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Soghomban, Sungei Ujong
Other transcription(s)
   Chinese 芙蓉
   Tamil சரம்பன்
   Jawi سرمبن
Flag of Sungei Ujong.svg
Majlis perbandaran seremban logo.png
Somban, Sban
Mengutamakan Perkhidmatan Segera
Location of Seremban in Negeri Sembilan
Malaysia location map.svg
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  Seremban in    Malaysia
Asia laea location map.svg
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Seremban (Asia)
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Seremban (Earth)
Coordinates: 02°43′20″N101°56′30″E / 2.72222°N 101.94167°E / 2.72222; 101.94167 Coordinates: 02°43′20″N101°56′30″E / 2.72222°N 101.94167°E / 2.72222; 101.94167
Country Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia
State Flag of Negeri Sembilan.svg Negeri Sembilan
District Seremban District
Establishment1840 as Bukit Pasar
1878 as Selimban
1899 as Seremban
Granted municipal status1979
Granted City Status2020 (expected)
  Administered by[Majlis Perbandaran Seremban]
  Yang DiPertua
Dato' Haji Zazali Bin Salehudin [1]
   State Capital 959 km2 (370 sq mi)
2,980 km2 (1,150 sq mi)
79 m (259 ft)
 (2015) [2]
   State Capital 620,100 [3] (9th)
  Density489.00/km2 (1,266.51/sq mi)
824,300 [4]
Time zone UTC+8 (MST)
  Summer (DST)Not observed
Postal code
70xxx, 71xxx
Mean solar time UTC + 06:46:48
National calling code 06
License plate prefix Nxx (for all vehicles include taxis)
ISO 3166-2 MY-14

Seremban (Minangkabau: Soghomban or Somban) is a town and the capital of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, located within Seremban District. The town's administration is run by the Seremban Municipal Council. On 9 September 2009, Seremban was to be declared as a city, but it was later deferred due to technical reasons. However, the idea of granting city status has been brought up again and Seremban is expected to become a city in 2019.

Minangkabau language Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra

Minangkabau is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau. The language is also a lingua franca along the western coastal region of the province of North Sumatra, and is even used in parts of Aceh, where the language is called Aneuk Jamee. It is also spoken in some parts of Malaysia, especially Negeri Sembilan.

Negeri Sembilan State of Malaysia

Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Melaka and Johor to the south.

Malaysia Federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia

Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species.



Seremban was founded as Sungei Ujong (or Sungai Ujong), named after a nearby river of the same name. While the town was renamed Seremban thereafter, the Sungai Ujong name most prominently persists as a street name for a road adjoining the southern side of town (Sungai Ujong Road, or Jalan Sungai Ujong).

The town is also referred alternately as "Fu Rong" in Mandarin or "Fu Yong" in Cantonese (Chinese :芙蓉,literally "hibiscus") among the Chinese-speaking community.

Traditional Chinese characters Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Malaysian Chinese ethnic group

The Malaysian Chinese or also called as Chinese Malaysians are ethnic Chinese who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia. The great majority of this group descend from southern Chinese immigrants who arrived between the early 19th century and the mid-20th century, and now form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, after Thai Chinese. Within Malaysia, they represent the second largest ethnic group after the Malay majority. They are usually referred to simply as "Chinese" in Malaysia, "Orang Cina" in Malay, "Sina" or "Kina" among Borneo indigenous, "Cīṉar" (சீனர்) in Tamil, and "Huaren" or "Huaqiao" by Chinese themselves.


Sungai Ujong came into existence with the discovery of tin ore in the 1870s like most major towns in Peninsular Malaysia. The discovery of tin in a nearby area called Rasah, saw an influx of Arab, Malay and Chinese immigrants to work on the mines and trade there. Most of the local Malays were farmers.

Peninsular Malaysia mainland, western portion of the nation-state of Malaysia in South East Asia

Peninsular Malaysia, also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. Its area is 132,265 square kilometres (51,068 sq mi), which is nearly 40% of the total area of the country - or slightly larger than England. It shares a land border with Thailand to the north and Singapore at the southernmost tip.

Rasah is a mukim in Seremban District, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

Malays (ethnic group) Ethnic group

Malays are an Austronesian ethnic group and nation native to the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra of Indonesia and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world. These locations are today part of the nations of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia and Southern Thailand.

Renamed to Seremban, the town flourished not only as a mining area but also a business centre. The Linggi River served as the sole outlet to ferry tin and supplies in and out of the town. Revenue came not only from tin trade but also from the large amount of taxes collected, much to the displeasure of the traders and the British colonialists at the neighbouring port of Malacca.

The Linggi River is a river in Malaysia. It starts from the foothills of the Titiwangsa Range. It starts from an area known as Pantai at the foothills in Kg Jerlang. Linggi River, also known as Batang Penar river starts from Ampangan to Kg Jerlang at Pantai.

Tin Chemical element with atomic number 50

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. Tin is a silvery metal that characteristicly has a faint yellow hue. Tin, like indium, is soft enough to be cut without much force. When a bar of tin is bent the so-called "tin cry" can be heard as a result of sliding tin crystals reforming; this trait is shared by indium, cadmium and frozen mercury. Pure tin after solidifying keeps a mirror-like appearance similar to most metals, however most Tin alloys such as in Pewter, the metal solidifies with a dull gray color. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures, it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin does not easily oxidize in air.

Malacca State of Malaysia

Malacca, dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.

The local chieftains, namely the Dato' Kelana and the Dato' Shahbandar of Sungai Ujong were at odds with each other on the rights to collect taxes and ownership and control of the mines. The rivalry to assert influence and authority opened the door for British intervention in Negeri Sembilan. The British sided with the Dato' Kelana upon invitation and defeated the forces of the Dato' Bandar who was later sent into exile to Singapore. In a show of gratitude to the British for helping him win the war, the Dato' Kelana had no choice but to accept a British Resident whose job was to advise him on matters other than religion and Malay customs.

Captain Murray was appointed the first resident and later set-up his residence at Channer Road, now renamed Jalan Dato' Siamang Gagap. Soon after, the people living around Rasah moved to Channer Road for the sake of security and its orderly administration. [5]

City status

Seremban is one of four state capitals that has not achieved city status (Bandar raya); the other three being Kota Bharu (Kelantan), Kuantan (Pahang) and Kangar (Perlis). However, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government has already approved Seremban's application to be declared a city on the 9th of September 2009. To achieve city status, the state government has agreed that Majlis Perbandaran Nilai and Majlis Perbandaran Seremban will be merged, with that decision likewise being approved by the federal government in 2012. [6]

Then Menteri Besar Datuk Seri Mohamad Hasan said during Tuanku Mukhriz's birthday

On 13 December 2017, then Menteri Besar of Negeri Sembilan, Mohamad Hasan stated that Seremban will get city status in 2018. [8] In order to get city status, both Seremban and Nilai Municipal Council will be merged to form a new local authority, Seremban City Council. [9] The merger of two local authorities are now in the last stage. However, he said, the merging of the two entities would not involve the reduction of staff or higher assessment rates in the Seremban area, as increasing rates was not a prerequisite for attaining city status.

In February 2018, a further announcement was made regarding the formation of Seremban City Hall (Dewan Bandaraya Seremban), which was poised to be completed in April. However, the official declaration of Seremban as a city will only occur in January 2019, in conjunction with the birthday of the state's ruler Tuanku Muhriz (January 14). [11] After the change in the ruling coalition after the 14th General Election ushered in a new state government, the new Mentri Besar Aminuddin Harun announced his decision to push back the official promotion towards the end of the year, citing the inability of contractors to complete refurbishment works at the new City Hall in time. However, the postponement will allow the authorities time to iron out any flaws in Seremban's infrastructure and amenities. [12]


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Locations of Seremban and its suburbs
Istana Ampang Tinggi Seremban Istana ampang tiggi seremban.jpg
Istana Ampang Tinggi Seremban

Seremban is situated about 60 kilometres south of Kuala Lumpur (the capital city) and about 30 kilometres inland from the coast. It is located in the Linggi River valley, at the foothills of the Titiwangsa Range. The terrain is generally hilly, and the soil is mostly reddish laterite soil, suitable for the cultivation of rubber and palm oil, thus making Seremban the agricultural centre for the state. Since the establishment of Seremban, the Linggi River has played an important role in the development of the town. During the boom period of tin mining, the Linggi River served as the major transportation route for tin traders. Today, it is one of the major sources of water for Seremban and Negeri Sembilan.


The climate of Seremban, like most parts of West Malaysia, is generally hot and humid (tropical) with a mean temperature of about 26–30 degrees Celsius. Most of the rainfall is experienced during the inter-monsoon periods of April and October. The weather remains generally dry for the rest of the year with occasional showers.[ citation needed ]


Major Intersection of Seremban Bandar Seremban.jpg
Major Intersection of Seremban

Public transportation

The rail connection was first constructed in the late 1890s as a stop on the Kuala Lumpur–Singapore main line, and until today, the Seremban railway station (code:  KB13 ) still serves as one of the major stops along the line. The station also serves as the southern terminal of the Keretapi Tanah Melayu electrified commuter network, KTM Komuter, which links the town to Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley on Seremban Line. [13] Since October 2015, the Komuter service has been extended to Gemas, though passengers are required to alight at Seremban and switch trains to the Gemas extension line (much akin to the Tanjung Malim–Rawang stretch).

Negeri Sembilan is one of the two states in Malaysia that are not accessible via air transportation (Perlis being the other state). However the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) is less than a 30 minutes drive from Seremban, essentially making the airport closer to Seremban rather than Kuala Lumpur.


Federal Route Jkr-ft1.png, the oldest major roadway that connects the major towns and cities of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia runs through Seremban. It connects Seremban with neighbouring towns such as Rembau and Tampin to the south and Kajang, Selangor to the north. Seremban also provides access to the towns of Kuala Klawang (through highway Jkr-ft86.png), Kuala Pilah to the east (through highway Jkr-ft51.png) and the well-known coastal town of Port Dickson (through highway Jkr-ft53.png or SPDH Mes-e29.png) to the west.

For a faster alternative, the North–South Expressway Mes-e2.png serves Seremban through exit 218. The Kajang–Seremban Highway Mes-e21.png links Kajang in Selangor to Paroi, on the eastern end of Seremban.


According to the 2010 census, there are 514,909 Malaysian citizens in the administrative district of Seremban. They consist of 56.4% Bumiputera, 26.2% Chinese and 17% Indian and 0.5% others excluding non-citizens. There are an additional 41,026 non-citizens. [14]

Ethnic groups in Seremban, 2010 census [14]
Ethnicity PopulationPercentage
Bumiputera 290,28252.2%
Chinese 134,57224.2%
Indian 87,66315.8%


Wisma Negeri Wisma negeri.jpg
Wisma Negeri

Historically, Negeri Sembilan is influenced by the Minangkabau's and thus, Seremban is the centre of the Minangkabau culture in Malaysia. Minangkabau, derived from the Malay word menang kerbau, which means "winning buffalo", are famous for their unique roof architecture which resembles buffalo horns. Many buildings in Seremban adapted this feature, such as the Seremban Municipal Council Hall, the Wisma Negeri and the State Museum.

People of Negeri Sembilan are also known for the practice of an ancient Malay tradition called Adat Perpatih, where women are given a higher social status than men.


Seremban currently serves as the home ground of Negeri Sembilan football team. The team is the state representative of Negeri Sembilan in the second tier Malaysia Premier League. They play their home games in the 45,000 capacity Tuanku Abdul Rahman Stadium which is located in Paroi on the outskirt of the city.


Gulai lemak cili padi IkanLemakCiliPadi.jpg
Gulai lemak cili padi
Seremban beef noodles Seremban Beef Noodles.jpg
Seremban beef noodles

Seremban is famous for its special delicacies comprising Malay, Chinese, and Indian cuisine. Among the local cuisine is Seremban Siew Pau (Chinese :芙蓉烧包) that is well known throughout the country. It is a flaky pastry bun filled with meat fillings which has been traditionally pork or the halal chicken filling. [15]

Seremban is also well known for its Nasi Padang or Minangkabau dishes. It is basically a meal of rice eaten with dishes of recipe which originated from Padang, Sumatra. One of the local dishes is Gulai Masak Lemak Cili Api which is fish or meat cooked in coconut gravy mixed with turmeric and cili padi (bird's eye chili).

Seremban is famous for baked crabs with many establishments situated along Jalan Tuanku Munawir (Chinese :芙蓉烧蟹) [16] and beef noodles (Chinese :牛腩粉), [17] especially the beef noodles food stalls here which have survived for more than a generation. Nowadays, these beef noodles attract a tourists from outside the state to Seremban with its thick, slick gravy and peppery, sticky sauce sprinkled with peanuts, salted vegetables, spring onions and sesame seeds.[ citation needed ]

Local desserts include ABC or air batu campur meaning shaved ice with brown sugar syrup and rose flavouring, corn, beans, and cendol.


Seremban Square

Fish pond, the name given to an area of open land in the Seremban town area which has long been the synonym and subject of complaints of the city community has recently been given a new look. No more is there a barren, neglected view which was claimed to be the breeding ground for mosquitoes in the heart of Seremban Town Centre.

Recently, the Seremban Square which decorates the main entrance to the Seremban town began to attract attention and has since turned into a tourist spot. In the Seremban Square area there are also Malaysian flagpoles that reach up to a length of a 100 feet.

The Seremban Municipal Councils hoped that the Seremban Square, which began its operation in May 2008, would be appreciated and used properly by the public. It was hoped that it would continue to be used by all walks of life, not just for the present but would continue to be a valuable heritage for the future generation.

Ostrich Farm

Renowned as a family recreational centre, the Jelita Ostrich Show Farm in Jalan Jelebu not only focuses on breeding activities in particular, but also capitalises on all speciality of the bird species.

State Museum

The Negeri Sembilan Museum was established in 1953 when the 8th Yamtuan or Ruler of Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Abdul Rahman gave his consent for the relocation of the Ampang Tinggi Palace from Kuala Pilah to the Taman Bunga at Jalan Dato' Hamzah, Seremban and was turned into the State Museum.

Seremban Lake Garden

Seremban Lake Garden is the most popular recreational and leisure centre in Seremban which has attracted the attention of many visitors especially during public holidays and weekends. This Lake Garden is one of the oldest natural lake gardens in Malaysia.

Seremban 2 Recreational Park

Seremban residents and also town folks in search of a recreational destination with the family, come and visit the S2 City Park, during weekends or school holidays. Arriving at this six-acre area, visitors will be greeted with the breath-taking landscapes as well as a variety of colourful kite decorations flying freely in the sky.

Malaysia Park

Malaysia Park is in line with the noble intention of the government in ensuring that each town is not only modernised but also parallel towards town greenery. the Seremban Municipal Council has identified Malaysia Park as one of the Public Parks which may be developed to accommodate the recreational and leisure as well as tourism needs for Seremban town. [18]

The Church of The Visitation

It is the oldest parish in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kuala Lumpur since 1848. The church is located in the centre of Seremban town with a sprawling 2 acres that includes the historical Parochial House and the Visitation Hall and Formation Centres and the Wisma Visitation. Its neo-Gothic architecture is truly a central landmark of the town and has been described as “one of the most beautiful in the mission.”

Centipede Temple

Perched on top of a hill in Ulu Temiang, Seremban lies the Centipede Temple (or Then Sze Temple). Centipedes roamed freely in and out of the temple grounds and it is believed that if one spots a centipede they can expect some good fortune.

Town areas

The Taipan of Senawang The Taipan of Senawang.jpg
The Taipan of Senawang

Seremban core

Outer Seremban

Seremban 2

Seremban 2 City Park S2citypark.jpg
Seremban 2 City Park

Seremban 2 is a new satellite township about 4 kilometres south-east of the existing old Seremban town centre. Located on the western side of the North–South Expressway, Seremban 2 is a planned township built on former oil palm estate land with the aim of relocating the administrative and business district from the crowded old town centre to a more organised area.

Spanning over 2,000 acres (8 km2) of land, Seremban 2 will be the site of the new

The RM2 billion township will also sustain a large portion of the population of Seremban through various housing estate projects in and around Seremban 2 such as

The residents here enjoy many facilities with ÆON Seremban 2 Shopping Centre, City Park, Seremban 2's very own Lake Gardens and comparably less traffic than the town centre. [19]


Being an administrative centre since its early days have helped to cement Seremban's place as the region's primate city. The state, which been home to a number of multinationals from Japan, South Korea, the United States and the European Union. The manufacturing sector today forms the backbone of the state economy, contributing almost half of the state's gross domestic product (GDP), followed by services and tourism (40.3%), agriculture (6%), construction (2.2%) and mining (0.3%). [20]


AEON Seremban 2 AEON Jusco Seremban 2.jpg
AEON Seremban 2

Seremban is the business and commercial centre for most towns and villages in Negeri Sembilan. During the weekends, residents from outlying areas come to Seremban by commuter train or buses to shop in Seremban. Amway opened their first concept shop in Seremban in August 2008 as an ongoing expansion strategy to give its distributors and customers a new shopping experience. [21]

Terminal One Shopping Centre ("T1", previously known as Terminal One Mall) is located at the heart of Seremban. It was built in 1996. [22] [23]

AEON Seremban 2, one of the premier shopping destinations in the town, was the only ÆON outlet operated in the state till February 2010, when ÆON launched their grand opening of ÆON Big at Seremban Forest Heights that replaced the old Carrefour.

Besides T1 and AEON, many shopping outlets are concentrated in the town centre; Wisma Punca Emas, KM Plaza, The Store, Palm Mall, Era Square and Parkson Seremban Prima which replaced Seremban Parade. As the population increased over time, it attracted five major hypermarket chains in Malaysia to set up store in Seremban, namely Giant Hypermarket, Tesco Extra, Econsave and Mydin (2 outlets).

Apart from shopping complexes, Seremban contains a number of neighbouring commercial districts including Taman AST, Era Square, Permai Avenue, Oakland and Kemayan Square amongst other areas.

Seremban also has designated numerous zones in the city to market locally manufactured products such as antiques, textiles, fabrics and handicrafts. The local municipal council has gazetted Jalan Utam Singh as a morning flea market during the weekend. [24] In 2009, Sungai Ujong Walk located in Jalan Dr. Murugesu was opened by the local council president. The walk follows the example of the well known Jonker Street in Malacca, providing 72 business sites with 30 lots selling foodstuffs and beverages. The rest of the space serves as a stage for performances and cultural shows. It is envisioned as a future location that will revive the atmosphere at night besides enlivening the surrounding areas. [25]



Seremban has a number of hospitals and medical centres, which include a government hospital and private owned hospitals.

Tuanku Ja'afar Hospital, formerly known as Seremban General Hospital is the state and referral hospital for the state of Negeri Sembilan. Established in 1930 with total capacity 800 beds and 20 clinical specialities and various supportive services. Situated at Bukit Rasah, Seremban, the hospital occupying an area of 212 acres (0.86 km2) of land.

The other hospitals include Columbia Asia Medical Center, which opened in 1999 and now has 80 beds and offers outpatient and inpatient specialist services, a 24-hour clinic and emergency services.

In 2004 a new hospital was established, Seremban Specialist Hospital which has total capacity of 109 beds. The hospital located at the outskirt of Seremban which is just behind State Museum.

Negeri Sembilan Chinese Maternity Hospital is also a private hospital that has 75 beds. It located along Jalan Tun Ismail.

There is also a hospital in Senawang, the 101 beds Senawang Specialist Hospital (SSH) which opened in 2008.


Seremban is currently represented in the Dewan Rakyat of the Malaysian Parliament by Anthony Loke Siew Fook of the DAP.

On the state level, Seremban supplies 6 seats to the Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly:

Currently the DAP controls three out of these six seats: Nilai, Lobak and Temiang; PKR holds Sikamat and Ampangan while Lenggeng is currently held by AMANAH. [26] [27]

Certain wards of Seremban, though administered by the Seremban Municipal Council, are actually located in other parliamentary constituencies; for instance, Paroi is represented by Rembau constituency, while Mambau, Bukit Kepayang, Rahang and Senawang are located within the borders of Rasah parliamentary constituency.

International relations

Sister cities

Seremban currently has one sister city:

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Seremban 2 Town in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

Seremban 2 is a satellite town located about four kilometers southeast of downtown Seremban in Seremban District, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Located west of the North South Expressway, Seremban 2 is a planned city built on a former oil palm plantation site. It was established with the aim of relocating the administrative, business and education services in Negeri Sembilan away from the capital. Several shopping malls have been opened in Seremban 2, such as ÆON, Tesco, Mydin, S2 Mall & NSK Trade City.

Persiaran Senawang 1, Federal Route 242, is a dual-carriageway federal road in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Linking Paroi and Senawang, this dual-carriageway serves as the bypass of the Seremban town centre to Kuala Pilah and vice versa. This dual-carriageway may also provide a direct link between the North–South Expressway Southern Route and the Kajang–Seremban Highway. The Kilometre Zero of the Federal Route 242 is at Paroi.

Jalan Sungai Ujong, Federal Route 241, is a major highway in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia which connecting Seremban to Seremban 2. The stretch between Seremban and Jalan Labu junction used to be known as Negeri Sembilan State Route N38. It is a main route to the North–South Expressway Southern Route via Seremban Interchange. The kilometre zero of the Federal Route 241 is at Seremban.

Seremban is a federal constituency in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1974.

Rasah is a federal constituency in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1986.

Tuanku Antah ibni Almarhum Yamtuan Radin (1812–1888) was the sixth Yamtuan Besar of Negri Sembilan. He ruled from 1869 to 1888, and tried to keep Negri Sembilan independent from British rule. His son Tuanku Muhammad Shah succeeded him and modernised his state.


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