Kho kho

Last updated

Kho kho
Kho Kho game at a Government school in Haryana, India.jpg
Children playing Kho Kho in rural India
First played India
Characteristics
Contactpermitted
Team members12 players per side, 9 in the field and 3 extra

Kho Kho is a popular tag game invented in Maharashtra, India. It is played by teams of 12 nominated players out of fifteen, of which nine enter the field who sit on their knees (chasing team), and 3 extra (defending team) who try to avoid being touched by members of the opposing team. It is one of the two most popular traditional tag games in the Indian subcontinent, the other being Kabaddi. [1] The sport is widely played across South Asia and has a strong presence in South Africa and England.

Contents

Kho-kho is a traditional Indian sport a form of tag, that is one of the oldest forms of outdoor sport, dating back to prehistoric India.[ citation needed ] It is played most often by school children in India and Pakistan and is a competitive game. [2]

Etymology

The name comes from Marathi : खोखो (khō-khō), [3] the word kho is imitative of the sound invoked while playing the game. [4]

History

The origin of Kho-Kho is very difficult to trace, but many historians believe that it is a modified form of 'Run Chase', which in its simplest form involves chasing and touching a person. Originating in Maharashtra, Kho-Kho in ancient times was played on 'raths' or chariots and was known as Rathera. [5]

The present appearance of the game was an adoption from the time of World War I in 1914. But at that time, there were neither any dimensions of the playground nor the poles which demarcate the central line. The time factor was also missing.

The Deccan Gymkhana club of Pune, Maharashtra so named and baptized by the great Indian leader Lokmanya Tilak & Bhai Narorkar drafted the first-ever rules and regulations which symbolized the metamorphosis of the game soon to follow. This initial stage marked the limitation of the playground and yet sadly lacked the poles demarking the central line in the field. Instead, less experienced players were posted squatting at the ends of the latter and chasers ran around them to return to the midfield.

But, even then the game caught the imagination of the experts in the field. The experts took no time to realize that the game demands the highest degree of quick and brisk movements, very high grade of nerve reflexes and tremendous stamina which are characteristic of a supreme athlete. The game requires all motor qualities alike speed, endurance, flexibility, agility, strength and neuromuscular coordination. As per merit, it is appreciated by press, media and spectators.

The game with its fast pace, so fascinated the spectators that the Governor of Bombay Presidency H.E. Lord Willingdon also admired the merits and potentials of the game. The years 1923-24 saw the foundation of the Inter School Sports Organization, and Kho Kho was introduced to develop at the grassroots and consequently popularize the sport. The move certainly showed the results and the game of Kho Kho mainly owes it to the efforts taken by the Deccan Gymkhana and Hind Vijay Gymkhana.

In the year 1938, Kho Kho moved one step forward when Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik Shikshan Mandal organized zonal sports at Akola which attracted tremendous response from the budding enthusiasts as well as organizers. The team size was restricted to 9 players per team and sport was played without the poles. At the beginning of the match, players used to take 3 rounds of the court from post to post and then started the match. This needed yet another few reforms which were adopted in 1943 as well as 1945.

Kho kho was exhibited in Sweden and Denmark in the year 1949 but it didn't leave any effect on the spectators (foreigner). After coming back in 1949, the poles were featured in the game. Also, the 3 rounds at the beginning of the game were reduced to one round from pole to pole. In 1951, even the one round was eliminated. In the year 1955, Akhil Bharatiya Kho Kho Mandal was established and the first ever All India Kho Kho Championship was organized at Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh in 1959-60 under the auspices of Kho Kho Federation of India. The years 1960-61 featured Women's Championship for the first time in Kohlapur, Maharashtra.

Individual prizes were introduced in the year 1963. Vishwanath Mayekar won the first Man of the Tournament named "Ekalavya Award". The Woman of the Tournament "Rani Laxmibai Award" was claimed by Usha Anantham of Mysore.

The years 1969 and 1970 featured the Junior age group competitions at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Youth under 18 Years and Boys under 16 Years of age were two new categories introduced where the best youth player of the tournament was honoured by "Abhimanyu Award". Junior Girls under 16 Years tournament was held in 1974 at Dewas, Madhya Pradesh, where two more categories Sub-Junior Boys under 14 Years and Girls under 12 Years also commenced. The best Sub-Juniors Boy & Girls was awarded "Bharat Award" and "Veer Bala Award" respectively. In 1970, Arjuna Award was awarded to Shri Sudhir Parab from Gujarat.

In the year 1982, the Kho Kho Federation of India organized Men's and Women's Yearly Championship as Federation Cup. Kho Kho was featured in the Asian Games, 1982 for the first time in New Delhi. It was appreciated by Asian countries. After looking at its grand success Sports Authority of India and Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Govt. of India deputed their coaches all over the country to develop the sport of Kho Kho scientifically at grass root level.

Looking back at its success, it was one of the main featured during 12th South Asian Games, 2016 held at Guwahati, Assam from 5 to 9 February 2016. It happened just because of the sincere efforts of Shri Rajeev Mehta, President, KKFI & Secretary General, IOA. The participating countries were Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and host country India. This tournament was well organized under the leadership of Shri. M. S. Tyagi, Competition Director (Kho Kho). All the Asian countries appreciated and ensured of introducing the sport in their respective countries. 1st Asian Championship took place at Calcutta, West Bengal in 1996 followed by the 2nd Asian Championship in the year 2000 at Dhaka, Bangladesh. The 3rd Asian Championship was held in the month of April 2016 at Indore, Madhya Pradesh. The participating countries were Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Korea and host country India. The test series was played between India and England in January–February, 2017 at different venues in India namely Mumbai, Rajasthan and New Delhi. [6]

In 1999, The Asian Kho Kho Federation was established during the 3rd edition of the South Asian Games. Member countries included India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives. The 1st Asian Championship was held at Kolkata in 1996 and the second championship at Dhaka, Bangladesh. India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Japan, Thailand were participants of this championship.

In 2013, the Kho Kho Federation of England was formed by Brij Haldania, who had played competitively for Rajasthan before settling down in United Kingdom. With the aim of developing the game to an international level, he built relationships with M.S Tyagi (Kho-Kho Federation of India), Sudhanshu Mittal (Asian Kho-Kho Federation) and Rajeev Mehta (Indian Olympic Association). With the collaborative efforts of these individuals, the sport has reached new heights. In 2018, the 'International Kho-Kho Federation' was formed to govern and guide the sport of Kho-Kho globally.

Rules

A match consists of two innings with each inning consisting of chasing and running turns of 9 minutes each. One team sits on their knees in the middle of the court, 8 in a row, with adjacent members facing opposite directions. The runners play in the field, three at a time and the team that takes the shortest time to touch all the opponents in the field, wins. There is a pole at each end of the field and the runner is allowed to go between two sitting players, but the chaser is not allowed to turn back while running or go between the players i.e. the chaser must run in the same direction unless he chooses to touch either end pole and run in the opposite direction. He may cross over to the other side when he is reversing directions by going around the pole.

  1. The runner or the chaser is decided by toss.
  2. A match consists of two innings of chasing and defending turns, which is each of 9 minutes.
  3. The captain of chasing side may end the turn before allotted time.
  4. The side that scores more wins a match.
  5. When a defender is out, he should enter the sitting box from the lobby.
  6. Incomplete match for unavoidable reasons should be played in the same session with the same players and officials. The score of the completed turn should be counted. For incomplete turn, the match will start afresh. The entire match should be replayed from the beginning if the incomplete match is not played in the same session.

Specifications

A Kho kho playing field is rectangular. It is 27 by 16 metres (89 ft × 52 ft) in length nio. In the middle of these two rectangles, there are two wooden poles. The central lane's dimensions are 24 m x 30 cm. There are eight cross lanes which lie across the central lane, whose dimensions are 16 m x 35 cm. It makes the small rectangles and each of them are 16 m x 2.3 m (the two rectangles of near by the wooden poles are 2.55 m wide), at right angles to the central lane and divided equally into two parts of 7.85 m (25.8 ft) each by the central lane. At the end of the central lane, the free zone tangent to the post-line, two smooth wooden posts are fixed, 120 cm - 125 cm high from the ground, and their circumference is 28.25 - 31.4 cm. The equipment used in Kho kho are poles/post, strings, metallic measuring tape, lime powder, wire nails, two watches, types of rings having inner circumference of 28.25 and 31.4 cm, score shots (like a whistle, for instance), and equipment to record the results. However, for unofficial games, only lime powder (or any substitute) may be used as long as the cross lanes, centre lane and field boundaries are clearly distinguished. The strings, as well as the rings, are for the sole purpose of properly demarcating the same.

Dismissal

There are usually two referees standing on the opposite sides of the rectangular field. Both carry a stopwatch and each of them is responsible for giving a decision on their opposite side of the field (because they can watch the game play in front of them more clearly than when it is on their same side).

Related Research Articles

Kabaddi Team sport popular in South Asia

Kabaddi is a contact team sport played between two teams of seven players each. The objective of the game is for a single player on offense, referred to as a "raider", to run into the opposing team's half of a court, tag out as many of their defenders as possible, and return to their own half of the court, all without being tackled by the defenders, and in a single breath. Points are scored tagged by the raider, while the opposing team earns a point for stopping the raider. Players are taken out of the game if they are tagged or tackled, but are brought back in for each point scored by their team from a tag or tackle.

The Bhutan national football team represents Bhutan in international men's football. The team is controlled by the governing body for football in Bhutan, the Bhutan Football Federation, which is a member of the Asian Football Federation and the regional body the South Asian Football Federation (SAFF). The team play their home games at the national stadium, Changlimithang. The side have consistently been ranked as the worst, or one of the worst national teams in the world on both the official FIFA rankings and the Elo rating system. As of the end of November 2017 they have won only six competitive fixtures against other international teams and have a goal difference of −279 in official matches. The team have never qualified for the finals of a major tournament and beyond friendlies and qualifying matches, their only official competition has been in the regional South Asian Games and the South Asian Football Federation Cup.

Afghanistan national football team mens national association football team representing Afghanistan

The Afghanistan national football team ; Dari: is the national football team of Afghanistan and is controlled by the Afghanistan Football Federation. Founded in 1922, they played their first international game against Iran in Kabul, 1941. Afghanistan then joined FIFA in 1948 and the AFC in 1954, as one of the founding members. They play their home games at the Ghazi National Olympic Stadium in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. In 2013, Afghanistan won the 2013 SAFF Championship and earned the "FIFA Fair Play Award".

Bangladesh national football team The national team of Bangladesh controlled by the Bangladesh Football Federation.

The Bangladesh National Football Team is the national recognised football team of Bangladesh and is controlled by the Bangladesh Football Federation (BFF). It is a member of the Asian Football Confederation, and became a member of FIFA in 1974. Even though the Bangladesh Football Federation was first founded in 1972. Bangladesh was elected as a member of the AFC Executive Committee in 1982–1986 and 1998–2002. The current Executive Committee was elected democratically, under an AFC approved constitution and direct supervision of FIFA & AFC, in April 2008.

Nepal national football team national association football team

The Nepal national football team represents Nepal in international men's football and is governed by the All Nepal Football Association (ANFA). A member of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC), the Nepalese football team play their home games at Dasarath Rangasala Stadium, Tripureswhor, Kathmandu.

The Pakistan national football team represents Pakistan association football in FIFA-authorised events and is controlled by the Pakistan Football Federation, the governing body for football in Pakistan. Pakistan's home ground is Punjab Stadium, Lahore. Pakistan became a member of FIFA in 1948 joining the Asian Football Confederation. Pakistan's national team debuted in 1950.

Pakistan mens national field hockey team mens national field hockey team representing Pakistan

The Pakistan national field hockey team is administered by the Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF), the governing body for hockey in Pakistan. They have been a member of the International Hockey Federation (FIH) since 1948 and founding member of the Asian Hockey Federation (ASHF) which formed in 1958. Pakistan is the most successful national field hockey team in the Hockey World Cup with four championships: 1971, 1978, 1982 and 1994. Pakistan also has the best overall performance in World Cup history in both proportional and absolute terms with 53 victories in 84 matches played, seven time draws, six appearances in the finals and only 24 losses. Pakistan national team has played in all FIH World Cup editions with only one absence in 2014. The green shirts is also one of the most successful national teams in the Asian Games with eight gold medals: 1958, 1962, 1970, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1990 and 2010, the highest number of times a country has come first, and the only Asian team to have won the prestigious Champions Trophy with three championships: 1978, 1980 and 1994. Pakistan have won a total of 29 official international titles to professional and grassroots level selections, with three gold medals in the Olympic Games field hockey tournaments in Rome 1960, Mexico City 1968 and Los Angeles 1984. However, Pakistan could not qualify for Olympics since 2012.

Myanmar national cricket team

The Myanmar national cricket team is the team that represents the country of Myanmar in international cricket matches. It has been an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) since 2006 and an associate member since 2017.

Football in Bangladesh

Football is the most popular sport in Bangladesh alongside cricket and is governed by the Bangladesh Football Federation (BFF).

Sport in India overview of sports traditions in India

Sport in India refers to the large variety of games played in India, ranging from tribal games to more mainstream sports such as cricket, badminton and football. India's diversity of culture, people and tribe as well as its colonial legacy is reflected in the wide variety of sporting disciplines in the country.

Seven stones Indian ball game

Seven stones is a game from the Indian subcontinent involving a ball and a pile of flat stones, generally played between two teams in a large outdoor area. It is played today in villages.

Afghanistan womens national football team womens national association football team representing Afghanistan

The Afghanistan women's national football team is the women's national team of Afghanistan and is controlled by the Afghanistan Football Federation (AFF). They play the majority of their home games at the Ghazi National Olympic Stadium in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan.

Roll Ball is a game played between two teams and is a unique combination of roller skates, basketball, handball, and throwball. It is played on "roller shoes" with each team consisting of twelve players, six on the field and six in reserve. The main objective of the game is to score maximum goals within a stipulated time. The main feature of Roll Ball is that the ball is held in one or both hands, when passing to the other players, with the ball repeatedly bounced on the ground.

The Bhutan women's national football team represents Bhutan in international women's football. The team is controlled by the governing body for football in Bhutan, the Bhutan Football Federation, which is currently a member of the Asian Football Federation and the regional body the South Asian Football Federation. Bhutan play their home games at the national stadium, Changlimithang. It is one of the younger national teams in the world having played its first match in 2010. Bhutan took part in the 2014 SAFF Women's Championship in Islamabad, Pakistan at the end of 2014, losing all three games, including a 4–1 loss to host Pakistan in which Tshering Yangdon scored just the second official goal in the team's history.

Kabaddi in India

Kabaddi, is a contact sport, native to the Indian subcontinent. It is one of the most popular sports in India, played mainly among people in villages. India has taken part in four Asian Games in kabaddi, and won gold in all of them. Four forms of kabaddi played in India are Amar, Suranjeevi, huttuttoo, and Gaminee. Amar is generally played in Punjab, Haryana, the United States, Canada, and other parts of the world, mostly by Punjabi sportsmen. Suranjeevi is the most played form of kabaddi in India and the world. This is the form used in international matches generally and played in Asian Games. Hottttuttoo was played by men in Maharashtra State.

Sport in Bangladesh is a popular form of entertainment as well as an essential part of Bangladeshi culture. Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangladesh. Kabaddi is the national sport of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is one of the top 7 cricketing nation of the world and have regularly qualified for World cup since 1999, the Country achieved arguably their greatest heights in Cricket when they defeated three of top-rated teams in 2015 Cricket World Cup to qualify for the quarterfinals. In 2015, they white-washed Pakistan and clinched the series by 3-0 and in another major achievement they won a series against India by 2-1 and in the same year they beat South Africa 2-1 in an ODI series and cemented their spot in Champions Trophy 2017. Traditional sports like Athletics, Swimming, Kabaddi, Boli Khela, Lathi Khela are mostly played in the rural areas while foreign sports like cricket, football, hockey, volleyball, handball, golf, badminton etc. are more popular among the urban folks. The National Sports Council (NSC) is the governing body to control all the sports federations and councils in the country and is responsible to the ministry of youth and sports. There are a total of 42 different sports federations affiliated with the NSC. Bangladesh Games is the largest domestic multi-sport tournament in the country where athletes and sports teams from all the districts participate.

Sports in Pune

Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, paragliding, kho-kho, rowing and chess. The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in Pune.

Langdi is a traditional Indian field sport played in Pandiyan Dynasty called "Nondiyaattam", similar to hopscotch. It is described by Marathis as a sport with a Marathi ethos.

Leg cricket

Leg cricket is a sport played between two teams of eleven players on a circular ground with a radius between 80 and 120 feet. The game is played in South Asian countries like India, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka.

Sarika Kale is an Indian kho kho player from Maharashtra. She became the captain of the Maharashtra women's state kho kho team in 2010, leading the team to three national championships. Selected for the India women's national kho kho team in 2015, she was named captain of the team before the 2016 South Asian Games. She led the team to victory in the South Asian Games and in the Third Asian Kho-Kho Championship, where she received the match winner award in the final against Bangladesh.

References

  1. Peter A Hastie (2010). Student-Designed Games: Strategies for Promoting Creativity, Cooperation, and Skill Development. Human Kinetics. p. 52. ISBN   978-0-7360-8590-8.
  2. ahmed, usman (14 August 2011). "Trip down memory lane: The games we play…". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  3. "kho-kho". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  4. Molesworth, J. T. (James Thomas) (1857). "A dictionary, Marathi and English. 2d ed., rev. and enl". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  5. To develop a tapping skill test for kho-kho female players, researchgate.net
  6. Kho-Kho Federation of India, khokhofederation.in