Team sport

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Cricket is a popular team sport played at international level Australia vs India.jpg
Cricket is a popular team sport played at international level
Ice hockey is the most popular winter team sport LIF-VIK block.jpg
Ice hockey is the most popular winter team sport
Based on the number of participating athletes, bandy is the second most popular winter sport in the world Bandy in Medeu Kazakhstan.JPG
Based on the number of participating athletes, bandy is the second most popular winter sport in the world

A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Team members act together towards a shared objective. This can be done in a number of ways such as outscoring the opposing team. Team members set goals, make decisions, communicate, manage conflict, and solve problems in a supportive, trusting atmosphere in order to accomplish their objectives. Examples are basketball, volleyball, rugby, water polo, handball, lacrosse, cricket, baseball, [2] and the various forms of football and hockey.

Contents

Overview

Team sports are practiced between opposing teams, where the players generally interact directly and simultaneously between them to achieve an objective. The objective often involves teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar object in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points.

The meaning of a "team sport" has been disputed in recent years. Some types of sports have different objectives or rules than "traditional" team sports. These types of team sports do not involve teammates facilitating the movement of a ball or similar item in accordance with a set of rules, in order to score points. For example, swimming, rowing, sailing, dragon boat racing, and track and field among others can also be considered team sports. [3] In other types of team sports, there may not be an opposing team or point scoring, for example, mountaineering. Instead of points scored against an opposing team, the relative difficulty of the climb or walk is the measure of the achievement. In some sports where participants are entered by a team, they do not only compete against members of other teams but also against each other for points towards championship standings. For example, motorsport, particularly Formula One. In cycling however, team members whilst still in competition with each other, will also work towards assisting one, usually a specialist, member of the team to the highest possible finishing position. This process is known as team orders and although previously accepted was banned in Formula One [4] between 2002 and 2010. After a controversy involving team orders at the 2010 German Grand Prix however, the regulation was removed as of the 2011 season. [5]

Through the years, the popularity of team sport has continued to grow, positively influencing not just athletes, but also fans, local and national economies. All over the world, the impact of team sport can be seen as professional athletes live out their dreams while serving as role models, youth athletes develop life skills and follow in the footsteps of their role models, fans bond over the love of their teams while supporting their economies with their support.

History

Traces of sprinting as a team sport extend back several thousand years – as evidenced in images in the cave in Lascaux in France which depict people running after animals or vice versa; this was an issue of survival of the fittest. [6]

Ancient Greek wrestlers Pankratiasten in fight copy of greek statue 3 century bC.jpg
Ancient Greek wrestlers
Rock paintings of humans in the cave of swimmers WadiSuraHumans.jpg
Rock paintings of humans in the cave of swimmers

Organized athletics in Greece traditionally date back to 776 BC, with ongoing activity recorded up to 393 BC. These ancient Olympic Games tested warrior skills and consisted of running, jumping or leaping, wrestling (combat sport), and javelin throw. [7] In the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia, Neolithic-era cave paintings dating to 7000 BC depict a wrestling match surrounded by crowds. [8] Prehistoric cave-paintings in Japan show a sport similar to sumo wrestling. [9] In Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya, a Neolithic rock painting in the cave of swimmers shows evidence of swimming and archery being practiced around 6000 BC. [10]

The term "athlete", according to mythology, derives from the name of Aethlius,[ citation needed ] [11] the mythological first King of Elis (the location of Olympia) in Greece. The practice of young athletes carrying flaming torches is also traced[ by whom? ] to the King of Elis, under whose supervision the games took place; some historians[ which? ] regard this as the first record of Olympic sprint racing. The winner of the race was crowned with a wreath of olive or laurel. In subsequent years monetary attractions were introduced as prize money.

Barber, Gary (2006). Getting Started in Track and Field Athletics: Advice & ideas for Children, Parents, and Teachers. Victoria, British Columbia: Trafford Publishing. p. 26. ISBN   9781412238472 . Retrieved 30 May 2018. Can you imagine that in today's Olympics - 'and the winner of the 100m gets a bunch of celery sticks!'[ self-published source ] </ref>[ failed verification ]

The present-day pattern of Olympic Games resembles the practice followed in ancient times. Sprint was the coveted event. The 200 m sprint is known in Greek as "short foot race". The 400 m race is equivalent to two stades and called diaulos in Greek. [7]

Olympic team sports

Seven team sports are currently on the program of the Summer Olympics. Cricket's inclusion in the 2024 Summer Olympics depends on the decision of the International Cricket Council and its members. [12] A cricket tournament formed part of the Summer Olympics in 1900, although only one match was played, between teams representing Great Britain and France. However, the British team was effectively a club touring side and the French players were drawn partly from expatriates living in Paris. [13]

Ice hockey and curling are team sports at the Winter Olympics together with the bobsleigh competition where the men's event has classes for both two-man and four-man sleds, but the women's class is restricted to two persons only. [14]

All Olympic team sports include competitions for both men and women.

SportMenWomen
First editionEditionsFirst editionEditions
Football at the Summer Olympics Paris 1900 25 Atlanta 1996 5
Water polo at the Summer Olympics Paris 1900 26 Sydney 2000 4
Field hockey at the Summer Olympics London 1908 21 Moscow 1980 8
Bobsleigh at the Winter Olympics Chamonix 1924 24 Salt Lake 2002 4
Curling at the Winter Olympics Chamonix 1924 5 Nagano 1998 4
Ice hockey at the Winter Olympics Chamonix 1924 21 Nagano 1998 4
Basketball at the Summer Olympics Berlin 1936 17 Montreal 1976 9
Handball at the Summer Olympics Berlin 1936 11 Montreal 1976 9
Volleyball at the Summer Olympics Tokyo 1964 12 Tokyo 1964 12
Rugby sevens at the Summer Olympics Rio de Janeiro 2016 1 Rio de Janeiro 2016 1

[15]

See also

Related Research Articles

Sport of athletics Sports involving running, jumping, throwing, and walking

Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking.

1896 Summer Olympics Games of the I Olympiad, celebrated in Athens (Greece) in 1896

The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.

Track and field Sport involving running, jumping and throwing disciplines

Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived from where the sport takes place, a running track and a grass field for the throwing and some of the jumping events. Track and field is categorized under the umbrella sport of athletics, which also includes road running, cross country running, and racewalking.

History of sport study of the development of sport over time

The history of sports extends back to the Ancient world. The physical activity that developed into sports had early links with ritual, warfare and entertainment.

Wrestling form of combat sport involving grappling type techniques

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. The sport can either be theatrical for entertainment, or genuinely competitive. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems.

Combat sport sport

A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Common combat sports include mixed martial arts, boxing, wrestling, judo, fencing, savate, kickboxing, Muay Thai, Sanda, Tae Kwon Do, Capoeira, Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, HMB, Sambo, Sumo, Kyokushin, and Kūdō.

Sports in the United States are an important part of American culture. Football is the most popular sport to watch in the United States, followed by basketball, baseball, and soccer. Hockey, tennis, golf, wrestling, auto racing, arena football, field lacrosse, box lacrosse and volleyball are also popular sports in the country. Based on Olympic Games, World Championships, and other major competitions in respective sports, the United States is the most successful sports nation in the world.

Sport in Pakistan is a significant part of Pakistan culture. Cricket is the most popular sport in Pakistan, while field hockey, polo, and squash are also popular. Traditional sports like kabaddi and other well-known games are also played. The Pakistan Sports Board was created in 1962 by the Ministry of Education as a corporate body for the purposes of promoting and developing uniform standards of competition in sports in Pakistan comparable to the standards prevailing internationally, and regulating and controlling sports in Pakistan on a national basis. The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, now has control over the Pakistan Sports Board. The PSB controls all 39 sporting federations. The Pakistan Sports Board is supported by the Pakistan Sports Trust, which assists hard up players and associations so they can continue participating in sports.

Greece has risen to prominence in a number of sporting areas in recent decades. Football in particular has seen a rapid transformation, with the Greek national football team winning the 2004 UEFA European Football Championship. Many Greek athletes have also achieved significant success and have won world and olympic titles in numerous sports during the years, such as basketball, wrestling, water polo, athletics, weightlifting, with many of them becoming international stars inside their sports. The successful organisation of the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games led also to the further development of many sports and has led to the creation of many world class sport venues all over Greece and especially in Athens. Greek athletes have won a total 146 medals for Greece in 15 different Olympic sports at the Summer Olympic Games, including the Intercalated Games, an achievement which makes Greece one of the top nations globally, in the world's rankings of medals per capital.

Ancient Olympic Games Athletic competitions in Ancient Greece

The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration, of and for Zeus; events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added later. The Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of ancient Greece. They were held in honor of Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC. They continued to be celebrated when Greece came under Roman rule, until the emperor Theodosius I suppressed them in AD 393 as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as the State religion of Rome. The games were held every four years, or olympiad, which became a unit of time in historical chronologies.

Sport in India overview of sports traditions in India

Sport in India refers to the large variety of games played in India, ranging from tribal games to more mainstream sports such as cricket, badminton and football. India's diversity of culture, people and tribe as well as its colonial legacy is reflected in the wide variety of sporting disciplines in the country.

Ancient Olympic pentathlon competition of five sports held in Ancient Greece

The Ancient Olympic pentathlon was an athletic contest at the Ancient Olympic Games, and other Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece. The name derives from Greek, combining the words pente (five) and athlon (competition). Five events were contested over one day, starting with the stadion followed by the Javelin throw, Discus throw, Long jump, and ending with wrestling. While Pentathletes were considered to be inferior to the specialized athletes in a certain event, they were superior in overall development and were some of the most well balanced of all the athletes. Their training was often part of military service—each of the five events was thought to be useful in battle.

Belt Wrestling is a form of wrestling that is one of the oldest historically recorded sports. It involves contestants aiming to knock each other over by grappling with a belt.

Sport Forms of competitive activity, usually physical

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Athletics is a term encompassing the human competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance. Athletic sports or contests are competitions which are primarily based on human physical competition, demanding the qualities of stamina, fitness, and skill. Athletic sports form the bulk of popular sporting activities, with other major forms including motorsports, precision sports, extreme sports and animal sports.

Boccia classification is the classification system governing boccia, a sport designed specifically for people with disabilities. Classification is handled by Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. There are four classifications for this sport. All four classes are eligible to compete at the Paralympic Games.

The participation of transgender or transsexual individuals in competitive sports is a controversial issue. Opposition to transgender or transsexual women competing in sporting events generally focuses on hormonal factors pre-transition, and physiological factors such as height and weight. Insisting that trans athletes compete against athletes of the same assigned sex at birth, sex verification testing, and access regulations have been used with the purported aim of ensuring fair competition.

Participation of women in the Olympics

The rate of participation of women in the Olympics has been increasing since their first participation in 1900. Some sports are uniquely for women, others are contested by both sexes, while some older sports remain for men only. Studies of media coverage of the Olympics consistently show differences in the ways in which women and men are described and the ways in which their performances are discussed. The representation of women on the International Olympic Committee has run well behind the rate of female participation, and it continues to miss its target of a 20% minimum presence of women on their committee.

Sports before 1001 sports-related events before 1001

This article presents a chronology of sporting development and events from time immemorial until the end of the 10th century CE. The major sporting event of the ancient Greek and Roman periods was the original Olympic Games, which were held every four years at Olympia for over a thousand years. Gladiatorial contests and chariot racing were massively popular. Some modern sports such as archery, athletics, boxing, football, horse racing and wrestling can directly trace their origins back to this period while later sports like cricket and golf trace their evolution from basic activities such as hitting a stone with a stick.

References

Citations

  1. Bandy versus the 50 Olympic Winter Games Disciplines Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Team sport – Wikipedia". en.m.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  3. Baofu 2014, p. 202.
  4. "2008 FIA Formula One Sporting Regulations" (PDF). Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  5. "2010 FIA Formula One Sporting Regulations" (PDF). Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  6. Barber 2006, p. 25.
  7. 1 2 Barber 2006, p. 26.
  8. Hartsell, Jeff. "Wrestling 'in our blood". Bulldogs' Luvsandor. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  9. Robert Crego (2003). Sports and Games of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 34–. ISBN   978-0-313-31610-4 . Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  10. Győző Vörös (2007). Egyptian Temple Architecture: 100 Years of Hungarian Excavations in Egypt, 1907– 2007. American Univ in Cairo Press. pp. 39–. ISBN   978-963-662-084-4 . Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  11. Compare: Harper, Douglas. "athlete". Online Etymology Dictionary . Retrieved 30 May 2018. "athlete (n.) early 15c., from Latin athleta 'a wrestler, athlete, combatant in public games,' from Greek athletes 'prizefighter, contestant in the games,' agent noun from athlein 'to contest for a prize,' related to athlos 'a contest' and athlon 'a prize,' which is of unknown origin."
  12. "Cricket edges closer to Olympic roster". AFP. 11 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  13. "Cricket at the 1900 Paris Summer Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  14. "BOBSLEIGH". International Olympic Committee. 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  15. Sport, ComeOn. "Sports Tours and tournaments in France and Europe – ComeOn Sport". ComeOnSport. Retrieved 21 October 2018.

Sources