A traditional rugby union kit consists of a jersey and shorts, long rugby socks and boots with studs. The other main piece of equipment is the rugby ball.
Some modest padding is allowed on the head, shoulders and collarbone, but it must be sufficiently light, thin and compressible to meet World Rugby standards.Players may wear a mouthguard to guard against concussion and chipping of the teeth.
The ball used in rugby union is a prolate spheroid essentially elliptical in profile. Traditionally made of brown leather, modern footballs are manufactured of synthetic waterproof materials, and in a variety of colors and patterns.
Traditionally, rugby boots were of a high cut above the ankle. Over the years, such boots have become less common, although many players still wear mid-cut boots, just below the ankle. Additional ankle support was seen as appropriate given the nature of the game, particularly the stresses of forward playand the amount of physical contact involved. Higher cut boots also provided some protection against knocks.
Modern boots are now more similar to football boots, with a low cut offering less ankle support but maximum flexibility with minimum weight.
It is essential for safety considerations, particularly in the scrum, that forwards wear boots with removable studs. The studs may be metal (aluminum) or plastic and must conform to Regulation 12 of World Rugby.This regulation dictates the permissible dimensions of the studs and also defines a standard for the hardness of the material. Backs would be advised, on most ground types, to wear boots with some form of a stud, to ensure adequate grip when changing direction.
Referees are required to check all players' studs before a game and ensure that the studs conform to the laws and have no sharp edges. Any studs that are worn down so that the steel fixing is showing must be changed before the player is allowed to join in the game. The intent of the standard and these pre-match checks is to eliminate the potential for a stud to cause a cut if it comes into contact with a player's skin.
Generally, there are two types of stud pattern worn: the 8 stud or the 6 stud. The 8 stud is most often worn by the tight forwards (props, hooker and second row) to provide them with extra grip for scrummaging and mauling. The 6 stud is worn by backs as it allows for more agility and quicker movement around the field. Plastic "blade" studs, common in football, are an increasingly frequent choice among backs.
Rugby union uses H-shaped goalposts at each end of the playing field. The posts are 5.6 metres (18 ft) apart, and the crossbar is 3 metres (9.8 ft) from the ground.
Some specialist items of equipment are used for rugby training, including:
These are used during training and warmup in rugby union. Tackle bags are padded equipment which allows players to tackle without another player being involved. Tackle bags come in two forms: the rucking shield and the tackle bag. The rucking shield is held in the hand of a coach or fellow player and allows the tackler to drive against the person holding the shield safely. The tackle bag stands on the ground held loosely by another person, and allows the tackler to practice a full tackle.
A scrum machine, or scrummaging machine, is a padded, weighty device against which a pack of rugby football forwards can practice scrummaging and rucking to improve the strength and skills of their players.
Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, to stop the player from gaining ground towards goal or to stop them from carrying out what they intend.
Rugby football is a collective name for the family of team sports of rugby union and rugby league, as well as the earlier forms of football from which both games, Association football, Australian rules football, and Gridiron football evolved. Canadian football, and to a lesser extent American football were also broadly considered forms of rugby football but are seldom now referred to as such.
Rugby union, widely known simply as rugby, is a full contact team sport that originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is played between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field called a pitch. The field has H-shaped goalposts at both ends.
A scrum is a method of restarting play in rugby football that involves players packing closely together with their heads down and attempting to gain possession of the ball. Depending on whether it is in rugby union or rugby league, the scrum is utilized either after an accidental infringement or when the ball has gone out of play. Scrums occur more often, and are now of greater importance, in union than in league. Starting play from the line of scrimmage in gridiron football is derived from the scrum.
In rugby football, the penalty is the main disciplinary sanction available to the referee to penalise players who commit deliberate infringements. The team who did not commit the infringement are given possession of the ball and may either kick it towards touch, attempt a place kick at goal, or tap the ball with their foot and run it. It is also sometimes used as shorthand for penalty goal.
Touch rugby refers to games derived from rugby football in which players do not tackle each other but instead touch their opponents using their hands on any part of the body, clothing, or the ball.
Football boots, called cleats or soccer shoes in North America, are an item of footwear worn when playing football. Those designed for grass pitches have studs on the outsole to aid grip. From simple and humble beginnings football boots have come a long way and today find themselves subject to much research, development, sponsorship and marketing at the heart of a multi-national global industry. Modern "boots" are not truly boots in that they do not cover the ankle - like most other types of specialist sports footwear, their basic design and appearance has converged with that of sneakers since the 1960s.
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's rules specify the minimum kit which a player must use, and also prohibit the use of anything that is dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire.
A comparison of American football and rugby union is possible because of the games' shared origins, despite their dissimilarities.
The team sports rugby league and rugby union have shared origins and thus many similarities.
The experimental law variations (ELVs) were a proposed set of amendments to the laws of rugby union. They were proposed by the sport's governing body, the International Rugby Board (IRB), and trialled games at Stellenbosch University in 2006. In 2008 thirteen of the 23 variations trialled were played globally including; greater responsibility for assistant referees, corner posts no longer considered to touch in-goal, no gain in ground if the ball is moved into the 22-metre line by a player from the same team as the kicker, quick throw ins can travel backwards, no restrictions to players in the lineout, restrictions on where receivers and opposition hookers can stand in a lineout, pregripping and lifting allowed, mauls can be pulled down and players can enter with their head and shoulders lower than their hips, offside line is five metres away from the scrum for the backs and scrum half must be positioned close to the scrum, all offences apart from foul play and offsides are a free kick, and unplayable rucks and mauls are restarted with a free kick. In 2009 the IRB approved ten of the laws, rejecting the laws relating to mauls, numbers in a lineout and the increase in sanctions punishable by free kicks.
Rugby union is a contact sport that consists of two teams of fifteen players. The objective is to obtain more points than the opposition through scoring tries or kicking goals over eighty minutes of playing time. The play is started with one team drop-kicking the ball from the halfway line towards the opposition. The rugby ball can be moved up the field by either carrying it or kicking it. However, when passing the ball it can only be thrown laterally or backward. The opposition can stop players moving up the field by tackling them. Only players carrying the ball can be tackled and once a tackle is completed the opposition can compete for the ball. Play continues until a try is scored, the ball crosses the side line or dead-ball line, or an infringement occurs. After a team scores points, the non-scoring team restarts the game at the halfway with a drop kick toward the opposition. The team with the most points at the end wins the game.
Cleats or studs are protrusions on the sole of a shoe, or on an external attachment to a shoe, that provide additional traction on a soft or slippery surface. They can be conical or blade-like in shape, and made of plastic, rubber or metal. The type worn depends on the environment of play, whether it be grass, ice, artificial turf, or other grounds.
Rugby union is a team sport played between two teams of fifteen players. It is known for its rich terminology.
In rugby union a scrum is a means of restarting play after a minor infringement. It involves up to eight players from each team, known as the pack or forward pack, binding together in three rows and interlocking with the free opposing teams forwards. At this point the ball is fed into the gap between the two forward packs and they both compete for the ball to win possession. Teams can be penalised for intentionally causing the scrum to collapse, and for not putting the ball into the scrum correctly. A scrum is most commonly awarded when the ball is knocked forward, or passed forward, or when a ball becomes trapped in a ruck or maul. Because of the physical nature of scrums, injuries can occur, especially in the front row.
The scrum cap is a form of headgear used by rugby players to protect the ears in the scrum, which can otherwise suffer injuries leading to the condition commonly known as cauliflower ears. Although originally designed for forwards they are now worn by players of all positions, even those who do not play in the scrum. A prominent back to wear a scrum cap is Leigh Halfpenny who removes his to kick for goal.
Mini rugby, also known as New Image Rugby, is a form of rugby union designed to introduce the sport to children. It uses a smaller ball and pitch than standard rugby, and has eight to ten players a side.
A comparison of Canadian football and rugby union is possible because of the games' shared origins, despite their dissimilarities.
A scrum machine, or scrummaging machine, is a padded, weighty device against which a pack of rugby football forwards can practice scrummaging and rucking. The purpose of the scrum machine is to provide teams with a safe tool with which to improve the strength and skills of their players.
The laws of Rugby Union are defined by World Rugby and dictate how the game should be played. They are enforced by a referee, generally with the help of two assistant referees.