Sepak takraw

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Sepak takraw
Incheon AsianGames Sepaktakraw 09 (15291705581).jpg
Women's double Sepak Takraw event at the 2014 Asian Games in Incheon
Highest governing body ISTAF
Nicknameskick volleyball [1]
Introduced1960, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia [1]
Team members2, 3, or 4
Mixed gender No
Typeoutdoor, indoor, beach
Equipmentsynthetic plastic or rattan ball, net
VenueSepak Takraw court
Country or region Asia
Olympic No
Paralympic No
World Games No

Sepak Takraw, also spelled as Sepaktakraw [2] or nicknamed kick volleyball, is a team sport played with a synthetic plastic or rattan ball between two teams of two to four players on a court resembling a badminton court. [3] [4] The sport, with similarities to volleyball which is played with hand, but differs from the similar sport like footvolley in its use of a rattan ball and only allowing players to use their feet, knees, shoulders, chest and head to touch the ball.


Sepak Takraw as we know it today was first introduced, developed and standardized in 1960, when the officials from Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Myanmar met in Kuala Lumpur to agree on both a common set of rules for the sport and a name. [1] Prior to this, it was unofficially known as "Sepak Raga Jaring" where the first match and rules of this pioneer version Sepak Takraw was exhibited in Penang in 1945. The sport was then introduced in the 1965 Southeast Asian Games in Kuala Lumpur as a medal event. Sepak Takraw is considered Malaysia's national sport. [2] [3] Nevertheless, since its introduction in 1990 Asian Games in Beijing, Thailand has won the most medals for the sport overall, including 26 gold medals.

Sepak Takraw is governed internationally by the International Sepaktakraw Federation, commonly known as ISTAF that was formed in 1988. ISTAF is responsible for Sepak Takraw's major international tournaments, notably the ISTAF SuperSeries (ISS) and ISTAF World Cup (IWC). Other prestigious annual international Sepak Takraw tournaments also include Malaysia's Khir Johari Cup and Thailand's King Cup.

Sepak Takraw resembles related regional Asian sports known as Sepak Raga in Brunei, Malaysia, and Singapore, Sipa in the Philippines, Rago in Indonesia, Chinlone in Myanmar, Takraw in Thailand, Kataw in Laos, Sek Dai in Cambodia, Cuju in China, Da Cau in Vietnam, Jegichagi in Korea and Kemari in Japan.


The word sepak is Malay (Jawi: سڨق) for kick while the word takraw is of Thai (Thai: ตะกร้อ) origin that can be translated as muzzle or woven rattan ball. [5] Sepak Takraw is referred to the sport played using takraw; therefore "Sepak Takraw" quite literally means "to kick a rattan ball". [6] The choosing of this name for the sport was essentially a compromise between Malaysia and Thailand in Kuala Lumpur in 1960.

The sport is also known locally as "Sepak Raga Jaring" in Malaysia, [1] where the term "Jaring" meaning net in Malay was added to the traditional "Sepak Raga" game when it was created by Hamid Mydin in Penang in 1945. In Thailand, it is simply known as its original name of "Takraw". [1] Internationally, only the term "Sepak Takraw" is being used to refer to the modern sport of Sepak Takraw. [7]



The origin of Sepak Takraw is uncertain, it was probably introduced to Southeast Asia by the Chinese who were inspired by the traditional game, Cuju , also an ancient military exercise, where soldiers play to keep a leather ball filled with feathers airborne by kicking it back and forth between two or more people. [8] [9] As the game developed, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Cuju is also considered by the International Football Association (FIFA) as the origin of football as a sport. [10]

Video recording of a Sepak Takraw.

Historical evidence shows that Sepak Takraw played with balls made of woven strips of rattan was first played in Malacca Sultanate (present-day Malaysia) in the 15th century, for it is mentioned in the Malay manuscript, "Sejarah Melayu" (Malay Annals). [11] [2] [12] The Malay Annals described in details the incident of Raja Muhammad, a son of Sultan Mansur Shah (1459–1477) who was accidentally hit with a rattan ball by Tun Besar, a son of Bendahara Tun Perak, in a Sepak Raga game. The ball hit Raja Muhammad's headgear and knocked it down to the ground. In anger, Raja Muhammad immediately stabbed and killed Tun Besar, whereupon some of Tun Besar's kinsmen retaliated and wanted to kill Raja Muhammad. However, Bendahara Tun Perak managed to restrain them from such an act of treason by saying that he would no longer accept Raja Muhammad as the Sultan's heir. As a result of this incident, Sultan Mansur Shah ordered his son out of Malacca and had him installed as the ruler of neighbouring Pahang. [13] [14] [8] [15]

The Malay Sepak Raga resembles related native sports in Southeast Asia like Sipa in the Philippines, [16] Rago in Indonesia, [17] [18] [19] [20] Chinlone in Myanmar, [21] Takraw in Thailand, Kataw in Laos, Sek Dai in Cambodia, and Da Cau in Vietnam. [8] [12] Traditionally, these games are played in a circle, where the ball is passed from one to the other. As there is often no opposing team, it is usually played for fun by demonstrating several tricks, such as kicking the ball and placing it on the player's head, keeping the ball aloft gracefully and interestingly.

Origins of the modern sport

In the earlier version of Sepak Takraw, the game was not so much of a competition, but rather cooperative displays of skill designed to exercise the body. The game acts as an exercise to improve dexterity and loosen the limbs after long periods of sitting, standing or working. However, the modern version of Sepak Takraw began taking shape sometime during the 1940s. In 1935, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Sepak Raga was first played on a badminton court over the net with players on the two opposing sides amid celebrating the Silver Jubilee of George V. The event shows the earliest example of modern sport rules being used for the Sepak Raga, changing the game from its non-competitive form. Badminton is considered a sport preferred by the British while Sepak Raga is regarded as a Malay pastime activity. Since the diversion sport was first played amid the Jubilee festivity, it was known as "Sepak Raga Jubilee" (Jubilee Sepak Raga). [22] [23] [24] [12] [2]

Hamid Mydin, the founder of Sepak Raga Jaring/ Sepak Takraw and his team. Pasukan Sepak Takraw Hamid Mydin -1.jpg
Hamid Mydin, the founder of Sepak Raga Jaring/ Sepak Takraw and his team.

It is likely that the sport now gained popularity in Negeri Sembilan had spread to various states of Malaya(now West Malaysia). The following years after World War II straight up to the mid-20th century, it was conceivable to see "Sepak Raga Jubilee" played in rural villages and towns throughout Malaya. Despite being a multiracial country, the sport was particularly famous in places with a huge Malay population. The amusement of the new sport then proliferated in Penang. It is believed that the advancement of present-day Sepak Takraw is, for the most part, attributed to three main figures from Jalan Patani, Penang. [22] [2] [23] [12] In February 1945, a net and tenets like badminton were presented by Hamid Mydin, accompanied by local Sepak Raga sportsmen, Mohamad Abdul Rahman and Syed Yaacob to attempt his new contort on "Sepak Raga Jaring" (Net Sepak Raga). The new version was preferred in light of the quicker pace, the distinctive styles of kicking and the higher standard of athleticism that it demanded. [12] It is considered the pioneer version of modern Sepak Takraw and also remained one of the dominant competitive forms. [23] [7]

The first properly organised Sepak Takraw competition was held at a Swim Club in Penang on May 16, 1945. [24] [12] Three teams from Malay populated localities in Penang were among those that went after the Nyak Din Nyak Sham Trophy. [25] Starting there on, the amusement of the sport spreads rapidly all through the remainder of Malaya. From Penang, the "Sepak Raga Jaring" spread to Alor Setar in Kedah, to Kampung Baru in Kuala Lumpur and then to Singapore. By 1960, the diversion was well known in many Malayan schools that had badminton courts. [15] The sport was frequently played by football players since they could undoubtedly ace the aptitudes included, which are like those utilised in football. During this time, several Sepak Raga associations had formed in various Malayan states. [12]

About the same time, similar developments were in Thailand. In 1929, the Siam Sports Association drafted the first rules for the Takraw competition. Four years later, the association introduced the volleyball-style net and held the first public contest. Within just a few years, Takraw was introduced to the curriculum in Siamese schools. The game became such a cherished local custom that another exhibition of volleyball-style Takraw was staged to celebrate the kingdom's first constitution in 1933, the year after Thailand abolished its absolute monarchy. [26]


Hamid Mydin awarded the Khir Johari Gold Medal from the Malaysian Sepak Raga Association on 7 August 1977. Hamid Maidin menerima pingat daripada Khir Johari.jpg
Hamid Mydin awarded the Khir Johari Gold Medal from the Malaysian Sepak Raga Association on 7 August 1977.

The determination and perseverance of Penang's Sepak Takraw pioneers had led to the founding of the "Jawatankuasa Penaja Sepak Raga Pulau Pinang" (Penang Sepak Raga Sponsors' Committee) on 25 March 1956 at Dewan UMNO Pulau Pinang. On January 28, 1960, the committee then negotiated with representatives from Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Kedah and Singapore at Bangunan Persatuan Melayu Pulau Pinang on the founding of "Jawatankuasa Penaja Perseketuan Sepak Raga Jaring Malaya" (Malayan Sepak Raga Jaring Sponsors' Committe), an organization at the national level. The initial rules and regulations of the sport were enacted and compiled in writing on 15 April 1960 at Sultan Sulaiman Club in Kuala Lumpur. [27] [28]

On June 25, 1960, the Malayan Sepak Raga Federation (now renamed Malaysian Sepak Takraw Association (PSM)) was established at a meeting held in Balai Rakyat, Jalan Patani, Penang. The ceremony was officiated by the Chief Minister of Penang, Wong Pow Nee. During the meeting, the representatives from Kedah, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Penang had unanimously appointed Khir Johari as its first President. Hamid Mydin was also recognized as the creator and founder of Sepak Takraw by the federation at that meeting. [29] [3] [28] The Sepak Raga rules that were compiled on 15 April in Kuala Lumpur was also ratified by the Malayan Sepak Raga Federation on this day.

Later that year, representatives from Malaya, Singapore, Myanmar and Thailand got together in Kuala Lumpur to standardize the guidelines for the sport. After an intense debate, the consensus was that the sport would henceforth be officially called "Sepak Takraw". [26] [2] [7] Thus, a game of Sepak Takraw that witnesses acrobatic movements by athletes was officially introduced to the international level. In Malaya, an inter-state competition known as "Khir Johari Gold Cup" was organized at Stadium Negara, Kuala Lumpur from 27 to 28 December 1962 to further advance the amusement. Penang, where the Sepak Raga Jaring originated, turned to be the primary holder of the tournament. By that point, "Sepak Raga Jaring" had turned out to be one of the more well-known amusements in Malaya, and today regarded as Malaysia's national sport. [2] [12]

Global game

Official logo for International Sepaktakraw Federation. Official Logo for International Sepaktakraw Federation.png
Official logo for International Sepaktakraw Federation.

In 1965, the Asian Sepak Takraw Federation (ASTAF) was formed. Its first task was to translate the Sepak Takraw rules into English, placing the point for the first worldwide competition, the Southeast Asian Peninsular Games (SEAP Games) (now Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games)) held in Kuala Lumpur. [26] During this time, it was still confusing known as "Sepak Raga". From the fourth SEAP Games in 1967, the term "Sepak Takraw" become the established name. [23]

In 1970, the Asian Games was held in Bangkok, a show game of Sepak Takraw by Malaysian and Thai teams was introduced to Asian countries.

In 1975, the Kedah's Sepak Takraw team visited Germany in conjunction with The Sports Press Feast 1975 to perform the Sepak Takraw as a demonstration. [28]

In 1977, the Penang's Sepak Takraw team was brought to North Malaysian Week in Adelaide, Australia. [28]

In 1979, ASTAF for the first time held a conference in Jakarta in conjunction with the SEA Games and reviewed the Sepak Takraw laws submitted by the Malaysian Sepak Takraw Association. The ASTAF technical committee also held its second meeting in Singapore in the same year for the same purpose.

In 1980, the Malaysian Sepak Takraw team held several Sepak Takraw performances in China, South Korea and Hong Kong, an outstanding achievement in the history of Sepak Takraw towards introducing the sport to East Asian countries. [28]

In 1982, the woven synthetic ball was introduced to replace woven rattan ball in Thailand. [2]

In 1988, the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF), the international governing body for the sport, recognised as such by the Olympic Movement in 1990 was formed by visionaries within the Asian Sepaktakraw Federation (ASTAF). [2]

In 1990, Sepak Takraw was included at the Asian Games in Beijing. [23] [3] [2]

In 1997, the first women’s championship was held in Thailand. [3]

In 1998, Sepak Takraw was introduced as a demonstration event in the Commonwealth Games held in Kuala Lumpur. [12]

In 2011, the inaugural edition of Sepak Takraw’s flagship tournament, the ISTAF World Cup, was staged in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The ISTAF SuperSeries, a new series of elite tournaments was also launched in Bangkok.

There are more than 30 countries that have national Sepak Takraw organizations with associates on the International Sepak Takraw Federation (ISTAF) overseeing the sport. [30]


Sepak takraw competition in the Philippines Sepak Takraw (3828519859) (cropped).jpg
Sepak takraw competition in the Philippines

International play is now governed by ISTAF, the International Sepak Takraw Federation. Major competitions for the sport such as the ISTAF SuperSeries, the ISTAF World Cup and the King's Cup World Championships are held every year.

Sepak takraw is now a regular sport event in the Asian Games and the Southeast Asian Games, in which Thailand has won the most medals for. [ citation needed ]

Asian Games

Sepak takraw has been a sport at the Asian Games since 1990 with Thailand securing the highest number of gold medals.


The Lao people first brought sepak takraw into Canada when they immigrated as refugees in the 1970s. But the game got exposure outside the Laotian communities and really started taking off when a Saskatchewan teacher, Richard (Rick) Engel, who encountered sepak takraw while living in Asia, included it in Asian Sport, Education & Culture (ASEC) International's School Presentation Program. Sepak takraw was so well received by schools that it became part of ASEC's mandate to help introduce, promote and organise the sport right across the country. In May 1998, after getting many schools playing sepak takraw, and by networking with experienced players, ASEC International organised the first Canadian inter-provincial tournament to include men's, boys and girls teams. By the end of 1998, Engel was sent to Bangkok, Thailand to film at the 14th King's Cup Sepak Takraw World Championships – the footage of which was used to produce a widely used instructional sepak takraw video/DVD, called Sepak Takraw – Just for Kicks.

On 11 December 1998, the Sepak Takraw Association of Canada (STAC) [31] was incorporated to organise and govern the sport nationally. Its office was set up in Regina, SK, where there are experienced players and organisational support, and where it could share the resources and office space of the already established ASEC International, a committee from which has now become Sepak Takraw Saskatchewan Inc. [32] The first annual Canadian Open Sepak Takraw Championships (a national and international tournament event) were held in May 1999 in Regina, SK, and have over the years attracted teams from across Canada, the United States, Japan, Malaysia and China. That same year Canada also attended its first International Sepak Takraw Federation (ISTAF) Congress and was accepted as members of ISTAF, which governs the sport globally. In 2000, Rick Engel, Perry Senko and Brydon Blacklaws played for Team Canada and earned a silver medal in the entry level division of the King's Cup World Sepak Takraw Championships in Thailand. Another major milestone was achieved on 3 December 2000, when STAC and the sport of sepak takraw became an official class E Member of the Canadian Olympic Committee.

Canada has since contributed much to the development of sepak takraw worldwide, with Engel authoring three instructional sepak takraw books [33] and helping produce five sepak takraw DVDs, while STAC does the publishing. The most notable of these books is Sepak Takraw 101 - The Complete Coaching/Instructional Manual for Sepak Takraw (Kick Volleyball), the third edition of which has also been translated and published in the Indonesian language and released in Indonesia through a government education project. Engel has found himself to be in demand, introducing the sport and conducting sepak takraw skills clinics in schools and sessions at physical education teachers' conferences all over Canada, the US and Europe.


A Japanese team played at the 1990 Asian Games in Beijing. While as of 2010 there are no professional teams in Japan, university level teams had been established at Asia University, Chiba University, Keio University, and Waseda University. [34]


Philippine team compete for the Sepak Takraw International. Among the veteran players still in the lineup are Jason Huerta, Reyjay Ortuste, Mark Joseph Gonzales, Josefina Maat, Des Oltor, Ronsted Cabayeron and Sara Catain. Sepak takraw is a sport native to Southeast Asia. It is also known as “Sipa” in the Philippines.

United States

The earliest accounts of organized takraw in the United States involve a group of students from Northrop University (Greg St. Pierre, Thomas Gong, Joel "big bird" Nelson, and Mark Kimitsuka) in 1986 in Inglewood, California, learning about and playing the sport in Los Angeles. In the early 80s, Southeast Asians held soccer tournaments that had takraw events in Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota and California, especially within the Lao, Hmong and Thai communities. [35] Malaysian students attending the university often enjoyed playing the sport on a court on top of the dormitory cafeteria. They taught a handful of curious American students how to play, which in turn inspired Malaysia Airlines to sponsor a US team from the university to attend the National Tournament in Kuala Lumpur in November 1987. The Northrop team played in a bracket of international new teams with Korea, Sri Lanka, and Australia. The US team beat Sri Lanka and Australia to bring home the gold. [36]

Los Angeles's Asian community and Northrop's team had already established a takraw community in and around L.A. Sonderegger moved to Los Angeles, founded the United States Takraw Association, and started a business that sold plastic takraw balls. In 1989, he was sent an invitation from the International Sepak Takraw Federation, and Sonderegger along with a few of the Northrop group travelled to represent the United States in the World Championships.

The team was beaten badly but the takraw world was enchanted with the fact that non-Asian teams had competed at the World Championships. [37]

Rules and regulations

Measurements of courts and equipment often vary among tournaments and organisations that operate from a recreational to a competitive level; international competitive rules and regulations are used in this section. There are two types of event categories: the regu and the doubles regu. The regu category is played by three players on each team while the doubles regu is played by two players on each team.


Takraw is the Thai word for the hand-woven rattan ball originally used in the game. Therefore, the game is essentially "kick ball". [38] The concept of Footvolley originates from Thai Takraw pronounced (Tha-Graw) Also, sometimes misnamed by foreigners as "Shaolin Soccer" however it is an ancient game mainly enjoyed between Thai and Laos.


Sepak takraw court diagram Sepak Takraw court diagram.svg
Sepak takraw court diagram

The sepak takraw sport is played on a similar to badminton double sized court. [39]

Area of 13.4 by 6.1 metres (44 ft × 20 ft) free from all obstacles up to the height of 8 metres (26 ft) measured from the floor surface (sand and grass court not advisable). The width of the lines bounding the court should not be more than 4 centimetres (1.6 in) measured and drawn inwards from the edge of the court measurements. All the boundary lines should be drawn at least 3.0 metres (9.8 ft) away from all obstacles. The centre line of 2 cm (0.79 in) should be drawn equally dividing the right and left court.

At the corner of each at the center line, the quarter circle shall be drawn from the sideline to the center line with a radius of 0.9 metres (2 ft 11 in) measured and drawn outwards from the edge of the 0.9 m radius.

The service circle of 0.3 m radius shall be drawn on the left and on the right court, the center of which is 2.45 m from the back line of the court and 3.05 m from the sidelines, the 0.04 m line shall be measured and drawn outward from the edge of the 0.3 m radius. [40]


The net shall be made of fine ordinary cord or cocaine with 6 cm to 8 cm mesh. Similar to a volleyball net. [39]

The net shall be 0.7 m in width and not shorter than 6.10 m in length and taped at 0.05 m from tape double at the top and sideline, called boundary tape.

The net shall be edged with 0.05 m tape double at the top and the bottom of the net supported by a fine ordinary cord or nylon cord that runs through the tape and strain over and flush with the top of the posts. The top of the net shall be 1.52 m (1.42 m for women) in height from the center and 1.55 m (1.45 m for women) at the posts. [40]


A sepak takraw ball made out of rattan Rattan sepak tawraw ball.png
A sepak takraw ball made out of rattan

The sepak takraw ball shall be spherical, made of synthetic fibre or one woven layer.

Sepak takraw balls without synthetic rubber covering must have 12 holes and 20 intersections, must have a circumference measuring not less from 42 to 44 cm (16.5–17.3 in) for men and from 43 to 45 cm (16.9–17.7 in) for women, and must have a weight that ranges from 170 to 180 g (6.0–6.3 oz) for men and from 150 to 160 g (5.3–5.6 oz) for women.

The ball can be in plain single colour, multi-colour, and luminous colours, but not in any colour that will impair the performance of the players.

The sepak takraw ball can also be constructed of synthetic rubber or soft durable material for covering the ball, for the purpose of softening the impact of the ball on the player's body. The type of material and method used for constructing the ball or for covering the ball with rubber or soft durable covering must be approved by ISTAF before it can be used for any competition.

All world, international, and regional competitions sanctioned by International Sepak Takraw Federation, including but not limited to, the Olympic Games, World Games, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games and SEA Games, must be played with ISTAF approved sepak takraw balls. [40]


A match is played by two teams called 'regu', each consisting of three players. On some occasions, it can be played by only two players (doubles) or four players (quadrant) per team.

One of the players shall be at the back; he/she is called a "Tekong" or also known as the "Server". The other two players shall be in front, one on the left and the other on the right. The player on the left is called a "feeder/setter/tosser" and the player on the right is called a "attacker/striker/killer". [40]

Start of play and service

The side that must serve first shall start the first set. The side that wins the first set shall have the options of "Choosing Service".

The throw must be executed as soon as the referee calls the score. If either of the "Inside" players throws the ball before the referee calls the score, it must be re-thrown and a warning will be given to the thrower.

During the service, as soon as the Tekong kicks the ball, all the players are allowed to move about freely in their respective courts.

The service is valid if the ball passes over the net, whether it touches the net or not, and inside the boundary of the two net tapes and boundary lines of the opponent's court. [40]

Faults in the game

Serving side during service

  • The "Inside" player who is making service throws, plays with the(throwing up the ball, bumping, giving to other "Inside" player etc.) after the call of score has been made by the referee.
  • The "Inside" player lifts his feet or steps on the line or crosses over or touches the net while throwing the ball.
  • The Tekong jumps off the ground to execute the service.
  • The Tekong does not kick the ball on the service throw.
  • The ball touches his own player before crossing over the opponent court.
  • The ball goes over the net but falls outside the court.
  • The ball does not cross to the opponent side.
  • A player uses his hand or hands, or any other part of his arms to facilitate the execution of a kick even if the hand or arm does not directly touch the ball, but it touches other objects or surfaces instead when doing so. [40]

Serving and receiving side during service

  • Creating distracting manner or noise or shouting at his opponent.

For both sides during the game

  • Any player who touches the ball on the opponent side.
  • Any part of player's body crosses over into opponent's court whether above or under the net except during the follow-through of the ball.
  • Playing the ball more than 3 times in succession.
  • The ball touches the arm
  • Stopping or holding the ball under the arm, between the legs or body.
  • Any part of the body or player's outfits e.g. shoes, jersey, head band etc., touches the net or the post or the referee's chairs or falls into the opponent's side.
  • The ball touches the ceiling, roof or the wall (any objects). [40]

Scoring system

An official doubles or regu match is won by best of three sets (win 2 out of 3 sets), with each set being played up to 21 points.

A team event or group match is effectively three regu matches played back to back, using different players for each regu. The winner is determined by best of three regus (win 2 out of 3 regus), where a winner of each individual regu is determined by best of 3 sets, played up to 21 points per set.

In the last 3rd set the change of sides takes place when one team reaches 11 points.

Point: when either serving side or receiving side commits a fault, a point is awarded to the opponent side. [40]

Competing countries

International play is now governed by ISTAF, the International Sepak Takraw Federation.

Serving: Teams alternate serve every three points, regardless of who wins the points. I.e., each team serves three times, then the other team serves three times, and so on. If a tie takes place at 21-21, each team alternates one serve each until a winner is determined.

Set: each set is won by the side which scores 21 points with a minimum lead of two points to a ceiling of 25 points. In the event of a 21–21 tie, the set shall be won by the side which gets a lead of two points, or when a side reaches 25 points (whichever occurs first).

Match: a match is won by the team who has won two sets. A team event match is won by the team that wins two regus.

Ranking: in group stages of tournaments or team events (round robin) the ranking in a group is determined by: 1. Sum of match wins; a match win gives 1 point 2. Sum set points 3. Point difference +/-

In other media

See also

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Chinlone, also known as caneball, is the traditional, national sport of Myanmar (Burma). It is non-competitive, with typically six people playing together as one team. The ball used is normally made from handwoven rattan, which sounds like a basket when hit. Similar to the game of hacky-sack, chinlone is played by individuals passing the ball among each other within a circle without using their hands. However, in chinlone, the players are walking while passing the ball, with one player in the center of the circle. The point of the game is to keep the ball from hitting the ground while passing it back and forth as creatively as possible. The sport of chinlone is played by men, women and children, often together, interchangeably. Although very fast, chinlone is meant to be entertaining and fluid, as if it were more of a performance or dance.

1977 Southeast Asian Games

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Sport in Indonesia

Sports in Indonesia are popular from both the participation and spectating aspect. Some popular sports in Indonesia are (Soccer) football, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and the native Indonesian martial art pencak silat. Badminton is arguably Indonesia's most successful sport. Indonesia has won gold medals in badminton in every Olympic Games since the sport was first introduced to the Olympics in 1992, with the exception of the 2012 Summer Olympics. Indonesia regularly participates in the Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, and Sudirman Cup badminton championships. Indonesia also regularly participates in regional multi-events sport, such as the Southeast Asian Games, Asian Games, and Olympic Games. Indonesia is one of the major sport powerhouses in the Southeast Asian region, winning the Southeast Asian Games 10 times since 1977.

Kings Cup Sepaktakraw World Championship

The King's Cup Sepaktakraw World Championship is a sepak takraw team event which is considered to be the most prestigious tournament in the sport as most top national teams compete in this annual event. The King's Cup is dedicated to His Majesty the King of Thailand. Three regus form a team and winning point is achieved once a team has the majority of two regu victories out of the three regus.

Sepak Takraw at the 2007 Southeast Asian Games was held in the MCC Hall in The Mall Department Store in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

Sepak raga Traditional sport

Sepak raga is a traditional Indonesian and Malaysian sport, developed in the Malay Archipelago. This game is related to the modern sepak takraw. Similar games include footbag net, footvolley, bossaball and jianzi.

Sports in Malaysia are an important part of Malaysian culture. Sports in Malaysia are popular from both the participation and spectating aspect. Malaysians from different walks of life join in a wide variety of sports for recreation as well as for competition. In the broadest definition of sports—physical exercise of all sorts—the four most popular recreational sports among the general population of Malaysia are exercise walking, aerobic exercise, strength training, and running. Other most popular sports are bicycling, swimming, climbing, camping, bowling, hiking, fishing, scuba diving and paragliding.

Sepak takraw was contested at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China by both men and women from November 16 to 27 2010. Team, Regu, and Doubles competitions were all involved in the Sepak takraw competition with all games taking place at Haizhu Sports Center. Each country, except the host country, was limited to two entries per gender.

The International Sepaktakraw Federation, commonly known as ISTAF, is the international governing body for the sport of sepaktakraw. Its current President is Major General Dr. Charouck Arirachakaran and was formed in 1988. Its main goal currently is to spread Sepaktakraw into 75 different countries and ultimately make it an Olympic sport.

The ISTAF World Cup is a competition organised by the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF) to modernise the traditional sport of Sepaktakraw. Alongside the ISTAF SuperSeries, the ISTAF World Cup is a platform to showcase the best of the sport and seeks to broaden the appeal of the sport to the international community.

The ISTAF SuperSeries was an international Sepak-takraw competition organized by the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF) held for three editions from 2011 to 2015. The SuperSeries was the only elite international Sepak-takraw tournament recognized by the ISTAF aside from the World Cup.

The debut season of the ISTAF SuperSeries commenced on 8 September 2011 to 1 July 2012 with 4 SuperSeries tournaments. The ISTAF SuperSeries is an international tournament by the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF) to bring the sport of Sepaktakraw to the international audience.

The third season of the ISTAF Superseries begun on 30 October 2014 to 2 November in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. There is a total of 4 SuperSeries tournament per season. It is an international Sepaktakraw tournament organised by the International Sepaktakraw Federation which debuted in 2011.

The ISTAF SuperSeries is an international Sepak takraw event, where elite national teams to vie for ISTAF World ranking points over 4 SuperSeries tournaments. Building on the inaugural success of the ISTAF SuperSeries 2011/12, the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF) is looking to expand the global appeal of Sepaktakraw with this second season.

The Philippines men's national sepak takraw team represents the Philippines in international sepak takraw matches and competitions and is organized by the Philippine Amateur Sepak Takraw Association.

Sepak takraw at the 2017 Southeast Asian Games was held in Titiwangsa Indoor Stadium, Kuala Lumpur from 16 to 29 August 2017.

ISTAF World Cup, is an indoor international sepak takraw competition conducted by the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF), contested by men's and women's national teams. The first championships started in 2011 in Malaysian Kuala Lumpur and 23 male and 13 female teams took part in it. The competition takes place regularly every four years. In 2015, the next edition is scheduled, which was postponed due to the Southeast Asian Games. It was not until 2017 in Hyderabad (India) that the second edition took place. All the tournaments have been won by Thailand.

The Sepak Takraw League, often referred as STL, is a Malaysian men's professional league for sepak takraw, a sport native to Southeast Asia. The competition was established in 2014 by Sepak Takraw Association of Malaysia (STAM) and Astro Group’s subsidiary, Asia Sports Ventures, to develop the sport and groom players for the Malaysia men's national sepak takraw team. Since 2016, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation between a top division called STL Premier and a second division called STL Division 1. A cup competition called STL Champions Cup was introduced in 2017, featuring the top teams from STL Premier and STL Division 1 as well as invitational sides from around Asia. All competitions under the league use the official International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF) rules and regulation.


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