|Banjaran Titiwangsa/Besar (Malay)|
|Elevation||2,183 m (7,162 ft)|
|Length||480 km (300 mi)NW/SE|
|Width||120 km (75 mi)NE/SW|
|Countries||Thailand and Malaysia|
|Provinces/States||Songkhla, Yala, Narathiwat, Perak, Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan|
|Parent range||Tenasserim Hills|
|Age of rock||Permian and Triassic|
|Type of rock||Granite and limestone|
The Titiwangsa Mountains (Malay: Banjaran Titiwangsa; Jawi: بنجرن تيتيوڠسا, pronounced [ˈband͡ʒaˈrantitiwaŋˈsa] ), also known as Banjaran Besar (lit. 'main range') by locals, is the chain of mountains that forms the backbone of the Malay Peninsula. The northern section of the range is in southern Thailand, where it is known as Sankalakhiri Range (Thai : ทิวเขาสันกาลาคีรี; RTGS: Thio Khao Sankalakhiri; pronounced [tʰīwkʰǎwsǎn.kāːlāːkʰīːrīː] ).
The mountain range acts as a natural divider, dividing Peninsular Malaysia, as well as southernmost Thailand, into east and west coast regions. It also serves as a drainage divide of some major rivers of Peninsular Malaysia such as the Pahang, Perak, Kelantan, Klang and Muar. The length of mountain range is about 480 km from north to south.
The Titiwangsa Mountains is part of a suture zone that runs north–south, starting in Thailand at the Nan-Uttaradit suture zone (partly coincident with the Dien Bien Phu fault), and extending south towards Peninsular Malaysia (Bentong-Raub suture zone).The eastern half of the Titiwangsa Mountains in Peninsular Malaysia is an amalgamation of continental terranes known as Cimmeria or Indochina, whereas the western half is an amalgamation of continental terranes Sinoburmalaya or Sibumasu. These two halves of terranes were separated by the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.
The Cimmeria was separated from Gondwana around 400 mya during the Devonian and rifted towards Laurasia, the northeastern arm of Pangea. It attached to Laurasia completely around 280 mya during the Late Permian.
Sibumasu terranes on the other hand, only started to separate from Gondwana during the Early Permian and rifted towards Indochina. The collision of Sibumasu terranes and Indochina terranes during 200mya Late Triassic resulted in the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean and formation of the modern Titiwangsa Mountain belts.
Peninsular Malaysia, while being tectonically stable, has a history of intraplate earthquakes,with most of them are of low magnitude. As the Bentong-Raub suture runs parallel to the Titiwangsa Mountains, a large network of fault lines also crisscross the mountain range. The known major fault lines in the mountains are the Bukit Tinggi, Kuala Lumpur and Seremban fault lines, with the first two being the most active.
Between 1984 and 2013, there had been tremors ranging from 1.6 to 4.6 on the Richter scale with local epicentres in Kenyir Lake, Manjung, Temenggor, Bukit Tinggi and Kuala Pilah, the latter three being situated along the Titiwangsa Mountains. As a precautionary move, the Department of Minerals and Geosciences pitched 23 Earthquake Benchmark (PAG, Malay: Penanda Aras Gempa) stations around earthquake-prone areas in Peninsular Malaysia, with 13 in Pahang, six in Selangor, and two each in Perak and Negeri Sembilan to monitor possible movements within the fault network.The Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change (NRECC) also pointed out that strong earthquakes centred in neighbouring Sumatra, Indonesia could potentially activate ancient faults in Peninsular Malaysia and the effects of tremors could be felt around areas along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
This mountain range is a part of the wider Tenasserim Hills system. It forms the southernmost section of the Indo-Malayan cordillera which runs from Tibet through the Kra Isthmus into the Malay Peninsula.
The Titiwangsa Mountains proper begins in the north as the Sankalakhiri Range, a prolongation of the Nakhon Si Thammarat Range which includes the smaller Pattani, Taluban, and Songkhla sub-ranges. The Sankalakhiri marks the border between the Southern Thailand provinces of Yala in west and Narathiwat in the east. Across the border into Malaysia, the main stretch of the range runs in a northwest–southeast orientation, straddling the borders between the west coast states of Perak and Selangor with Kelantan and Pahang on the eastern side of the peninsula. From the tripoint of Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan near Mount Nuang, it then transverses through the middle of the state of Negeri Sembilan, also a west coast state, thus dividing the state into two regions - western Negeri Sembilan, which consists of Seremban, Port Dickson and Rembau Districts, and eastern Negeri Sembilan, composed of the districts of Jelebu, Kuala Pilah, Jempol and Tampin - and ends in the south near Tampin, in the southern part of the state.Outcrops of Titiwangsa granite, mainly consisting of inselbergs, project further south into Malacca, where it abuts in the waters of the Strait of Malacca in Pulau Besar.
The greatest elevations can be found along the northern and central section of the range, with the highest point measuring 2,183 m (7,162 ft) on Gunung Korbu, Perak. On the Thai side the highest point is 1,533 m Ulu Titi Basah (ยูลูติติ บาซาห์), at the Thai/Malaysian border between Yala Province and Perak. In contrast, the height gradually diminishes towards the southern reaches of the range, which mainly runs through Negeri Sembilan, with elevations measuring 1,462 m (4,797 ft) at its highest on Mount Besar Hantu, on the border between the state and Pahang, as well as 1,193 m (3,914 ft) on Mount Telapak Buruk on the boundary between the districts of Seremban and Jelebu to 500–700 metres (1,600–2,300 ft).
The rainforests of the Titiwangsa Mountains form part of the Titiwangsa Forest Complex, which is itself part of the larger Central Forest Spine conservation area. A number of roads and highways cut through the mountain range, effectively acting as mountain passes linking both settlements on both sides of the range.
Several popular tourist destinations such as Royal Belum, hill resorts such as Cameron Highlands, Genting Highlands and Fraser's Hill are located on the range.
Two of Malaysia's largest metropolitan areas are located along the western fringes of the mountain range, namely Greater Kuala Lumpur (ranked #1) and Kinta Valley (ranked #4). The Kinta Valley Geopark encompasses the entirety of Kinta Valley, where kegelkarst topography is prevalent.
The mountain range was the subject of the patriotic song "Titiwangsa", which was first sung by Saloma. Its lyrics glorifies the magnificence and beauty of the Titiwangsa Mountains, and its significance to Malaya as a whole.
The Federated Malay States was a federation of four protected states in the Malay Peninsula - Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang - established by the British government in 1895, which lasted until 1946, when they, together with two of the former Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States, formed the Malayan Union. Two years later, the Union became the Federation of Malaya, which achieved independence in 1957, and finally Malaysia in 1963 with the inclusion of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore.
Negeri Sembilan, historically spelled as Negri Sembilan, is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south.
The Jelebu District is the second largest district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia after Jempol, with a population over 40,000. Jelebu borders on the Seremban District to its west and Kuala Pilah District to its south, Jempol District to its southeast, Bentong and Bera Districts, Pahang to its east and Hulu Langat District, Selangor to the north. Jelebu is a suburban district with blossoming semi-agricultural industry. Jelebu is also a parliamentary constituency of the Dewan Rakyat in the Malaysian Parliament. Kuala Klawang is the principal town of the district.
The Pahang River is a river that mainly flows through the state of Pahang, Malaysia. Its drainage basin covers the namesake state as well as Negeri Sembilan.
The Muar River is a river which flows through the states of Negeri Sembilan and Johor in Malaysia. Its drainage basin encompasses the states aforementioned, including the state of Pahang.
Federal Route 55 or Jalan Kuala Kubu Bharu–Teranum–Raub is a 62-km federal road connecting the states of Selangor and Pahang in Malaysia. It is the first federal road ever constructed in Pahang. The road connects Kuala Kubu Bharu, Selangor to Teranum near Raub in Pahang where it meets Federal Route 218. It is the main access route to Fraser's Hill.
Jalan Seremban-Kuala Pilah or Federal Route 51 is the main federal road in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, connecting Seremban to Kuala Pilah. It is a relatively busy road in Negeri Sembilan.
Mount Nuang is located in Malaysia with the height of 1,493 metres (4,898 ft). Its peak borders Pahang and Selangor state and is close to the Pahang-Selangor-Negeri Sembilan border tripoint. The mountain itself is the third highest point in Selangor after Mts. Semangkok and Ulu Kali, and is part of the Titiwangsa Mountains.
Federal Route 9 or Karak–Tampin Highway is a federal road in Pahang and Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. It connects Karak, Pahang in the north with Tampin, Negeri Sembilan in the south, running along the eastern edge of the Titiwangsa Mountains.
The Perak River is the second longest river in Peninsular Malaysia after Pahang River in Pahang, Malaysia.
Konsortium Transnasional Berhad (KTB) (MYX: 4847) is one of the largest public bus operator in Malaysia. The company provides services of stage buses and express buses covering all major cities and towns in Peninsular Malaysia as well as routes to Singapore. KTB debut on Bursa Malaysia on 15 June 2007.
The Titiwangsa Forest Complex runs along the Titiwangsa Mountains and forms part of the Central Forest Spine of Peninsular Malaysia.
Malaysian Sikhs are known to be the fourth largest Malaysian Indian ethnic group. It is estimated that there are around 100,000 Sikhs in Malaysia.
Kuala Pilah, or simply Pilah, is a town in Kuala Pilah District, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
Mining is one of the main industries in Malaysia. Malaysia produces aggregate, bauxite, clay, coal, copper, feldspar, gold, gravel, ilmenite, iron ore, kaolin, limestone, mica, monazite, sand, silica sand, struverite and tin.
Bentong District is a district located in western Pahang, Malaysia. Bentong covers an area of 1,831 km2 and includes the hill resorts of Genting Highlands and Bukit Tinggi. It is located 80 km northeast of Kuala Lumpur, just across the main range, Titiwangsa Mountains. Bentong Town is the seat of the district. The original main street going into Bentong Town has been modified to a dual carriageway. It is bordered by Selangor on the west and Negeri Sembilan on the south.
The Tampin District is a district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The district covers 878.69 square kilometres (339.26 sq mi) and is further divided into four adat socio-political provinces: Tampin Adat Territory, Air Kuning, Gemencheh and Gemas.
Malaysian Cantonese is a local variety of Cantonese spoken in Malaysia. It is the lingua franca among Chinese throughout much of the central portion of Peninsular Malaysia, being spoken in the capital Kuala Lumpur, Perak, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan, it is also widely understood to varying degrees by many Chinese throughout the country, regardless of their ancestral language.
Mount Besar Hantu is a mountain in Kenaboi, Jelebu District, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, located on the border with Pahang. It is the tallest peak in Negeri Sembilan as well in southern Peninsular Malaysia, at the height of 1,462 m (4,797 ft).