Lexico

Last updated

Lexico
Lexico logo.svg
Type of site
Dictionary
Available in
  • English
  • Spanish
Owner Dictionary.com
Created by Oxford University Press
URL www.lexico.com
CommercialYes
RegistrationNone
LaunchedJune 2019;1 year ago (2019-06)

Lexico is a website that provides a collection of dictionaries of English and Spanish produced by Oxford University Press (OUP), the publishing house of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works. While the dictionaries on Lexico are made solely by OUP, the website is owned by Dictionary.com, whose eponymous website hosts dictionaries by other publishers such as Random House.

Contents

The dictionaries were previously hosted by OUP's own website, Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO), later known as Oxford Living Dictionaries. The dictionaries' definitions appear in Google definition search, the Dictionary application on macOS, etc., licensed through Oxford Dictionaries API. [1] [2]

History

In the 2000s, OUP allowed access to content of the Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English on a website called AskOxford.com. [3] In 2010, Oxford Dictionaries Online was launched under oxforddictionaries.com, [4] superseding the dictionary content of AskOxford.com. Buyers of the third edition of the Oxford Dictionary of English , also published in 2010, were granted a one-year subscription to the website's subscription content. [5] The website's English dictionaries incorporated content of the Oxford Dictionary of English, New Oxford American Dictionary , Oxford Thesaurus of English, and Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus. It also provided a Spanish monolingual dictionary and bilingual dictionaries between English and several languages. [6] As of June 2014, it was updated every three months. [7]

In 2014, OUP launched Oxford Global Languages, an initiative to build lexical resources (bilingual dictionaries) of the world's languages, starting with Zulu and Northern Sotho online dictionaries released in 2015. [8] In 2016, the free content of Oxford Dictionaries Online was rebranded as Oxford Living Dictionaries, and the subscription content as Oxford Dictionaries Premium. [9]

In June 2019, the free-of-charge dictionaries of English and Spanish were moved to Lexico.com, a collaboration between OUP and Dictionary.com, though with the lexicographic content continuing to be written solely by OUP staff. While the offer of the US English dictionary on Oxford Living Dictionaries was terminated upon the migration to Lexico except for words which the UK dictionary did not have entries for, [10] [11] the US dictionary became fully available again on Lexico in early 2020. [12] "Lexico" was itself part of the former name of the company Dictionary.com, Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. [13]

In March 2020, the remaining Oxford Living Dictionaries websites, which hosted dictionaries made in the Global Languages programme, were closed. A statement from OUP said, "Rather than offering a dictionary website for every digitally under-resourced language, we will facilitate third parties to build products and services that best serve the needs of each individual language community. Our efforts will be focused on creating and providing the data that these third parties need." [14] At the time of the closure, they hosted dictionaries of Zulu, Northern Sotho, Malay, Urdu, Tswana, Indonesian, Romanian, Latvian, Swahili, Hindi, Tamil, Gujarati, Tatar, Xhosa, Southern Quechua, Tajik, Tok Pisin, Turkmen, Telugu, and Greek. [15]

Comparison with the Oxford English Dictionary

The website of the Oxford English Dictionary described its difference from Oxford Dictionaries as follows:

The dictionary content in Oxford Dictionaries focuses on current English and includes modern meanings and uses of words. Where words have more than one meaning, the most important and common meanings in modern English are given first, and less common and more specialist or technical uses are listed below. The OED, on the other hand, is a historical dictionary and it forms a record of all the core words and meanings in English over more than 1,000 years, from Old English to the present day, and including many obsolete and historical terms. Meanings are ordered chronologically in the OED, according to when they were first recorded in English ... [16]

Related Research Articles

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<i>Oxford English Dictionary</i> Premier historical dictionary of the English language

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James Murray (lexicographer) Primary editor of the Oxford English Dictionary

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American and British English spelling differences Comparison between US and UK English spelling

Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography, the two most notable variations being British and American spelling. Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time before spelling standards were developed. For instance, some spellings seen as "American" today were once commonly used in Britain, and some spellings seen as "British" were once commonly used in the United States.

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Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995. The content for Dictionary.com is based on the latest version of Random House Unabridged Dictionary, with other content from the Collins English Dictionary, American Heritage Dictionary and others.

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The English word twat is a vulgarism which literally means the vulva or vagina, and is used figuratively as a derogatory epithet. In British English the epithet denotes an obnoxious or stupid person of either sex, whereas in American English it is rarer and usually applied to a woman. In Britain the usual current pronunciation is ; the older pronunciation, still usual in the United States, is, reflected in the former variant spelling twot. The literal sense is first attested in 1656, the epithet in the 1930s. The word's etymology is uncertain. The American Heritage Dictionary suggests a conjectural Old English word *thwāt, "a cut", cognate with Old Norse þveit (thveit). Jonathon Green suggests a connection with twitchel, a dialect term for a narrow passage.

Google Dictionary Online dictionary service by Google

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<i>Historical Thesaurus of English</i>

The Historical Thesaurus of English (HTE) is the largest thesaurus in the world. It is called a historical thesaurus as it arranges the whole vocabulary of English, from the earliest written records in Old English to the present, according to the first documented occurrence of a word in the entire history of the English language. The HTE was conceived and begun in 1965 by the English Language & Linguistics department of the University of Glasgow, who have ever since continued to compile the thesaurus. From the 1980s onwards the project was moved from paper-based records to a computer database.

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References

  1. "Oxford Dictionaries API". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  2. Bell, Karissa (4 December 2015). "Why Siri showed a definition of b*tch that offended everyone". Mashable. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  3. "AskOxford.com". Reference & User Services Quarterly. 44 (1): 40. 2004. JSTOR   20864286.
  4. "Oxford University Press Chooses PubFactory to Develop Oxford English Dictionary". PubFactory. 4 August 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  5. ""Vuvuzela," "staycation" among 2,000 words added to Oxford Dictionary". The Independent. 20 August 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  6. "Oxford Dictionaries content help". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016.
  7. Harrison, Emma (19 June 2014). "Oxford dictionaries: Demise of the printed editions?". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  8. "Oxford Global Languages". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  9. "Help". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 25 September 2016.
  10. "Lexico.com FAQS". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  11. "About". Lexico. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020.
  12. "About". Lexico. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  13. "Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of Dictionary.com, LLC". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 17 July 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  14. "The latest news about Oxford Global Languages". Oxford Languages. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  15. "Our dictionaries". Oxford Languages. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  16. "The OED and Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018.