Tokyo

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Tokyo
東京都
Tokyo Metropolis
Anthem: "Tokyo Metropolitan Song"
(東京都歌, Tōkyō-to Ka)
Tokyo
Interactive map outlining Tokyo
Tokyo in Japan.svg
Location within Japan
Coordinates: 35°41′23″N139°41′32″E / 35.68972°N 139.69222°E / 35.68972; 139.69222 Coordinates: 35°41′23″N139°41′32″E / 35.68972°N 139.69222°E / 35.68972; 139.69222
CountryFlag of Japan.svg  Japan
Region Kantō
Island Honshu
Capital Tokyo [1]
Divisions 23 special wards, 26 cities, 1 district, and 4 subprefectures
Government
  Body Tokyo Metropolitan Government
   Governor Yuriko Koike (Indp.)
   Representatives 42
   Councilors 11
Area
[2]
  Total2,194.07 km2 (847.14 sq mi)
  Rank 45th in Japan
Highest elevation
[3]
2,017 m (6,617 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2022) [4]
  Total13,988,129
  Rank 1st in Japan
  Density6,363/km2 (16,480/sq mi)
   Metro
[5]
40,700,000
  Dialects
Tokyo・Tama・Northern Izu Islands
Demonym Tokyoite
Gross Regional Product
 (2018) [6]
  Total, nominal¥106.6 trillion
  Per capita¥7.7 million
Time zone UTC+09:00 (Japan Standard Time)
ISO 3166-2
JP-13
Flower Yoshino cherry
Tree Ginkgo
Bird Black-headed gull
Website www.metro.tokyo.lg.jp

Tokyo ( /ˈtki/ ; [7] Japanese : 東京, Tōkyō, [toːkʲoː] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (東京都, Tōkyō-to), is the capital and largest city of Japan. [8] Formerly known as Edo, its metropolitan area (13,452 square kilometers or 5,194 square miles) is the most populous in the world, with an estimated 37.468 million residents as of 2018; [9] the city proper has a population of 13.99 million people. [4] Located at the head of Tokyo Bay, the prefecture forms part of the Kantō region on the central coast of Honshu, Japan's largest island. Tokyo serves as Japan's economic center and is the seat of both the Japanese government and the Emperor of Japan.

Contents

Originally a fishing village named Edo, the city became politically prominent in 1603, when it became the seat of the Tokugawa shogunate. By the mid-18th century, Edo was one of the most populous cities in the world with a population of over one million people. Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the imperial capital in Kyoto was moved to Edo, which was renamed "Tokyo" (lit.' Eastern Capital '). Tokyo was devastated by the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, and again by Allied bombing raids during World War II. Beginning in the 1950s, the city underwent rapid reconstruction and expansion efforts, going on to lead the Japanese economic miracle. Since 1943, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government has administered the prefecture's 23 special wards (formerly Tokyo City), various commuter towns and suburbs in its western area, and two outlying island chains known as the Tokyo Islands.

Tokyo is the second-largest urban economy worldwide by gross domestic product after New York City, and is categorized as an Alpha+ city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. It is also Japan's leading business hub as part of an industrial region that includes the cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki, and Chiba. As of 2021, Tokyo is home to 37 companies of the Fortune Global 500. [10] In 2020, the city ranked fourth on the Global Financial Centres Index, behind only New York City, London, and Shanghai. [11] Tokyo is home to the world's tallest tower, the Tokyo Skytree, [12] and the world's largest underground floodwater diversion facility, the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel (located in Kasukabe, Saitama, a suburb of Tokyo). [13] The Tokyo Metro Ginza Line, opened in 1927, is the oldest underground metro line in East Asia. [14] Recognized as one of the most livable cities in the world, Tokyo was tied fourth with Wellington in the 2021 Global Livability Ranking. [15]

The city has hosted multiple international events, including the 1964 Summer Olympics and 1964 Summer Paralympics, the 2020 Summer Olympics and 2020 Summer Paralympics (postponed; held in 2021), and three summits of the G7 (in 1979, 1986, and 1993). Tokyo is an international research and development hub and is likewise represented by several major universities, most notably including the University of Tokyo. The Tokyo Station is the central hub for Japan's high-speed railway network, the Shinkansen; the Shinjuku Station in Tokyo is also the world's busiest train station. Notable special wards of Tokyo include: Chiyoda, the site of the National Diet Building and the Tokyo Imperial Palace; Shinjuku, the city's administrative center; and Shibuya, a commercial, cultural, and business hub.

Etymology

See or edit raw graph data.

Tokyo has experienced significant warming of its climate since temperature records began in 1876.

Tokyo
Tokyo (Chinese characters).svg
Tōkyō in kanji
Climate data for Tokyo (Tokyo, Japan), 1876–1905 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)8.3
(46.9)
8.7
(47.7)
11.9
(53.4)
17.2
(63.0)
21.1
(70.0)
24.5
(76.1)
28.1
(82.6)
29.8
(85.6)
26.1
(79.0)
20.5
(68.9)
15.5
(59.9)
11.0
(51.8)
18.6
(65.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
3.6
(38.5)
6.9
(44.4)
12.4
(54.3)
16.6
(61.9)
20.5
(68.9)
24.1
(75.4)
25.5
(77.9)
22.1
(71.8)
15.9
(60.6)
10.2
(50.4)
5.3
(41.5)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F)−1.7
(28.9)
−0.9
(30.4)
2.0
(35.6)
7.6
(45.7)
12.0
(53.6)
16.8
(62.2)
20.8
(69.4)
21.9
(71.4)
18.6
(65.5)
11.9
(53.4)
5.4
(41.7)
0.4
(32.7)
9.6
(49.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)55.2
(2.17)
72.4
(2.85)
111.0
(4.37)
129.1
(5.08)
151.9
(5.98)
166.3
(6.55)
139.7
(5.50)
114.7
(4.52)
203.3
(8.00)
184.1
(7.25)
104.7
(4.12)
58.7
(2.31)
1,491.1
(58.7)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.7178.5174.1183.1204.8158.5183.9207.0142.8144.0167.4190.82,121.6
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [79]

The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification: Cfa).

Climate data for Ogouchi, Okutama town, Tokyo, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1875–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.8
(64.0)
20.9
(69.6)
22.9
(73.2)
30.6
(87.1)
33.0
(91.4)
34.3
(93.7)
36.3
(97.3)
36.4
(97.5)
35.0
(95.0)
30.2
(86.4)
23.8
(74.8)
22.8
(73.0)
36.4
(97.5)
Average high °C (°F)6.8
(44.2)
7.6
(45.7)
10.9
(51.6)
16.5
(61.7)
21.1
(70.0)
23.4
(74.1)
27.4
(81.3)
28.5
(83.3)
24.3
(75.7)
18.8
(65.8)
14.0
(57.2)
9.3
(48.7)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.5
(34.7)
2.2
(36.0)
5.5
(41.9)
10.8
(51.4)
15.6
(60.1)
18.9
(66.0)
22.6
(72.7)
23.5
(74.3)
19.8
(67.6)
14.3
(57.7)
8.8
(47.8)
3.9
(39.0)
12.3
(54.1)
Average low °C (°F)−2.4
(27.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
1.0
(33.8)
5.8
(42.4)
10.9
(51.6)
15.3
(59.5)
19.3
(66.7)
20.1
(68.2)
16.6
(61.9)
10.9
(51.6)
5.0
(41.0)
0.1
(32.2)
8.4
(47.1)
Record low °C (°F)−9.3
(15.3)
−11.6
(11.1)
−8.1
(17.4)
−3.8
(25.2)
0.7
(33.3)
7.5
(45.5)
12.4
(54.3)
13.2
(55.8)
6.2
(43.2)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
−6.9
(19.6)
−11.6
(11.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)49.5
(1.95)
45.9
(1.81)
88.5
(3.48)
106.3
(4.19)
118.7
(4.67)
163.2
(6.43)
205.6
(8.09)
217.4
(8.56)
270.2
(10.64)
215.4
(8.48)
68.9
(2.71)
43.7
(1.72)
1,608
(63.31)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 206.5187.7173.0178.4172.2104.2124.8144.6104.5128.7164.5186.51,874.6
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [80] [81]

The climates of Tokyo's offshore territories vary significantly from those of the city. The climate of Chichijima in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification: Aw) and the tropical rainforest climate (Köppen classification: Af). It is approximately 1,000 km (621 mi) south of the Greater Tokyo Area, resulting in much different climatic conditions.

Climate data for Chichijima, Ogasawara, Tokyo, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1896–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)26.1
(79.0)
25.4
(77.7)
26.7
(80.1)
28.4
(83.1)
30.1
(86.2)
33.0
(91.4)
34.1
(93.4)
33.7
(92.7)
33.1
(91.6)
32.1
(89.8)
30.2
(86.4)
27.5
(81.5)
34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F)20.7
(69.3)
20.5
(68.9)
21.7
(71.1)
23.4
(74.1)
25.6
(78.1)
28.5
(83.3)
30.4
(86.7)
30.3
(86.5)
29.9
(85.8)
28.6
(83.5)
25.9
(78.6)
22.7
(72.9)
25.7
(78.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)18.5
(65.3)
18.1
(64.6)
19.3
(66.7)
21.1
(70.0)
23.4
(74.1)
26.2
(79.2)
27.7
(81.9)
28.0
(82.4)
27.7
(81.9)
26.4
(79.5)
23.8
(74.8)
20.6
(69.1)
23.4
(74.1)
Average low °C (°F)15.8
(60.4)
15.4
(59.7)
16.8
(62.2)
18.8
(65.8)
21.4
(70.5)
24.4
(75.9)
25.6
(78.1)
26.1
(79.0)
25.7
(78.3)
24.4
(75.9)
21.6
(70.9)
18.2
(64.8)
21.2
(70.2)
Record low °C (°F)8.9
(48.0)
7.8
(46.0)
9.2
(48.6)
10.7
(51.3)
13.9
(57.0)
17.7
(63.9)
20.8
(69.4)
22.2
(72.0)
19.6
(67.3)
17.2
(63.0)
13.2
(55.8)
10.8
(51.4)
7.8
(46.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches)63.6
(2.50)
51.6
(2.03)
75.8
(2.98)
113.3
(4.46)
151.9
(5.98)
111.8
(4.40)
79.5
(3.13)
123.3
(4.85)
144.2
(5.68)
141.7
(5.58)
136.1
(5.36)
103.3
(4.07)
1,296.1
(51.02)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.5 mm)11.08.59.810.011.88.88.611.313.413.712.011.2130.1
Average relative humidity (%)66687279848682828281767077
Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.3138.3159.2148.3151.8205.6246.8213.7197.7173.2139.1125.32,030.3
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [82]

[83]

Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification: Aw). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō. [84]

Cityscape

Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II. [85] Because of this, Tokyo's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce. [85] Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower and Tokyo Skytree, the latter of which is the tallest tower in both Japan and the world, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. [12] Mori Building Co started work on Tokyo's new tallest building which is set to be finished in March 2023. The project will cost 580 billion yen ($5.5 billion). [86]

Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.

Tokyo from the top of the SkyTree (cropped).JPG
Panoramic view of Tokyo from Tokyo Skytree

Environment

Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level. [87] Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards. [88] [89] According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, [90] the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 °C (5.4 °F) over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate". [91]

In 2006, Tokyo enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realized by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha (2,500 acres) of green space, 88 ha (220 acres) of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (Sea Forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay which used to be a landfill. [92] From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha (1,080 acres) of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted, bringing the total to 700,000. As of 2014, roadside trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000, and a further 300 ha (740 acres) of green space has been added. [93]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1870590,268    
1880712,259+20.7%
18901,389,684+95.1%
19001,580,124+13.7%
19102,202,079+39.4%
19203,699,428+68.0%
19254,485,144+21.2%
19305,408,678+20.6%
19356,369,919+17.8%
19407,354,971+15.5%
19453,488,284−52.6%
19506,277,500+80.0%
19558,037,084+28.0%
19609,683,802+20.5%
196510,869,244+12.2%
197011,408,071+5.0%
197511,673,554+2.3%
198011,618,281−0.5%
198511,829,363+1.8%
199011,855,563+0.2%
199511,773,605−0.7%
200012,064,101+2.5%
200512,576,601+4.2%
201013,159,388+4.6%
201513,515,271+2.7%
202013,982,112+3.5%

As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo, with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards. [94] During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day. [95]

In 1889, the Home Ministry recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu. [96] In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was English (209 residents), followed by American (182) and Chinese nationals (137). [97]

Tokyo historical population since 1920 Tokyo historical population.gif
Tokyo historical population since 1920
Registered foreign nationals [98]
NationalityPopulation (2018)
China199,949
South Korea90,438
Vietnam32,334
Philippines32,089
Nepal26,157
Taiwan18,568
North America
(United States and Canada)
17,578
India11,153
Myanmar9,719
Thailand7,958
Others75,557
This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010.
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Increase
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
10.0% and over
7.5-9.9%
5.0-7.4%
2.5-4.9%
0.0-2.4%
Decrease
0.0-2.4%
2.5-4.9%
5.0-7.4%
7.5-9.9%
10.0% and over Growth rate map of municipalities of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan.svg
This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010.
Increase
  10.0% and over
  7.5–9.9%
  5.0–7.4%
  2.5–4.9%
  0.0–2.4%
Decrease
  0.0–2.4%
  2.5–4.9%
  5.0–7.4%
  7.5–9.9%
  10.0% and over
Population of Tokyo [95]
By area1

Tokyo
Special wards
Tama Area
Islands

12.79 million
8.653 million
4.109 million
28,000

By age2

Juveniles (age 0–14)
Working (age 15–64)
Retired (age 65+)

1.461 million (11.8%)
8.546 million (69.3%)
2.332 million (18.9%)

By hours3

Day
Night

14.978 million
12.416 million

By nationality

Foreign residents

364,6534 (2.9% of total)

1 Estimates as of October 1, 2007.

2 as of January 1, 2007.

3as of 2005 National Census.

4 as of January 1, 2006.

Economy

Tokyo Skytree, at 634 m (2,080 ft), the tallest tower in the world Tokyo Skytree 2014 III.jpg
Tokyo Skytree, at 634 m (2,080 ft), the tallest tower in the world
Tokyo Stock Exchange Tokyo Stock Exchange Interior 201505.JPG
Tokyo Stock Exchange
Ginza is a popular upscale shopping area in Tokyo. Ginza 4-Chome Crossing 2021-04-28.jpg
Ginza is a popular upscale shopping area in Tokyo.
Bank of Japan headquarters in Chuo, Tokyo Bank of Japan headquarters in Tokyo, Japan.jpg
Bank of Japan headquarters in Chūō, Tokyo
Marunouchi in Chiyoda, Tokyo Marunouchi Central Plaza with blue sky, Tokyo station and Shin-Marunouchi Building, panoramic view from JP Tower, Tokyo, Japan.jpg
Marunouchi in Chiyoda, Tokyo
Tokyo Tower at night Tokyo Tower at night 8.JPG
Tokyo Tower at night
Shibuya Crossing in Shibuya, also known as "the Times Square of the Orient", attracts many tourists. 2018 Shibuya Crossing.jpg
Shibuya Crossing in Shibuya, also known as "the Times Square of the Orient", attracts many tourists.
Shibuya Crossing video (2008)

Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Greater Tokyo Area (Tokyo–Yokohama, TYO) of 38 million people had a total GDP of $2 trillion in 2012 (at purchasing power parity), which topped that list.

Tokyo is a major international finance center; [99] it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.

Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006, when it was replaced by Oslo, and later Paris. [100] [101]

Tokyo emerged as a leading international financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy, along with New York City and London. [102] In the 2020 Global Financial Centers Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fourth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as New York City, London, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Singapore, Beijing, San Francisco, Shenzhen and Zurich in the top 10), and second most competitive in Asia (after Shanghai). [11] The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalization with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998. [103] Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan's largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value. [104] Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003, [105] according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market.[ citation needed ]

With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijō-Jima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products. [106]

Tourism in Tokyo is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighborhoods of the special wards of Tokyo. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country's artwork national treasures (87/233).

The Toyosu Market in Tokyo is the largest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world since it opened on October 11, 2018. [107] It is also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. It is located in the Toyosu area of Kōtō ward. The Toyosu Market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Tsukiji Fish Market and Nihonbashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries. [108]

Transportation

Tokyo Station is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo. Tokyo station from marunouchi oazo.JPG
Tokyo Station is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo.
Haneda Airport Tokyo-International-Airport Satellite.jpg
Haneda Airport
Narita International Airport The night view of Tokyo Narita Airport Terminal 1.JPG
Narita International Airport
Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway are two main subway operators in Tokyo. 10000x6300 01.jpg
Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway are two main subway operators in Tokyo.
Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto Expressway Shuto expressway shibaura jct ii.jpg
Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto Expressway

Tokyo, which is the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail and ground transportation. However, its airspace has been under the US military's exclusive control after World War II. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of "clean and efficient" [109] trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo. [110] Shibuya Crossing is the "world's busiest pedestrian crossing", with around 3,000 people crossing at a time. [111] [112] [113]

As a result of World War II, Japanese planes are generally forbidden to fly over Tokyo. [114] Therefore, Japan constructed airports outside Tokyo. Narita International Airport in Chiba Prefecture is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier Japan Airlines, as well as All Nippon Airways, have a hub at this airport. Haneda Airport on the reclaimed land at Ōta, offers domestic and international flights. As of 2018, some flight routes into Haneda are permitted through Tokyo airspace. [115]

Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports.

Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, [116] which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. It operates rail lines in the entire metropolitan area of Tokyo and in the rest of the northeastern part of Honshu. JR East is also responsible for Shinkansen high-speed rail lines.

Two different organizations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The Metropolitan Government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku.

Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo Area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. To build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads. [117] Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also, long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.

Education

Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Meiji University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo University of Science, Sophia University, and Keio University. [118] Some of the biggest national universities in Tokyo are:

There is only one non-national public university: Tokyo Metropolitan University. There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language, including the Globis University Graduate School of Management, International Christian University, Sophia University, and Waseda University

Tokyo is also the headquarters of the United Nations University.

Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and junior high (lower secondary) schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public senior high (upper secondary) schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school:

Culture

The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation, also known as "Miraikan" Nihon-Kagaku-Miraikan,Koto-ward,Tokyo,Japan.JPG
The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation, also known as "Miraikan"
Takeshita Street in Harajuku Takeshita Street in December 2018.jpg
Takeshita Street in Harajuku

Tokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in Sumida, across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace.

Tokyo has many theaters for performing arts. These include national and private theaters for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for noh and the Kabuki-za for Kabuki. [119] Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. The New National Theater Tokyo in Shibuya is the national center for the performing arts, including opera, ballet, contemporary dance and drama. [120] Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known areas such as the Nippon Budokan.

The Sanja Festival in Asakusa San She Ji Bao Zang Men .JPG
The Sanja Festival in Asakusa

Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms.

Harajuku, a neighborhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion [121] and cosplay.

Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star. [122]

Sports

Japan National Stadium New national stadium tokyo 1.jpg
Japan National Stadium
Ryogoku Kokugikan sumo wrestling arena Ryogoku Kokugikan Tsuriyane 05212006.jpg
Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo wrestling arena

Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Soccer clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo and Tokyo Excellence.

Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the New National Stadium. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, soccer exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami. [123] Tokyo was also selected to host a number of games for the 2019 Rugby World Cup, and to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the Paralympics which had to be rescheduled to the summer of 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.

Akihabara is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga, and games. Akihabara Night.jpg
Akihabara is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga, and games.
FCG Building, home of Fuji TV headquarters Fuji TV headquarters and Aqua City Odaiba - 2006-05-03 edit.jpg
FCG Building, home of Fuji TV headquarters

As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, light novels, video games, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are usually destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla and Gamera.

Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo Joe , My Geisha , Tokyo Story and the James Bond film You Only Live Twice ; recent examples include Kill Bill , The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift , Lost in Translation , Babel , Inception , The Wolverine and Avengers: Endgame .

Japanese author Haruki Murakami has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood), and David Mitchell's first two novels ( number9dream and Ghostwritten) featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the city's crowded streets and public spaces. [124] [125] [126] [127] [128]

International relations

Tokyo is the founding member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

Sister cities and states

As of 2022, Tokyo has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states: [129]

Friendship and cooperation agreements

International academic and scientific research

Research and development in Japan and the Japanese space program are globally represented by several of Tokyo's medical and scientific facilities, including the University of Tokyo and other universities in Tokyo, which work in collaboration with many international institutions. Especially with the United States, including NASA and the many private spaceflight companies, [133] Tokyo universities have working relationships with all of the Ivy League institutions (including Harvard and Yale University), [134] along with other research universities and development laboratories, such as Stanford, MIT, and the UC campuses throughout California, [135] [136] as well as UNM and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. [137] [138] [139] Other partners worldwide include Oxford University in the United Kingdom, [140] the National University of Singapore in Singapore, [141] the University of Toronto in Canada, [142] and Tsinghua University in China. [143]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Kanagawa Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region of Honshu. Kanagawa Prefecture is the second-most populous prefecture of Japan at 9,221,129 and third-densest at 3,800 inhabitants per square kilometre (9,800/sq mi). Its geographic area of 2,415 km2 (932 sq mi) makes it fifth-smallest. Kanagawa Prefecture borders Tokyo to the north, Yamanashi Prefecture to the northwest and Shizuoka Prefecture to the west.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prefectures of Japan</span> First-level administrative divisions of Japan

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shinjuku</span> Special ward in Kantō, Japan

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yamanashi Prefecture</span> Prefecture of Japan

Yamanashi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region of Honshu. Yamanashi Prefecture has a population of 817,192 and has a geographic area of 4,465 km2. Yamanashi Prefecture borders Saitama Prefecture to the northeast, Nagano Prefecture to the northwest, Shizuoka Prefecture to the southwest, Kanagawa Prefecture to the southeast, and Tokyo to the east.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Special wards of Tokyo</span> Special form of municipalities in Honshu, Japan

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