Megacity

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A megacity is a very large city metropolitan area, typically with a population of more than 10 million people. [1] [2] Precise definitions vary: the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in its 2014 "World Urbanization Prospects" report counted urban agglomerations having over 10 million inhabitants. [3] A University of Bonn report held that they are "usually defined as metropolitan areas with a total population of 10 million or more people". [4] Others list cities satisfying criteria of either 5 or 8 million and also have a population density of 2,000 per square kilometre. [5] A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge due to close proximity.[ citation needed ] The terms conurbation, metropolis, and metroplex are also applied to the latter. [5]

Population All the organisms of a given species that live in the specified region

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs government organization in New York, United States

The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly. UN DESA assists countries around the world in agenda-setting and decision-making with the goal of meeting their economic, social and environmental challenges. It supports international cooperation to promote sustainable development for all, having as a foundation the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as adopted by the UN General Assembly on 25 September 2015. In providing a broad range of analytical products, policy advice, and technical assistance, UN DESA effectively translates global commitments in the economic, social and environmental spheres into national policies and actions and continues to play a key role in monitoring progress towards internationally agreed-upon development goals. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.

University of Bonn public research university located in Bonn, Germany

The University of Bonn is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the Rhein-Universität on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn which was founded in 1777. The University of Bonn offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors and 32,500 students. Its library holds more than five million volumes.

Contents

As of 2017, there are 47 megacities in existence. Most of these urban agglomerations are in China and other countries of Asia. The largest are the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Shanghai, and Jakarta, each having over 30 million inhabitants. China alone has 15 megacities, India has five, and Japan has three. Other countries with multiple megacities include the United States, Brazil and Pakistan, each with two. African megacities are also present in Nigeria, Egypt and the DRC.

China Country in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Asia Earths largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements, as well as vast barely populated regions. Its 4.5 billion people constitute roughly 60% of the world's population.

Greater Tokyo Area Place in Japan

The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, consisting of the Kantō region of Japan, including Tokyo Metropolis, as well as the prefecture of Yamanashi of the neighboring Chūbu region. In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, one of the most common being Capital Region.

Largest cities

This is the list of the world's largest metropolitan areas by population as of 2016.

RankMegacityImageCountryContinentPopulation
1 Tokyo Skyscrapers of Shinjuku 2009 January.jpg Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Asia 38,140,000 [6]
2 Shanghai The bund shanghai.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 34,000,000 [7]
3 Jakarta Jakarta Skyline (Resize).jpg Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Asia 31,500,000 [8]
4 Delhi Skyline at Rajiv Chowk.JPG Flag of India.svg  India Asia 27,200,000 [9]
5 Seoul Seoul-Cityscape-03.jpg Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Asia 25,600,000 [10]
6 Guangzhou Guangzhou skyline.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 25,000,000 [7]
7 Beijing Beijing City (4214640799).jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 24,900,000 [7]
8 Manila Bonifacio Global City.jpg Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Asia 24,100,000 [9]
9 Mumbai Mumbai 03-2016 10 skyline of Lotus Colony.jpg Flag of India.svg  India Asia 23,900,000 [9]
10 New York South Manhattan Island photo D Ramey Logan.jpg Flag of the United States.svg  United States North America 23,876,155 [11]
11 Shenzhen East Pacific Center Towers (2).jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 23,300,000 [7]
12 São Paulo Ponte e rio.jpg Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil South America 21,242,939 [12]
13 Mexico City Ciudad.Mexico.City.Distrito.Federal.DF.Reforma.Skyline.jpg Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico North America 21,157,000 [6]
14 Lagos Lagos skyline.jpg Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria Africa 21,000,000 [13]
15 Kyoto-Osaka -Kobe (Keihanshin) Skyline in Osaka.JPG Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Asia 20,337,000 [6]
16 Cairo Cairo by night.jpg Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt Africa 19,128,000 [6]
17 Wuhan Wu Yi Huang He Lou Fu Kan .jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 19,000,000 [7]
18 Los Angeles Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg Flag of the United States.svg  United States North America 18,788,800 [11]
19 Dhaka GulshanDhaka.jpg Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh Asia 18,237,000 [6]
20 Chengdu Jiuyanqiao.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 18,100,000 [7]
21 Moscow Moscow-City skyline.jpg Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Europe 17,200,000 [9]
22 Chongqing Chongqing Night Yuzhong.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 17,000,000 [7]
23 Karachi KHIURBANSKYLINE.jpg Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Asia 16,900,000 [9]
24 Bangkok Bangkok - City skyline at mid day.JPG Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Asia 15,931,300 [14]
25 Tianjin Tianjin Skyline 2009 Sep 11 by Nangua 2.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 15,400,000 [7]
26 Istanbul Istanbul skyline at night - Kopya.jpg Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Asia & Europe 15,033,000 [9]
27 Kolkata Kolkata skyline at night.jpg Flag of India.svg  India Asia 14,423,000 [15]
28 Tehran Tehran Skyline.jpg Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Asia 14,000,000 [9]
29 London London from a hot air balloon.jpg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Europe 13,842,667 [16]
30 Buenos Aires Aerial view - Palermo, Buenos Aires (2).jpg Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina South America 13,834,000 [17]
31 Hangzhou Hangzhou CBD.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 13,400,000 [7]
32 Rio de Janeiro Centro do Rio visto do museu chacara do ceu.jpg Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil South America 12,981,000 [6]
33 Xi'an Xi'ansitepic8.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 12,900,000 [7]
34 Paris Paris skyline from the observation deck of the Montparnasse tower, July 2015.jpg Flag of France.svg  France Europe 12,405,426 [18]
35 Changzhou Comb lane.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 12,400,000 [7]
36 Kinshasa Boulevard du 30 juin, Kinshasa.jpg Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa 12,350,000 [19]
37 Lahore Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Asia 12,200,000 [9]
38 Rhine-Ruhr Ballonfahrt uber Koln - Deutzer Hafen, Rhein, Rheinauhafen, Altstadt-RS-4106.jpg Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Europe 12,190,000 [20]
39 Shantou Shantou.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 12,000,000 [7]
40 Nanjing Nanking-kapija.JPG Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 11,700,000 [7]
41 Bangalore UB City.jpg Flag of India.svg  India Asia 11,800,000 [9]
42 Jinan Qianfoshanpark.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 11,000,000 [7]
43 Chennai Chennai Skyline.jpg Flag of India.svg  India Asia 11,000,000 [9]
44 Harbin Harbin Economic and Technological Development Zone.jpg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Asia 10,500,000 [7]
45 Bogotá CatedralPrimadaBogota2004-7.jpg Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia South America 10,350,000 [21]
46 Nagoya Meieki from Heiwa Park Aqua Tower.jpg Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Asia 10,105,000 [19]
47 Lima PalacioEjecutivodelPeru.jpg Flag of Peru.svg  Peru South America 10,072,000 [6]

History

The term "megacity" entered common use in the late 19th or early 20th centuries; one of the earliest documented uses of the term was by the University of Texas in 1904. [22] Initially the United Nations used the term to describe cities of 8 million or more inhabitants, but now uses the threshold of 10 million. [23]

In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities, a figure that rose to 47% by the end of the twentieth century. In 1950, there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; by 2007, this number had risen to 468. [24] The UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people will live in cities. [25] This increase will be most dramatic on the least-urbanized continents, Asia and Africa. Surveys and projections indicate that all urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries. [26] One billion people, almost one-seventh of the world's population, now live in shanty towns. [27] In many poor countries overpopulated slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care. [28] By 2030, over 2 billion people in the world will be living in slums. [29] Over 90% of the urban population of Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda, three of the world's most rural countries, already live in slums.

World population The total number of living humans on Earth

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.7 billion people as of April 2019. It took over 200,000 years of human history for the world's population to reach 1 billion; and only 200 years more to reach 7 billion.

Africa The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Human overpopulation The condition where human numbers exceed the short or long-term carrying capacity of the environment

Human overpopulation occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group. Overpopulation can further be viewed, in a long term perspective, as existing if a population cannot be maintained given the rapid depletion of non-renewable resources or given the degradation of the capacity of the environment to give support to the population. Changes in lifestyle could reverse overpopulated status without a large population reduction.

By 2025, Asia alone will have at least 30 megacities, including Mumbai, India (2015 population of 20.75 million people), Shanghai, China (2015 population of 35.5 million people), Delhi, India (2015 population of 21.8 million people), Tokyo, Japan (2015 population of 38.8 million people) and Seoul, South Korea (2015 population of 25.6 million people). In Africa, Lagos, Nigeria has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 21 million today.

Mumbai Megacity in Maharashtra, India

Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second-most-populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, and the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Shanghai Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, and the largest city proper in the world, with a population of 26.3 million as of 2019. It is a global financial center and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the Eastern China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the south, east and west, and is bound to the east by the East China Sea.

Growth

For almost five hundred years, Rome was the largest, wealthiest, and most politically important city in Europe. [30] Its population passed one million people by the end of the 1st century BC. [31] Rome's population started declining in 402 AD when Flavius Honorius, Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423, moved the government to Ravenna and Rome's population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Honorius (emperor) Roman emperor (395-423)

Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius, who was the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. During his reign, Rome was sacked for the first time in almost 800 years.

Western Roman Empire Independently administered western provinces of the Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used to describe the period from 395 to 476, where there were separate coequal courts dividing the governance of the empire in the Western and the Eastern provinces, with a distinct imperial succession in the separate courts. The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire are modern descriptions that describe political entities that were de facto independent; contemporary Romans did not consider the Empire to have been split into two separate empires but viewed it as a single polity governed by two separate imperial courts as an administrative expediency. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476, and the Western imperial court was formally dissolved in 480. The Eastern imperial court survived until 1453.

Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation in 762 AD until the 930s, with some estimates putting its population at over one million. [32] Chinese capital cities Chang'an and Kaifeng also experienced huge population booms during prosperous empires. According to the census in the year 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang , 362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu (京兆府), the metropolitan area including small cities in the vicinity of Chang'an. [33] The medieval settlement surrounding Angkor, the one-time capital of the Khmer Empire which flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, could have supported a population of up to one million people. [34]

Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006 2006megacities.svg
Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006

From around 1825 to 1918 London was the largest city in the world, with the population growing rapidly; it was the first city to reach a population of over 5 million in 1900. In 1950, New York City was the only urban area with a population of over 10 million. [35] Geographers had identified 25 such areas as of October 2005, [36] as compared with 19 megacities in 2004 and only nine in 1985. This increase has happened as the world's population moves towards the high (75–85%) urbanization levels of North America and Western Europe.

Since the 2000s, the largest megacity has been the Greater Tokyo Area. The population of this urban agglomeration includes areas such as Yokohama and Kawasaki, and is estimated to be between 37 and 38 million. This variation in estimates can be accounted for by different definitions of what the area encompasses. While the prefectures of Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Saitama are commonly included in statistical information, the Japan Statistics Bureau only includes the area within 50 kilometers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Offices in Shinjuku, thus arriving at a smaller population estimate. [37] [38] A characteristic issue of megacities is the difficulty in defining their outer limits and accurately estimating the populations.

Another list defines megacities as urban agglomerations instead of metropolitan areas. [39] As of 2010, there are 25 megacities by this definition, like Tokyo.[ citation needed ][ needs update ] Other sources list Nagoya [9] and the Rhein-Ruhr [40] as megacities.

Challenges

Slums

According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers living in slums or informal settlements decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005. [41] However, due to rising population, the absolute number of slum dwellers is rising. The majority of these are located in informal settlements which often lack sufficient quality housing, sanitation, drainage, water access, and officially recognized addresses. The increase in informal settlement population has been caused by massive migration, both internal and transnational, into cities, which has caused growth rates of urban populations and spatial concentrations not seen before in history.[ citation needed ] These issues raise problems in the political, social, and economic arenas.[ citation needed ] People who live in slums or informal settlements often have minimal or no access to education, healthcare, or the urban economy.

Crime

As with any large concentration of people, there is usually crime. High population densities, placing lots of people together, invariably result in higher crime rates, as visibly seen in growing megacities such as Karachi, Delhi, Cairo, Rio de Janeiro, and Lagos. [42]

Homelessness

Megacities often have significant numbers of homeless people. The actual legal definition of homelessness varies from country to country, or among different entities or institutions in the same country or region. [43]

In 2002, research showed that children and families were the largest growing segment of the homeless population in the United States, [44] [45] and this has presented new challenges, especially in services, to agencies. In the USA, the government asked many major cities to come up with a ten-year plan to end homelessness. One of the results of this was a "Housing first" solution, rather than to have a homeless person remain in an emergency homeless shelter it was thought to be better to quickly get the person permanent housing of some sort and the necessary support services to sustain a new home. But there are many complications with this kind of program and these must be dealt with to make such an initiative work successfully in the middle to long term. [46] [47]

Traffic congestion

Bangkok is notorious for its traffic congestion. TrafficBangkok.JPG
Bangkok is notorious for its traffic congestion.

Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, increased pollution, and increased vehicular queueing. The Texas Transportation Institute estimated that, in 2000, the 75 largest metropolitan areas experienced 3.6 billion vehicle-hours of delay, resulting in 5.7 billion U.S. gallons (21.6 billion liters) in wasted fuel and $67.5 billion in lost productivity, or about 0.7% of the nation's GDP. It also estimated that the annual cost of congestion for each driver was approximately $1,000 in very large cities and $200 in small cities.[ citation needed ] Traffic congestion is increasing in major cities and delays are becoming more frequent in smaller cities and rural areas.

Urban sprawl

A flat land area in the Greater Los Angeles Area in the U.S. state of California with houses, buildings, roads, and freeways. Areas constructed to capacity contribute to urban expansion. Los Angeles Ubergangszone.JPG
A flat land area in the Greater Los Angeles Area in the U.S. state of California with houses, buildings, roads, and freeways. Areas constructed to capacity contribute to urban expansion.

Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density, auto-dependent development on rural land, with associated design features that encourage car dependency. [48] As a result, some critics argue that sprawl has certain disadvantages including longer transport distances to work, high car dependence, inadequate facilities (e.g. health, cultural. etc.) and higher per-person infrastructure costs. Discussions and debates about sprawl are often obfuscated by the ambiguity associated with the phrase. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area. But others associate it with decentralization (spread of population without a well-defined center), discontinuity (leapfrog development), segregation of uses, etc. [ citation needed ]

Gentrification

Gentrification and urban gentrification denote the socio-cultural changes in an area resulting from wealthier people buying housing property in a less prosperous community. [49] Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size decreases in the community, which may result in the informal economic eviction of the lower-income residents, because of increased rents, house prices, and property taxes. This type of population change reduces industrial land use when it is redeveloped for commerce and housing. In addition, new businesses, catering to a more affluent base of consumers, tend to move into formerly blighted areas, further increasing the appeal to more affluent migrants and decreasing the accessibility to less wealthy natives.

Air pollution

Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment. Many urban areas have significant problems with smog, a type of air pollution derived from vehicle emissions from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.

Smog is also caused by large amounts of coal burning, which creates a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. World coal consumption was about 6,743,786,000 short tons in 2006 [50] and is expected to increase 48% to 9.98 billion short tons by 2030. [51] China produced 2.38 billion tons in 2006. India produced about 447.3 million tons in 2006. 68.7% of China's electricity comes from coal. The USA consumes about 14% of the world total, using 90% of it for generation of electricity. [52]

Energy and material resources

The sheer size and complexity of megacities gives rise to enormous social and environmental challenges. Whether megacities can develop sustainably depends to a large extent on how they obtain, share, and manage their energy and material resources. There are correlations between electricity consumption, heating and industrial fuel use, ground transportation energy use, water consumption, waste generation, and steel production in terms of level of consumption and how efficiently they use resources. [53]

In fiction

Megacities are a common backdrop in dystopian science fiction, with examples such as the Sprawl in William Gibson's Neuromancer , [54] and Mega-City One, a megalopolis of between 50 and 800 million people (fluctuations due to war and disaster) across the east coast of the United States, in the Judge Dredd comic. [55] In Demolition Man a megacity called "San Angeles" was formed from the joining of Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Diego and the surrounding metropolitan regions following a massive earthquake in 2010. [56] Fictional planet-wide megacities (ecumenopoleis) include Trantor in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series of books and Coruscant (population 2 trillion) in the Star Wars universe. [57]

See also

Notes

    Related Research Articles

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    References

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