A shin guard or shin pad, is a piece of equipment worn on the front of an athlete's shin to protect it from injury. These are commonly used in sports including association football, baseball, ice hockey, field hockey, lacrosse, cricket, mountain bike trials, and other sports. This is due to either being required by the rules/laws of the sport or worn voluntarily by the participants for protective measures.
Modern day shin guards are made of many differing synthetic materials, including, but not limited to:
The shin guard was inspired by the concept of a greave. A greave is a piece of armour used to protect the shin. It is a Middle English term, derived from an Old French word, greve (pronounced gri’v), meaning shin or shin armour.The etymology of this word not only describes the use and purpose of shin guards, but also contributes to dating the technology.
This technology dates back to ancient times as early as Greek and Roman Republics. Back then, shin guards were viewed as purely protective measures for warriors in battle and were made of bronze or other hard, sturdy materials. The earliest known physical proof of the technology appeared when archaeologist Sir William Temple discovered a pair of bronze greaves with a Gorgon's head design in the relief on each knee capsule. After careful, proper examination it was estimated that the greaves were made in Apulia, a region in Southern Italy, around 550/500 B.C.This area fell under the Roman Empire boundaries and is known as today as the Salento Peninsula; it is more commonly known as the heel of Italy. This discovery is not considered the oldest known application of shin guards, but all other references lie in written or pictorial medians. The oldest known reference to shin guards was a written verse in the Bible. 1 Samuel 17:6 describes Goliath, a Philistine champion from Gath, who wore a bronze helmet, coat of mail, and bronze leggings. The Book of Samuel is commonly accepted to be written by Prophets Samuel, Nathan, and Gad between 960 and 700 B.C. Later, more concrete, examples of the shin guard concept resurfaced in the Middle Ages. All studies and evidence show greaves were improved to cover the entire lower leg, front and back, from the feet to the knees, and were mostly made of cloth, leather, or iron.
As time progressed into the 19th century a major shift in the application of shin guards occurred. The overall purpose of protecting the shin was maintained, but instead of being used for fighting, it became applied to sports. This paradigm shift dominates today's market use of shin guards as they are used mostly in sports. Other applications do exist though for protecting the lower leg in other physical activities such as hiking, mixed martial arts, and kickboxing, but all these activities can also be considered for sport instead of being necessary in battle.
Cricket was the first sport to adopt the use of shin guards. The introduction of this equipment was not motivated by the need for protection, but rather a strategic device to gain an advantage for the batsman. The batsman who wore the leg pads was able to cover the stumps with his protected legs and prevent the ball from hitting the stumps, instead the ball bowled into the batsman.Thus, the protection provided by the leg pads provided the batsman confidence to play without suffering pain or injury. This resulted in an offensive advantage; instead of hitting the wickets to get the batsman out, the bowler hits the batsman giving him another chance to hit the ball. This was addressed in 1809 with a rule change called leg before wicket, where the umpire was allowed to deduce whether the ball would have hit the stumps if the batter was not hit first. Leg pads became more popular as protective measures against the impact from the ball and are worn by the batsman, the wicket-keeper, and the fielders that are fielding in close to the batsman.
Association football was the next major sport to see the introduction of the shin guard. Sam Weller Widdowson is credited for bringing shin guards to the sport in 1874. He played cricket for Nottinghamshire and football for Nottingham Forest,and he got the idea to protect himself based on his cricket experiences. Widdowson cut down a pair of cricket shin pads and strapped them to the outside of his stockings using straps of leather. Other players ridiculed him initially, but shin guards eventually caught on as players saw the practical use of protecting their shins. Today, there are a two basic types of shin guards used in association football: slip-in shin guards and ankle shin guards.
In baseball, one of the innovators of the modern shin guard, New York Giants catcher Roger Bresnahan, began wearing shin guards in 1907.Made of leather, the guards were fastened with straps and hooks. Batters began wearing shin guards at the plate in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
After the application of shin guards in association football, they quickly spread to other sports and are now considered necessary for most contact sports.
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler; a bowler who is also a competent batter is known as an all-rounder. Bowling the ball is distinguished from throwing the ball by a strictly specified biomechanical definition, which restricts the angle of extension of the elbow. A single act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a ball or a delivery. Bowlers bowl deliveries in sets of six, called an over. Once a bowler has bowled an over, a teammate will bowl an over from the other end of the pitch. The Laws of Cricket govern how a ball must be bowled. If a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will rule it a no-ball. If a ball is bowled too wide of the striker for the batsman to be able to play at it with a proper cricket shot, the bowler's end umpire will rule it a wide.
Fielding in the sport of cricket is the action of fielders in collecting the ball after it is struck by the batsman, to limit the number of runs that the batsman scores and/or to get the batsman out by catching the ball in flight or by running the batsman out. There are a number of recognised fielding positions, and they can be categorised into the offside and leg side of the field. Fielding generally involves preventing the ball from going to or over the edge of the field, and getting the ball to either wicket as quickly as possible.
In many team sports which involve scoring goals, the goalkeeper is a designated player charged with directly preventing the opposing team from scoring by blocking or intercepting opposing shots on goal. Such positions exist in bandy, rink bandy, camogie, association football, Gaelic football, international rules football, floorball, handball, hurling, field hockey, ice hockey, roller hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rinkball, water polo, and shinty as well as in other sports.
Leg before wicket (lbw) is one of the ways in which a batsman can be dismissed in the sport of cricket. Following an appeal by the fielding side, the umpire may rule a batter out lbw if the ball would have struck the wicket, but was instead intercepted by any part of the batter's body. The umpire's decision will depend on a number of criteria, including where the ball pitched, whether the ball hit in line with the wickets, and whether the batter was attempting to hit the ball.
Catcher is a position for a baseball or softball player. When a batter takes their turn to hit, the catcher crouches behind home plate, in front of the (home) umpire, and receives the ball from the pitcher. In addition to this primary duty, the catcher is also called upon to master many other skills in order to field the position well. The role of the catcher is similar to that of the wicket-keeper in cricket, but in cricket, wicketkeepers are increasingly known for their batting abilities.
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are also defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding (cricket).
Dead ball is a term in many ball sports in which the ball is deemed temporarily not playable, and no movement may be made with it or the players from their respective positions of significance. Depending on the sport, this event may be quite routine, and often occurs between individual plays of the game.
A jockstrap is an undergarment for protecting the testes and penis during contact sports, or other vigorous physical activity. A jockstrap consists of a waistband with a support pouch for the genitalia and two elastic straps affixed to the base of the pouch and to the left and right sides of the waistband at the hip. The pouch, in some varieties, may be fitted with a pocket to hold an abdominal guard to protect the testicles and the penis from injury.
Cricket clothing and equipment is regulated by the laws of cricket. Cricket whites, sometimes called flannels, are the loose fitting clothes which are worn while playing cricket so as not to restrict the player's movement. Use of protective equipment, such as cricket helmets, gloves and pads, is also regulated.
Cricket and Baseball are the best-known members of a family of related bat-and-ball games. Both have fields that are 400 feet (120 m) or more in diameter, offensive players who can hit a thrown ball out of the field and run between safe areas to score runs (points), and have a major game format lasting about 3 hours.
Sporting equipment, also called sporting goods, are the tools, materials, apparel, and gear used to compete in a sport and varies depending on the sport. The equipment ranges from balls, nets, and protective gear like helmets. Sporting equipment can be used as protective gear or a tool used to help the athletes play the sport. Over time, sporting equipment has evolved because sports have started to require more protective gear to prevent injuries. Sporting equipment may be found in any department store.
Roller hockey, rink hockey or quad hockey is a team sport played on roller skates. Two five-man teams try to drive the ball with their sticks into the opponents' goal. The ball can only be put in motion by a stick, not the skate, otherwise a foul will be stated. The game has two 25-minute halves, with 15-minute halftime intermission, plus up to two 5-minute golden goal periods to settle ties with the clock stopping when the ball becomes dead. If the tie persists, a penalty shootout will determine the winner.
In ice hockey, players use specialized equipment both to facilitate the play of the game and for protection as this is a sport where injuries are common, therefore, all players are encouraged to protect their bodies from bruises and severe fractures.
Hot Spot is an infrared imaging system used in cricket to determine whether the ball has struck the batsman, bat or pad. Hot Spot requires two infrared cameras on opposite sides of the ground above the field of play that are continuously recording an image. Any suspected nick or bat/pad event can be verified by examining the infrared image, which usually shows a bright spot where contact friction from the ball has elevated the local temperature. Where referrals to an off-field third umpire are permitted, the technology is used to enhance the on-field umpire's decision-making accuracy. Where referrals are not permitted, the technology is used primarily as an analysis aid for televised coverage.
Pads are protective equipment used by batters in the sport of cricket, catchers in the sports of baseball and fastpitch softball, and by goaltenders in ice hockey, bandy and box lacrosse. They serve to protect the legs from impact by a hard ball or puck at high speed which could otherwise cause injuries to the lower legs.
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is inherent in the theory of universal precaution, which requires specialized clothing or equipment for the protection of individuals from hazard. The term is defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which is responsible for PPE regulation, as the "equipment that protects employees from serious injury or illness resulting from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other hazards." While there are common forms of PPEs such as gloves, eye shields, and respirators, the standard set in the OSHA definition indicates a wide coverage. This means that PPE involves a sizable range of equipment. There are several ways to classify them such as how gears could be physiological or environmental. The following list, however, sorts personal protective equipment according to function and body area.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of which is a 22-yard (20-metre) pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each batter. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, and by the fielding side either catching the ball after it is hit by the bat and before it hits the ground, or hitting a wicket with the ball before a batter can cross the crease in front of the wicket. When ten batters have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches.
EvoShield is an American brand that specializes in protective gear. Some of EvoShield products are wrist guards, elbow guards, as well as rib and heart protectors for the sports of baseball, gridiron football, lacrosse and softball.
Personal protective equipment serves an integral role in maintaining the safety of an athlete participating in a sport. The usage and development of protective gear in sports has evolved through time, and continues to advance over time. Many sports league or professional sports mandate the provision and usage of protective gear for athletes in the sport. Usage of protective gear is also mandated in college athletics and occasionally in amateur sports.
The goaltender or goalie is a playing position in indoor or box lacrosse. More heavily armoured than a field lacrosse goaltender, since the invent of indoor lacrosse in 1931, the box lacrosse goalie has evolved into a much different position than its field lacrosse cousin.