A crokinole board
|Designer(s)||Eckhardt Reiner Elton Wettlaufer|
|Years active||ca. 1876–|
|Players||2 or 4|
|Skill(s) required||Fine motor skill, eye–hand coordination, intuitive understanding of physics & plane geometry|
Crokinole ( // KROH-ki-nohl) is a dexterity board game similar in various ways to pitchnut, carrom, marbles, and shove ha'penny, knipsbrat, with elements of shuffleboard and curling reduced to table-top size. Players take turns shooting discs across the circular playing surface, trying to have their discs land in the higher-scoring regions of the board, while also attempting to knock away opposing discs.
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy, but many contain an element of chance; and some are purely chance, with no element of skill.
Pitchnut is a wooden tabletop game of French Canadian origins, similar to carrom, crokinole and pichenotte, with mechanics that lie somewhere between pocket billiards and air hockey. Unlike with pichenotte, there are no records of pitchnut being mass-produced; all existing boards are handmade and frequently handed down from generation to generation. The game is common on the farming villages south of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada and Amherst, Massachusetts, United States.
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Board dimensions vary with a playing surface typically of polished wood or laminate approximately 26 inches (660 mm) in diameter. The arrangement is 3 concentric rings worth 5, 10, and 15 points as you move in from the outside. There is a shallow 20-point hole at the center. The inner 15-point ring is guarded with 8 small bumpers or posts. The outer ring of the board is divided into four quadrants. The outer edge of the board is raised slightly to keep errant shots from flying out, with a gutter between the playing surface and the edge to collect discarded pieces. Crokinole boards are typically octagonal or round in shape. The discs are roughly checker-sized, slightly smaller in diameter than the board's central hole, and may have concave faces to reduce sliding friction. Alternatively, the game may be played with ring-shaped pieces with a central hole.
Draughts or checkers is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces. Draughts developed from alquerque. The name derives from the verb to draw or to move.
The use of any lubricating powder in crokinole is controversial, with some purists reviling the practice.
Powder is used to ensure pieces slide smoothly on the surface. According to Carrom rules, the powder must be of high quality to keep the surface smooth and dry, and shall not be wet. Pouches and containers are used to spread the powder over the playing surface. There must be no impurity in the powder. Boric acid powder is mostly used for this purpose.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, tribasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds. It has the chemical formula H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3), and exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite.
In the UK, many players use a version of anti-set-off spray powder, from the printing industry, which has specific electrostatic properties, with particles of 50-micrometre diameter (3.9×10−5 in). The powder is made of pure food-grade plant/vegetable starch.
In printing, anti-set-off spray powder is used to make an air gap between printed sheets of paper. This enables the ink to dry naturally and therefore avoid the unwanted transfer of ink from one printed sheet to another. The problem can occur with most types of printing.
Crokinole is most commonly played by two players, or by four players in teams of two, with partners sitting across the board from each other. Players take turns flicking their discs from the outer edge of their quadrant of the board onto the playfield. Shooting is usually done by flicking the disc with a finger, though sometimes small cue sticks may be used. If there are any enemy discs on the board, a player must make contact, directly or indirectly, with an enemy disc during the shot. If unsuccessful, the shot disc is "fouled" and removed from the board, along with any of the player's other discs that were moved during the shot.
A cue stick, is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the . Cues are tapered sticks, typically about 57–59 inches long and usually between 16 and 21 ounces (450–600 g), with professionals gravitating toward a 19-ounce (540 g) average. Cues for carom tend toward the shorter range, though cue length is primarily a factor of player height and arm length. Most cues are made of wood, but occasionally the wood is covered or bonded with other materials including graphite, carbon fiber or fiberglass. An obsolete term for a cue, used from the 16th to early 19th centuries, is billiard stick.
When there are no enemy discs on the board, many (but not all) rules also state that a player must shoot for the centre of the board, and a shot disc must finish either completely inside the 15-point guarded ring line, or (depending on the specifics of the rules) be inside or touching this line. This is often called the "no hiding" rule, since it prevents players from placing their first shots where their opponent must traverse completely though the guarded centre ring to hit them and avoid fouling. When playing without this rule, a player may generally make any shot desired, and as long as a disc remains completely inside the outer line of the playfield, it remains on the board. During any shot, any disc that falls completely into the recessed central "20" hole (a.k.a. the "Toad" or "Dukie") is removed from play, and counts as twenty points for the owner of the disc at the end of the round, assuming the shot is valid.
Scoring occurs after all pieces (generally 12 per player or team) have been played, and is differential: i.e., the player or team with higher score is awarded the difference between the higher and lower scores for the round, thus only one team or player each round gains points. Play continues until a predetermined winning score is reached.
The earliest known crokinole board was made by craftsman Eckhardt Wettlaufer in 1876 in Perth County, Ontario, Canada. It is said Wettlaufer crafted the board as a fifth birthday present for his son Adam, which is now part of the collection at the Joseph Schneider Haus, a national historic site in Kitchener, Ontario, with a focus on Germanic folk art. [ self-published source ] [ unreliable source ]Several other home-made boards dating from southwestern Ontario in the 1870s have been discovered since the 1990s. A board game similar to crokinole was patented on 20 April 1880 by Joshua K. Ingalls (US Patent No. 226,615)
Crokinole is often believed to be of Mennonite or Amish origins, but there is no factual data to support such a claim. The reason for this misconception may be due to its popularity in Mennonite and Amish groups. The game was viewed as a rather innocuous pastime – unlike the perception that diversions such as card playing or dancing were considered "works of the Devil" as held by many 19th-century Protestant groups. The oldest roots of crokinole, from the 1860s, suggest the British and South Asian games[ clarification needed ] are the most likely antecedents of what became crokinole.
In 2006, a documentary film called Crokinole was released. The world premiere occurred at the Princess Cinema in Waterloo, Ontario, in early 2006. The movie follows some of the competitors of the 2004 World Crokinole Championship as they prepare for the event.
The name "crokinole" derives from croquignole, a French word today designating:
It also used to designate the action of flicking with the finger (Molière, Le malade imaginaire; or Voltaire, Lettre à Frédéric II Roi de Prusse; etc.), and this seems the most likely origin of the name of the game. Croquignole was also a synonym of pichenotte, a word that gave its name to the different but related games of pichenotte and pitchnut.
Crokinole is called knipsbrat ('flick-board') in the Low German spoken by Mennonites.
The World Crokinole Championship (WCC) tournament has been held annually since 1999 on the first Saturday of June in Tavistock, Ontario. Tavistock was chosen as the host city because it was the home of Eckhardt Wettlaufer, the maker of the earliest known board. The tournament has seen registration from every Canadian province, several American states, Germany, Australia, Spain and the UK.
The reigning world adult singles crokinole champion is Justin Slater from London, Ontario. The reigning world adult doubles champions are Jason Beierling of Kitchener, Ontario, and Ray Beierling of Dorchester, Ontario.
The WCC singles competition begins with a qualifying round in which competitors play 10 matches against randomly assigned opponents. The qualifying round is played in a large randomly determined competition. At the end of the opening round, the top 16 competitors move on to the playoffs. The top four in the playoffs advance to a final round robin to play each other, and the top two compete in the finals. The WCC doubles competition begins with a qualifying round of 8 matches against randomly assigned opponents with the top six teams advancing to a playoff round robin to determine the champions.
The WCC has multiple divisions, including a singles finger-shooting category for competitive players (adult singles), novices (recreational), and younger players (intermediate, 11–14 yrs; junior, 6–10 yrs), as well as a division for cue-shooters (cues singles). The WCC also awards a prize for the top 20-hole shooter in the qualifying round of competitive singles, recreational singles, cues singles, intermediate singles, and in the junior singles. The tournament also holds doubles divisions for competitive fingers-shooting (competitive doubles), novices (recreational doubles), younger players (youth doubles, 6–16yrs), and cues-shooting (cues doubles).
The National Crokinole Association (NCA) is a federation that supports existing, and the development of new, crokinole clubs and tournaments. While the majority of NCA events are based in Ontario, Canada, the NCA has held sanctioned events in the Canadian provinces of PEI and BC, as well as in New York State.
The collection of NCA tournaments is referred to as the NCA Tour. Each NCA Tour season begins at the Tavistock World Crokinole Championships in June, and concludes at the Ontario Singles Crokinole Championship in May of the following years. The results of each tournament award points for each player, as they compete for their season-ending ranking classification. The NCA Tour includes both doubles and singles events.
The 2017-2018 NCA Tour Champion was Justin Slater, followed by Nathan Walsh in 2nd and Jon Conrad in 3rd.
Cue sports, also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as .
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" and "doubles". Badminton is often played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach; formal games are played on a rectangular indoor court. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court.
Tracy Ann Austin Holt is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. She won three Grand Slam titles; the women's singles titles at the 1979 and 1981 US Opens, and the mixed doubles title at the Wimbledon Championships in 1980. Additionally, she won the WTA Tour Championships in 1980 and the year-ending Toyota Championships in 1981, both in singles. A series of injuries and a serious automobile accident cut short her career. Since 1979, she has been the youngest US Open female singles champion in history, and she is the youngest inductee of all time at the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Austin won singles titles on all playing surfaces: clay, indoor carpet, grass, and hard courts.
Darts is a sport in which small missiles are thrown at a circular target ("dartboard") fixed to a wall. Though various boards and rules have been used in the past, the term "darts" usually now refers to a standardised game involving a specific board design and set of rules. As well as being a professional competitive game, darts is a traditional pub game, commonly played in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, across the Commonwealth, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, the Scandinavian countries, the United States, Australia and elsewhere.
Carrom is a cue sport-based tabletop game of South Asian origin. The game is very popular in India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and surrounding areas, and is known by various names in different languages. In South Asia, many clubs and cafés hold regular tournaments. Carrom is very commonly played by families, including children, and at social functions. Different standards and rules exist in different areas.
Shuffleboard, more precisely deck shuffleboard, and also known as floor shuffleboard, is a game in which players use cues to push weighted flapjacks, sending them gliding down a narrow court, with the purpose of having them come to rest within a marked scoring area. As a more generic term, it refers to the family of shuffleboard-variant games as a whole.
Chapayev is a board game, a hybrid of checkers (draughts) and gamepiece-impact games like carrom, novuss, and pichenotte, giving it gameplay aspects in common with both billiards and table shuffleboard on a smaller scale, as well as some checkers strategy. It is played throughout the territory of the former USSR. The aim is to knock the opponent's pieces off the board. The game is named after the Russian Civil War hero, Vasily Chapayev.
Novuss is a two-player game of physical skill which is closely related to carrom/ Karrom, and pocket billiards. Novuss is a national sport in Latvia. The board is approximately 100 centimetres (39 in) square, typically made of wood, has in each corner, and lines marked on the surface. The board is usually placed on a stand, but may be placed on a barrel or other surface that allows the pockets to hang down properly. It uses small discs instead of balls, and each player has a small puck instead of the used in other cue sports. Players use a small cue stick to propel their pucks into their colored object discs, knocking them into the pockets. The winner is the first one to sink all eight of their object discs.
East Zorra-Tavistock is a township in southwestern Ontario, Canada, formed on 1 January 1975 through the amalgamation of the Township of East Zorra and the Village of Tavistock. It is part of Oxford County. The township had a population of 7,129 in the Canada 2016 Census.
The following is a glossary of traditional English-language terms used in the three overarching cue sports disciplines: carom billiards referring to the various games played on a billiard table without ; pool, which denotes a host of games played on a table with six pockets; and snooker, played on a large pocket table, and which has a sport culture unto itself distinct from pool. There are also hybrid pocket/carom games such as English billiards.
A. Maria Irudayam is a two-time World Carrom Champion and nine-time national champion of India. He was awarded the prestigious Arjuna Award, a sporting honour presented by the Government of India, in 1996. As of 2007, he is the only person to have received the award for carrom.
The Continental Cup is a curling tournament held annually between teams from North America against teams from the rest of the world. Each side is represented by six teams, which compete using a unique points system. The tournament is modeled after golf's Ryder Cup.
Pichenotte is a French Canadian tabletop game, played on a board with round game pieces. Used more broadly, the term is a general name for tabletop games played with small pieces that are flicked using the thumb and index finger, including such games as carrom, sharing a similarity in that their mechanics lie somewhere between pocket billiards and table shuffleboard. The term is also used in parts of Canada and the United States synonymously with crokinole. Commercially produced boards are available from numerous manufacturers.
Ringette is a team sport with two variations, an indoor and an outdoor version. The winter sport is played on an ice rink. One indoor court version is called gym ringette.
Five-pin billiards or simply five-pins or 5-pins, is today usually a carom billiards form of cue sport, though sometimes still played on a pocket table. In addition to the customary three balls of most carom games, it makes use of a set of five upright pins (skittles) arranged in a "+" pattern at the center of the table. The game is popular especially in Italy and Argentina, but also in some other parts of Latin America and Europe, with international, televised professional tournaments. It is sometimes referred to as Italian five-pins or Italian billiards, or as italiana. A variant of the game, goriziana or nine-pins, adds additional skittles to the formation. A related pocket game, with larger pins, is played in Scandinavia and is referred to in English as Danish pin billiards, with a Swedish variant that has some rules more similar to the Italian game.
Hsieh Su-wei is a Taiwanese professional tennis player. Her career-high singles ranking is world No. 23, a position she reached on 25 February 2013. She won the doubles events of 2013 Wimbledon Championships, the 2014 French Open and 2013 WTA Tour Championships, all partnered with Peng Shuai. Her singles achievements include reaching the fourth round at the Australian Open in 2008 and 2018, and the fourth round at Wimbledon in 2018. She is the first Taiwanese tennis player, male or female, in history to achieve a top-25 ranking in singles, and the first to achieve a world No. 1 ranking in doubles. She is one of Taiwan's most successful tennis players, having won three singles and 23 doubles titles on the WTA Tour, and seven medals at the Asian Games.
Larry Butler is an American professional darts player, nicknamed The Bald Eagle who was the winner of the 1994 PDC World Matchplay Darts Championship. This success made him the first, and so far only American player to have won a major darts tournament in Europe.
Kevin Joseph Pangos is a Canadian professional basketball player for FC Barcelona Lassa of the Liga ACB and the EuroLeague. He spent his college basketball career playing for the Gonzaga Bulldogs of the West Coast Conference. He was named the 2015 WCC Player of the Year, as well as a third-team All-American by Sporting News. Pangos has also represented Canada on the international stage. He earned an All-EuroLeague Second Team selection in 2018.
The 2016 Carrom World Championship, was the 7th edition of an international Carrom tournament governed by the International Carrom Federation, contested from 7 to 11 November 2016 in Birmingham, United Kingdom. Fifteen countries had competed in the tournament.
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