|Highest governing body||FIVB|
|Team members||3 per side|
|Type||Outdoor, winter sport|
|Country or region||Europe|
Snow volleyball is a winter team sport played by two teams of three players on a snow court divided by a net. The objective of each team is to score points by sending a ball over the net so as to ground it on the opponent's court, and to prevent the same effort by the opponent. A team is allowed up to three touches to return the ball across the net, and individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively.
A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective. This can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, communicate, manage conflict, and solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, volleyball, rugby, water polo, handball, lacrosse, cricket, baseball, and the various forms of football and hockey.
The sport originated in Austria as a variant of beach volleyball. The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) is the international governing body for the sport.
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising nine federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly nine million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is landlocked and highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.
Beach volleyball is a team sport played by two teams of two players on a sand court divided by a net. As in indoor volleyball, the objective of the game is to send the ball over the net and to ground it on the opponent's side of the court, and to prevent the same effort by the opponent. A team is allowed up to three touches to return the ball across the net, and individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively except after making a block touch. The ball is put in play with a serve—a hit by the server from behind the rear court boundary over the net to the opponents. The rally continues until the ball is grounded on the playing court, goes "out", or a fault is made in the attempt to return the ball. The team that wins the rally scores a point and serves to start the following rally. The four players serve in the same sequence throughout the match, changing server each time a rally is won by the receiving team.
The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, commonly known by the acronym FIVB, is the international governing body for all forms of volleyball. Its headquarters are located in Lausanne, Switzerland and its current president is Brazilian Ary Graça.
Volleyball has been played on snow for decades, especially in countries such as Russia, Austria and Switzerland, even though without any specifically codified rules, but simply as a variation of the Volleyball game on snow. Unofficial Snow Volleyball competitions were held in Austria and Switzerland in the late 90s, before the idea reemerged in 2008, upon the initiative of Martin Kaswurm, a local promoter.The sport gained popularity in Wagrain, Austria, in 2008, and the first Snow Volleyball Tour was set up the following year. It was recognized as an official sport by the Austrian Volleyball Association in 2011. Initially taking place across Austria, the Tour expanded to include stops in other European countries by 2013. The European Volleyball Confederation (CEV) officially added the sport in October 2015 and organized the first CEV Snow Volleyball European Tour in 2016. The inaugural CEV European Snow Volleyball Championships took place in March 2018 in Austria. A Snow Volleyball European Tour under the umbrella of the CEV has taken place yearly ever since, with events held in countries as diverse as Austria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Russia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Turkey, while national championships qualifying to the inaugutal European Championships were organised by 17 National Federations in the winter of 2018.
Wagrain is a market town in the St. Johann im Pongau District in the Austrian state of Salzburg. It is located in a high valley stretching from the Salzach at Sankt Johann in the west to the Enns river in the east. The municipality includes the Katastralgemeinden Hof, Hofmarkt, Schwaighof and Vorderkleinarl. The population is about 3,020.
The Confédération Européenne de Volleyball or CEV is the continental governing body for the sports of volleyball, beach volleyball and snow volleyball in Europe. Its headquarters are located in Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
With plans to make snow volleyball part of the future Winter Olympic Games programme,the FIVB and the CEV recruited former beach volleyball Olympians to compete in a demonstration of the sport at the 2018 Winter Olympics. Since then, more efforts have been made to increase global participation in the sport. In the first tournament of the 2018–19 European Tour season, teams from the United States, Brazil and Kazakhstan were invited to compete for the first time. Meanwhile, the inaugural FIVB Snow Volleyball World Tour started in 2019, with two events co-hosted by the FIVB and CEV in Wagrain and Plan de Corones, followed by the first extra-European such event held in Bariloche, Argentina. Teams from countries with little tradition in winter sports such as Brazil and Argentina have been able to claim their first international medals in any snow or ice sports through the introduction of the Snow Volleyball World Tour.
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.
The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as PyeongChang 2018, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February 2018, the day before the opening ceremony.
The FIVB Snow Volleyball World Tour is the worldwide professional snow volleyball tour for both men and women organized by the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) and the Confédération Européenne de Volleyball. The World Tour was introduced in 2019.
Snow volleyball is played on a rectangular snow court. The court is 16 m (52.5 ft) long and 8 m (26.2 ft) wide, surrounded by a clear space, which is at least 2 m (6 ft 6.7 in) wide on all sides. The snow should be at least 30 cm (11.8 in) deep, and as leveled as possible and free of potential hazards such as rocks that could cause injuries to players. The court is divided into equal halves by a net that is 8.5 m (27.9 ft) long and 1 m (3 ft 3.4 in) wide. The top of the net is 2.43 m (7 ft 11 11⁄16 in) above the center of the court for men's competition, and 2.24 m (7 ft 4 3⁄16 in) for women's competition. An antenna, 1.8 m (5 ft 10.9 in) long and 10 mm (0.4 in) in diameter, is attached to each side edge of the net. The antennae are considered part of the net and extend 80 cm (31.5 in) above it, forming the lateral boundaries within which the ball is allowed to cross.
FIVB regulations state that the ball must be spherical and made of flexible and water resistant material, such that it is appropriate for outdoor conditions. A snow volleyball ball has a circumference of 66–68 cm and a weight of 260–280 g.
Players wear thermal clothing and cleats to provide grip on the snow.
For a long period, Snow Volleyball was played 2 vs 2 as with Beach Volleyball. This changed to 3 vs 3 at the start of the 2018/2019 season in a move to make the game more appealing and make the rallies last longer. A team is composed of three starters and one substitute. Each team is allowed to make up to two substitutions per set. Coaching during matches is not allowed.
A team scores a point when: the ball lands on the opposing team's court; the opposing team hits the ball "out"; the opposing team commits a fault; or the opposing team receives a penalty. The team that won the point serves for the next point. The ball is considered "out" if it: lands on the ground completely outside the boundary lines (a ball is "in" if any part of it touches a sideline or end-line); touches an object or person (who is not a player) outside the court; touches the net's antennae; does not cross the net's lateral boundaries (within the antennae) during service or during a team's third contact; crosses completely under the net.
A set is won by the first team to reach 15 points with a two-point advantage. A match is won by the first team to win two sets.
Originating as a variant of beach volleyball, the rules of snow volleyball are similar to the beach game.Besides the playing surface, the main differences between snow and beach volleyball are the scoring system and the number of players. As in the beach version, matches were originally best of 3 sets played to 21 points, with two players in a team. In December 2018, the FIVB approved new rules for snow volleyball which changed the scoring system to a best of 3 sets played to 15 points, and the number of players to three starters and one substitute in a team. Another difference is that unlike beach volleyball, a touch off block does not count as one of the three allowed touches, and any player may make the subsequent touch after the block.
The teams start on opposite sides of the net. One team is designated the serving team and opposing team is the receiving team. A coin toss is conducted by the referee before the warm-ups to determine which team serves first and which sides of the court the teams start on for the first two sets. If a third deciding set is needed, another coin toss will be conducted prior to the third set. The service order decided at the coin toss before a set is maintained throughout the set.
For each point, a player from the serving team initiates the serve by tossing the ball into the air and attempting to hit the ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court. The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three contacts with the ball to return the ball to the opponent's side of the net, and individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively.The three contacts usually consist first of the bump or pass, second of the set so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards a spot where it can be hit, and third of the spike (jumping, raising one arm above the head and hitting the ball so it will move quickly down to the ground on the opponent's court) or shot to return the ball over the net. The team with possession of the ball that is trying to attack the ball as described is said to be on offense.
The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacking team from directing the ball into their court: the player(s) at the net jumps and reaches above the top (and if possible, across the plane) of the net to block the attacked ball. If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block, the defensive player(s) positioned behind the blocker(s) attempts to control the ball with a dig (usually a forearm pass). After a successful dig, the team transitions to offense.
The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth, until the ball touches the court within the boundaries or until a fault is committed.
Teams switch ends of the court after every 5 points played. Each team may request one 30-second time-out per set.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964.
Footvolley is a sport which combines aspects of beach volleyball and association football.
Sanne Keizer is a Dutch beach volleyball player who plays as a right-side defender with her partner Madelein Meppelink. Her career highlights include two gold, two silver and four bronze medals on the FIVB World Tour. She is a two-time European Champion and she represented the Netherlands at the 2012 Summer Olympics, finishing ninth with Marleen van Iersel.
Several sports related to volleyball have become popular. Beach volleyball is an event at the Olympics, and sitting volleyball at the Paralympics. Other varieties are localised, or are played at an amateur or informal level.
A volleyball is a ball used to play indoor volleyball, beach volleyball, or other less common variations of the sport. Volleyballs are round and traditionally consist of eighteen nearly rectangular panels of synthetic or genuine leather, arranged in six identical sections of three panels each, wrapped around a bladder. A valve permits the internal air pressure to be adjusted. In a break from the traditional construction, in 2008, the FIVB adopted as its official indoor ball a new Mikasa with dimples and only eight panels for a softer touch and truer flight.
The FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour is the worldwide professional beach volleyball tour for both men and women organized by the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB). The World Tour was introduced for men in 1989 while the women first competed in 1992.
The Nestea European Championship Tour is a European beach volleyball tour organised by the European Volleyball Confederation (CEV). It is the highest ranked European series of beach volleyball tournaments.
Throwball is a non-contact ball sport played across a net between two teams of nine players on a rectangular court. It is popular in Asia, especially on the Indian subcontinent, and was first played in India as a women's sport in Chennai during the 1940s. Like volleyball, the game's roots are linked with the YMCA. Both volleyball and newcomb ball, while older games, share many similarities with throwball. Throwball rules were first drafted in 1955 and India's first national level championship was played in 1980.
Marta Menegatti is an Italian beach volleyball player who plays as a left-side defender with her partner Viktoria Orsi Toth. With former teammate Greta Cicolari, she achieved a career-high world ranking of No. 4 in August 2012. Her career highlights include two gold, seven silver and seven bronze medals on the FIVB World Tour. She is also the 2011 European champion and the 2013 Mediterranean Games champion, both achieved with Cicolari. Menegatti represented Italy at the 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympics, finishing fifth and ninth respectively.
Nikolas "Nik" Berger is an Austrian beach volleyball player.
Viktoria Orsi Toth is an Italian beach volleyball player who plays as a right-side blocker. With partner Marta Menegatti, she achieved a career-high world ranking of No. 7 in June 2016. Her career highlights include two gold, three silver and two bronze medals on the FIVB World Tour.
Nina Betschart is a Swiss professional beach volleyball player. She won the gold medal at the first ever European Games in 2015. As primarily a defence specialist; Betschart has enjoyed a lot of success in junior level, being twice an U21 World Champion and a four-time gold medallist in European Underage Championships, twice in U20 and twice in U22 level.
The following were the events of Volleyball for the year 2017 throughout the world.
The following were the events of Volleyball for the year 2018 throughout the world.
The following articles list indoor volleyball, beach volleyball, snow volleyball and sitting volleyball records and statistics:
The following were the events of Volleyball for the year 2019 throughout the world.
Katharina Elisabeth Schützenhöfer is an Austrian professional beach volleyball player who plays as a right-side defender with her partner Lena Plesiutschnig. She won the silver medal at the first ever European Games in 2015. Her first and only FIVB World Tour victory so far, came at a 3-star event in Mersin in 2018. She won a silver medal at the 2011 U19 World Championship and a bronz medal at the 2013 U21 World Championship, both competitions were held in Umag. She is also the 2011 U20 European Champion with Plesiutschnig.
Lena Maria Plesiutschnig is an Austrian professional beach volleyball player who plays as a left-side blocker with her partner Katharina Schützenhöfer. She won the silver medal at the first ever European Games in 2015. Her first and only FIVB World Tour victory so far, came at a 3-star event in Mersin in 2018. She won a silver medal at the 2011 U19 World Championship and a bronz medal at the 2013 U21 World Championship, both competitions were held in Umag. She is also the 2011 U20 European Champion with Schützenhöfer.