Wheelchair rugby

Last updated
Canada's Garett Hickling vs USA's Bryan Kirkland, at a wheelchair rugby game. Wheelchair rugby game 2.jpg
Canada's Garett Hickling vs USA's Bryan Kirkland, at a wheelchair rugby game.

Wheelchair rugby (originally murderball, and known as quad rugby in the United States) is a team sport for athletes with a disability. It is practised in over twenty-five countries around the world and is a summer Paralympic sport.


The US name is based on the requirement that all wheelchair rugby players need to have disabilities that include at least some loss of function in at least three limbs. Although most have spinal cord injuries, players may also qualify through multiple amputations, neurological disorders or other medical conditions. Players are assigned a functional level in points, and each team is limited to fielding a team with a total of eight points.

Wheelchair rugby is played indoors on a hardwood court, and physical contact between wheelchairs is an integral part of the game. The rules include elements from wheelchair basketball, ice hockey, handball and rugby union.

The sport is governed by the International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF) which was established in 1993.


Wheelchair rugby was created to be a sport for persons with quadriplegia in 1976 by five Canadian wheelchair athletes, Gerry Terwin, Duncan Campbell, Randy Dueck, Paul LeJeune and Chris Sargent, in Winnipeg, Manitoba. [1]

At that time, wheelchair basketball was the most common team sport for wheelchair users. That sport's physical requirement for players to dribble and shoot baskets relegated quadriplegic athletes, with functional impairments to both their upper limbs and lower limbs, to supporting roles. The new sport originally called murderball due to its aggressive, full-contact nature was designed to allow quadriplegic athletes with a wide range of functional ability levels to play integral offensive and defensive roles.

Murderball was first introduced into Australia in 1982.[ citation needed ] The Australian team competing in the Stoke Mandeville games in England were invited by the Canadians to select a team to play them in a demonstration game. After receiving limited instructions on the rules and skills of the game the "contest" began. Following a fast and very competitive exchange, Australia won. The game was then born and brought back to Australia where it has flourished.

Murderball was introduced to the United States in 1979 [2] by Brad Mikkelsen. With the aid of the University of North Dakota's Disabled Student Services, he formed the first American team, the Wallbangers. The first North American competition was held in 1982.

In the late 1980s, the name of the sport outside the United States was officially changed from Murderball to Wheelchair Rugby. In the United States, the sport's name was changed to Quad Rugby.

The first international tournament was held in 1989 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, with teams from Canada, the United States and Great Britain. In 1990, Wheelchair Rugby first appeared at the International Stoke Mandeville Games as an exhibition event, [3] and in 1993 the sport was recognized as an official international sport for athletes with a disability by the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation (ISMWSF). In the same year, the International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF) was established as a sports section of ISMWSF to govern the sport. The first IWRF World Wheelchair Rugby Championships were held in Nottwil, Switzerland, in 1995 and wheelchair rugby appeared as a demonstration sport at the 1996 Summer Paralympics in Atlanta.

The sport has had full medal status since the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, Australia and there are now twenty-five active countries in international competition, with several others developing the sport.


Wheelchair rugby court Wheelchair rugby court.png
Wheelchair rugby court

Wheelchair rugby is mostly played by two teams of up to twelve players. Only four players from each team may be on the court at any time. It is a mixed-gender sport, and both male and female athletes play on the same teams.

Wheelchair rugby is played indoors on a hardwood court of the same measurements as a regulation basketball court 28 metres long by 15 metres wide. The required court markings are a centre line and circle, and a key area measuring 8 metres wide by 1.75 metres deep at each end of the court.

The goal line is the section of the end line within the key. Each end of the goal line is marked with a cone-shaped pylon. Players score by carrying the ball across the goal line. For a goal to count, two wheels of the player's wheelchair must cross the line while the player has possession of the ball.

A team is not allowed to have more than three players in their own key while they are defending their goal line. Offensive players are not permitted to remain in the opposing team's key for more than ten seconds.

A player with possession of the ball must bounce or pass the ball within ten seconds.

A team's back court is the half of the court containing the goal they are defending; their front court is the half containing the goal they are attacking. Teams have twelve seconds to advance the ball from their back court into the front court and a total of forty seconds to score a point or concede possession.

Physical contact between wheelchairs is permitted, and forms a major part of the game. However, physical contact between wheelchairs that is deemed dangerous such as striking another player from behind is not allowed. Direct physical contact between players is not permitted.

Fouls are penalized by either a one-minute penalty, for defensive fouls and technical fouls, or a loss of possession, for offensive fouls. In some cases, a penalty goal may be awarded in lieu of a penalty. Common fouls include spinning (striking an opponent's wheelchair behind the main axle, causing it to spin horizontally or vertically), illegal use of hands or reaching in (striking an opponent with the arms or hands), and holding (holding or obstructing an opponent by grasping with the hands or arms, or falling onto them).

Wheelchair rugby games consist of four eight-minute quarters. If the game is tied at the end of regulation play, three-minute overtime periods are played.

Much like able-bodied rugby matches, highly competitive wheelchair rugby games are fluid and fast-moving, with possession switching back and forth between the teams while play continues. The game clock is stopped when a goal is scored or in the event of a violation such as the ball being played out of bounds or a foul. Players may only be substituted during a stoppage in play.


The Boise Bombers Wheelchair Rugby Team pose following its third annual Toys For Tots match displaying a variety of gear (expand to view) BoiseBombersWheelchairRugbyTeamAtFortBoiseCommunityCenter.jpg
The Boise Bombers Wheelchair Rugby Team pose following its third annual Toys For Tots match displaying a variety of gear (expand to view)

Wheelchair rugby is played in a manual wheelchair. The rules include detailed specifications for the wheelchair. Players use custom-made sports wheelchairs that are specifically designed for wheelchair rugby. Key design features include a front bumper, designed to help strike and hold opposing wheelchairs, and wings, which are positioned in front of the main wheels to make the wheelchair more difficult to stop and hold. All wheelchairs must be equipped with spoke protectors, to prevent damage to the wheels, and an anti-tip device at the back.

New players and players in developing countries sometimes play in wheelchairs that have been adapted for wheelchair rugby by the addition of temporary bumpers and wings.

Wheelchair rugby uses a regulation volleyball typically of a 'soft-touch' design, with a slightly textured surface to provide a better grip. The balls are normally over-inflated compared to volleyball, to provide a better bounce. The official ball of the sport from 2013-2016 is the Molten soft-touch volleyball, model number WR58X. [4] Players use a variety of other personal equipment, such as gloves and applied adhesives to assist with ball handling due to their usually impaired gripping ability, and various forms of strapping to maintain a good seating position.


Wheelchair rugby classifier examining a new player Wheelchair rugby classification.jpg
Wheelchair rugby classifier examining a new player

To be eligible to play wheelchair rugby, athletes must have some form of disability with a loss of function in both the upper limbs and lower limbs. [5] The majority of wheelchair rugby athletes have spinal cord injuries at the level of their cervical vertebrae. Other eligible players have multiple amputations, polio, or neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, some forms of muscular dystrophy, or Guillain–Barré syndrome, among other medical conditions.

Players are classified according to their functional level and assigned a point value ranging from 0.5 (the lowest functional level) to 3.5 (the highest). The total classification value of all players on the court for a team at one time cannot exceed eight points.

The classification process begins with an assessment of the athlete's level of disability to determine if the minimum eligibility requirements for wheelchair rugby are met. These require that an athlete have a neurological disability that involves at least three limbs, or a non-neurological disability that involves all four limbs. The athlete then completes a series of muscle tests designed to evaluate the strength and range of motion of the upper limbs and trunks. A classification can then be assigned to the athlete. Classification frequently includes subsequent observation of the athlete in competition to confirm that physical function in game situations reflects what was observed during muscle testing.

Athletes are permitted to appeal their classification if they feel they have not been properly evaluated. Athletes can be granted a permanent classification if they demonstrate a stable level of function over a series of classification tests.

Wheelchair rugby classification is conducted by personnel with medical training, usually physicians, physiotherapists, or occupational therapists. Classifiers must also be trained in muscle testing and in the details of wheelchair rugby classification.

Active countries

Countries playing wheelchair rugby IWRF Countries.PNG
Countries playing wheelchair rugby

As of September 2015 there are twenty-eight active countries playing wheelchair rugby, [6] divided into three zones:

Zone numberAreaCountry
1 The Americas Argentina
United States
2 Europe Austria
Czech Republic
Great Britain
3 Asia / Oceania Australia
New Zealand
South Korea
South Africa

International competitions

World Wheelchair Rugby Championships 2002, Gothenburg Sweden Wheelchair rugby game 1.jpg
World Wheelchair Rugby Championships 2002, Gothenburg Sweden

The major wheelchair rugby international competitions are Zone Championships, held in each odd-numbered year, and the World Championships held quadrennially in even-numbered years. Wheelchair rugby is also an included sport in regional events such as the Parapan American Games. [7]

Since 2000, it has been one of the sports of the Summer Paralympic Games.

Recent results
YearEventCityCountry1st place2nd place3rd place
2019 European Zone Championship Vejle Denmark Great BritainDenmarkFrance
2018 World Championship Sydney Australia JapanAustraliaUnited States
2017 European Zone Championship Koblenz Germany Great BritainSwedenFrance
2016 Paralympic Games

[8] [9]

Rio de Janeiro Brazil AustraliaUnited StatesJapan
Parapan Am Games [10] Toronto Canada CanadaUnited StatesColombia
European Zone Championship Nastola Finland Great Britain SwedenDenmark
2014 World Championship [11] Odense Denmark AustraliaCanadaUnited States
2013 European Zone Championship Antwerp Belgium SwedenDenmarkGreat Britain
2012 Paralympic Games London UK AustraliaCanadaUnited States
2011 European Zone Championship Nottwil Switzerland SwedenGreat BritainBelgium
20105th World Championship [12] Vancouver Canada United StatesAustraliaJapan
20091st Americas Zone Championship Buenos Aires Argentina United StatesCanadaArgentina
Asia-Oceania Zone Championship Christchurch New Zealand AustraliaNew ZealandJapan
7th European Zone Championship Hillerød Denmark BelgiumSwedenGermany
2008 Paralympic Games Beijing China United StatesAustraliaCanada
20074th Oceania Zone Championship Sydney Australia AustraliaCanadaNew Zealand
6th European Zone Championship Espoo Finland Great BritainGermanySweden
20064th World Championship [13] Christchurch New Zealand United StatesNew ZealandCanada
20055th European Zone Championship Middelfart Denmark Great BritainGermanySweden
3rd Oceania Zone Championship Johannesburg South AfricaNew ZealandAustraliaJapan
2004 Paralympic Games Athens Greece New ZealandCanadaUnited States
20023rd World Championship Gothenburg Sweden CanadaUnited StatesAustralia
2000 Paralympic Games Sydney Australia United StatesAustraliaNew Zealand
19982nd World Championship Toronto Canada United StatesNew ZealandCanada
1996 Paralympic Games (demonstration) Atlanta United States United StatesCanadaNew Zealand
19951st World Championship Nottwil Switzerland United StatesCanadaNew Zealand

Wheelchair rugby was featured in the Oscar-nominated 2005 documentary Murderball . It was voted the #1 Top Sport Movie of all time by the movie review website Rotten Tomatoes. [14]

The character Jason Street in the NBC television show Friday Night Lights , having been paralyzed in a game of American football in the pilot, tries out for the United States quad rugby team in a later episode.[ citation needed ]

See also


  1. "History of Wheelchair Rugby", iwasf.com
  2. http://www.iwrf.com/?page=about_our_sport
  3. "Rugby", europaralympic.org/
  4. "Official IWRF Molten Wheelchair Rugby Balls", iwrf.com
  5. International Wheelchair Rugby Federation. "About Wheelchair Rugby". Archived from the original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  6. "International Wheelchair Rugby Federation : IWRF Rankings". International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF). Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  7. "TORONTO 2015 Parapan Am Games Footprint Announced".
  8. "2016 Paralympics Day 11 - Highlights". CNN. 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
  9. "Canadian wheelchair rugby team misses podium at 2016 Rio Paralympics". Comox Valley Record, Courtenay, British Columbia. 2016-09-18. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
  10. "Wheelchair Rugby - Schedule & Results".
  11. "2014 IWRF Wheelchair Rugby World Championship". 2014wrwc.dhif.dk. 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  12. Kingston, Gary (26 September 2010). "U.S. wins 2010 wheelchair rugby title in Richmond". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
  13. TVNZ, No title for Wheel Blacks, September 16, 2006. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  14. Archived October 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine

Related Research Articles

Wheelchair basketball

Wheelchair basketball is basketball played by people with varying physical disabilities that disqualify them from playing an able-bodied sport. These include spina bifida, birth defects, cerebral palsy, paralysis due to accident, amputations, and many other disabilities. The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) is the governing body for this sport. It is recognized by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) as the sole competent authority in wheelchair basketball worldwide. FIBA has recognized IWBF under Article 53 of its General Statutes.

Wheelchair Rugby at the 2004 Summer Paralympics was staged at the Helliniko Indoor Arena from September 19 to September 25.

Paralympic sports

The Paralympic sports comprise all the sports contested in the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games. As of 2016, the Summer Paralympics included 22 sports and 526 medal events, and the Winter Paralympics include 5 sports and disciplines and about 72 events. The number and kinds of events may change from one Paralympic Games to another.

Summer Paralympic Games

The Summer Paralympics also known as the Games of the Paralympiad, are an international multi-sport event where athletes with physical disabilities compete. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy. The Paralympic Games are held every four years, organized by the International Paralympic Committee. Medals are awarded in each event, with gold medals for first place, silver for second and bronze for third, a tradition that the Olympic Games started in 1904.

United States national wheelchair rugby team

The United States national wheelchair rugby team represents the United States in international wheelchair rugby. The USA is the most successful team in international competition, winning medals in all four Paralympic tournaments it has entered, coming away with two golds.

The IWRF European Championship or IWRF European Zone Championship is the European wheelchair rugby championships that take place every two years between national teams of the continents. The European Championship is also a qualifying tournament for the IWRF World Championships and the Paralympic Games.

Great Britain national wheelchair rugby team

The Great Britain national wheelchair rugby team represents Great Britain in international wheelchair rugby. Great Britain is the most successful team in European competition, winning six gold medals at the European Championship.

1 point player is a disability sport classification for wheelchair basketball. It is for people who have significant loss of trunk control.

2 point player

2 point player and 2.5 point player is a disability sport classification for wheelchair basketball. People in this class have partial trunk control when making forward motions. The class includes people with T8-L1 paraplegia, post-polio paralysis and amputations. People in this class handle the ball less than higher-point players. They have some stability issues on court, and may hold their wheel when trying to one hand grab rebounds.

3 point player is a disability sport classification for wheelchair basketball. People in this class have good forward and backward trunk movement but poor to no sideways trunk movement. The class includes people with L2-L4 paraplegia and amputations. Amputees are put into this class generally if they have hip disarticulations or hip abductions. Players in this class can generally rebound balls that are over their heads, but they can have some issues with balance during lateral rebounds.

4 point player

4 point player is a disability sport classification for wheelchair basketball. Players in this class have normal trunk function but have a reduced level of functioning in one or both of their lower limbs. They may have difficulty with sideways movements. People in this class include ISOD classified A1, A2 and A3 players.

4.5 point player

4.5 point player is a disability sport classification for wheelchair basketball. Players in this class tend to have normal trunk movement, few problems with side to side movements, and ability to reach to the side of their chair. Players generally have a below knee amputation, or some other partial single leg dysfunction. This classification is for players with minimal levels of disability. In some places, there is a class beyond this called 5 point player for players with no disabilities.

Disability sports classification is a system that allows for fair competition between people with different types of disabilities.

Chris Bond (wheelchair rugby) Australian wheelchair rugby player

Christopher Adam Bond, is an Australian wheelchair rugby player. He has won gold medals at the 2012 London and 2016 Rio Paralympics.

Wheelchair basketball classification is the system that allows for even levels of competition on the court for wheelchair basketball based on functional mobility. The classifications for the sport are 1 point player, 2 point player, 3 point player, 4 point player and 4.5 point player, the greater the player's functional ability. Classification for the sport is set by the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation.

Wheelchair rugby classification is the seven class system that assigns players a point value based on functional mobility to insure parity in athletic ability on the court at any given time. Classification is handled by the International Wheelchair Rugby Federation.

Wheelchair tennis classification is the classification system for wheelchair tennis designed to bring fair play for all competitors. Classification is overseen by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and carried out by the International Tennis Federation (ITF).

F1, also T1 and SP1, is a wheelchair sport classification that corresponds to the neurological level C6. Historically, it was known as 1A Complete. People in this class have no sitting balance, and are tetraplegics. They may be able to perform limited actions with one hand. They lack sitting balance, and have limited head control and respiratory endurance. The process for classification into this class has a medical and functional classification process. This process is often sport specific.

Wheelchair sport classification is a system designed to allow fair competition between people of different disabilities, and minimize the impact of a person's specific disability on the outcome of a competition. Wheelchair sports is associated with spinal cord injuries, and includes a number of different types of disabilities including paraplegia, quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome and spina bifida. The disability must meet minimal body function impairment requirements. Wheelchair sport and sport for people with spinal cord injuries is often based on the location of lesions on the spinal cord and their association with physical disability and functionality.

Duncan Campbell, sometimes known as "the Quadfather", is a Canadian co-inventor of murderball. In the 1970s, Campbell invented the sport with four other Canadians before the sport was renamed to wheelchair rugby. In the sport, Campbell coached the Canadian team that went to the 2000 Summer Paralympics and organized the 2010 IWRF World Championship. Apart from wheelchair rugby, Campbell became a recreational therapist for the G. F. Strong Centre in 1986. His honours include an induction into the Canadian Paralympic Committee Hall of Fame in 2005 and receiving the Paralympic Order in 2013.