Session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 31 July 2015.

The Beijing Olympic Games Bidding Committee unveiled the venue layout plan for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games on 20 February 2014: five ice events will be held at the Olympic center, the Capital Indoor Stadium and the Beijing Wukesong Sports Center, which were some of the main venues of the 2008 Summer Olympics. Competitions for luge, bobsleigh and alpine skiing will be held in Xiaohaituo Mountain area northwest of Beijing, 90 kilometres away from the city centre of Beijing and 17.5 kilometres away from the town of Yanqing. All other skiing events will be held in Taizicheng Area in Chongli County, Zhangjiakou, 220 km (140 mi) from downtown Beijing and 130 km (81 mi) away from Xiaohaituo Mountain Area.

Ukraine at the 2018 Winter Olympics Sporting event delegation

Ukraine competed at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, from 9 to 25 February 2018, with 33 competitors in 9 sports. Oleksandr Abramenko won the only medal for the country, a gold in men's aerials freestyle skiing, earning Ukraine the 21st place in the overall medal table.

2024 Winter Youth Olympics 2024 edition of the Winter Youth Olympics

The 2024 Winter Youth Olympics, officially known as the IV Winter Youth Olympic Games and commonly known as Gangwon 2024, will be the fourth edition of the Winter Youth Olympics, an international sports, education and cultural festival for teenagers, to be held between 19 January and 2 February 2024 in Gangwon, South Korea. The host city was announced at the 135th IOC Session on 10 January 2020 at the SwissTech Convention Center in Lausanne, Switzerland during the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics. This is the first Olympic event with the new bidding process. This will also be the first Winter Youth Olympic Games to be held outside of Europe.

Venues of the 2026 Winter Olympics and Paralympics

The list of the venues of the 2026 Winter Olympics were part of the candidacy file.

References

  1. "winter sports, noun". Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. Climate Change and Winter Sports: Environmental and Economic Threats
  4. "Cross country for the Winter Olympics" . Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  5. "Snow Bowling". Strictly Snow Games. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  6. "Snow Golf". Strictly Snow Games. Retrieved 21 January 2017.