New Urbanism

Last updated
Seaside, Florida Seaside, Florida.jpg
Seaside, Florida

New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has gradually influenced many aspects of real estate development, urban planning, and municipal land-use strategies. New urbanism attempts to address the ills associated with urban sprawl and post-Second World War suburban development. [1]

Contents

New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design practices that were prominent until the rise of the automobile prior to World War II; it encompasses ten basic principles such as traditional neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented development (TOD). [2] These ideas can all be circled back to two concepts: building a sense of community and the development of ecological practices. [3]

Market Street, Celebration, Florida Celebration fl.JPG
Market Street, Celebration, Florida

The organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in 1993. Its foundational text is the Charter of the New Urbanism, which begins:

We advocate the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the following principles: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice. [4]

New Urbanists support regional planning for open space; context-appropriate architecture and planning; adequate provision of infrastructure such as sporting facilities, libraries and community centres; [5] and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion by encouraging the population to ride bikes, walk, or take the train. They also hope that this set up will increase the supply of affordable housing and rein in suburban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the re-development of brownfield land. The ten Principles of Intelligent Urbanism also phrase guidelines for new urbanist approaches.

Architecturally, new urbanist developments are often accompanied by New Classical, postmodern, or vernacular styles, although that is not always the case. The movement's principles are reflected in the field of Complementary architecture.

Background

New Broad Street, Baldwin Park, Florida Downtown baldwin park.JPG
New Broad Street, Baldwin Park, Florida

Until the mid 20th century, cities were generally organized into and developed around mixed-use walkable neighborhoods. For most of human history this meant a city that was entirely walkable, although with the development of mass transit the reach of the city extended outward along transit lines, allowing for the growth of new pedestrian communities such as streetcar suburbs. But with the advent of cheap automobiles and favorable government policies, attention began to shift away from cities and towards ways of growth more focused on the needs of the car. [6] Specifically, after World War II urban planning largely centered around the use of municipal zoning ordinances to segregate residential from commercial and industrial development, and focused on the construction of low-density single-family detached houses as the preferred housing format for the growing middle class. The physical separation of where people live from where they work, shop and frequently spend their recreational time, together with low housing density, which often drastically reduced population density relative to historical norms, made automobiles indispensable for practical transportation and contributed to the emergence of a culture of automobile dependency.

Beach Drive, St. Petersburg, Florida St petersburg florida downtown.JPG
Beach Drive, St. Petersburg, Florida

This new system of development, with its rigorous separation of uses, arose after World War II and became known as "conventional suburban development" [7] or pejoratively as urban sprawl. The majority of U.S. citizens now live in suburban communities built in the last fifty years, and automobile use per capita has soared.

Celebration, FL Post Office, designed by architect Michael Graves Post office in celebration.JPG
Celebration, FL Post Office, designed by architect Michael Graves

Although New Urbanism as an organized movement would only arise later, a number of activists and thinkers soon began to criticize the modernist planning techniques being put into practice. Social philosopher and historian Lewis Mumford criticized the "anti-urban" development of post-war America. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, written by Jane Jacobs in the early 1960s, called for planners to reconsider the single-use housing projects, large car-dependent thoroughfares, and segregated commercial centers that had become the "norm". The French architect François Spoerry has developed in the 60's the concept of "soft architecture" that he applied to Port Grimaud, a new marina in south of France. The success of this project had a considerable influence and led to many new projects of soft architecture like Port Liberté in New Jersey or Le Plessis-Robinson in France.[ citation needed ]

Rooted in these early dissenters, the ideas behind New Urbanism began to solidify in the 1970s and 80s with the urban visions and theoretical models for the reconstruction of the "European" city proposed by architect Leon Krier, and the pattern language theories of Christopher Alexander. The term "new urbanism" itself started being used in this context in the mid-1980s, [8] [9] but it wasn't until the early 1990s that it was commonly written as a proper noun capitalized. [10]

In 1991, the Local Government Commission, a private nonprofit group in Sacramento, California, invited architects Peter Calthorpe, Michael Corbett, Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Moule, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Stefanos Polyzoides, and Daniel Solomon to develop a set of community principles for land use planning. Named the Ahwahnee Principles (after Yosemite National Park's Ahwahnee Hotel), the commission presented the principles to about one hundred government officials in the fall of 1991, at its first Yosemite Conference for Local Elected Officials. [11]

Calthorpe, Duany, Moule, Plater-Zyberk, Polyzoides, and Solomon founded the Chicago-based Congress for the New Urbanism in 1993. The CNU has grown to more than three thousand members, and is the leading international organization promoting New Urbanist design principles. It holds annual Congresses in various U.S. cities.

In 2009, co-founders Elizabeth Moule, Hank Dittmar, and Stefanos Polyzoides authored the Canons of Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism to clarify and detail the relationship between New Urbanism and sustainability. The Canons are "a set of operating principles for human settlement that reestablish the relationship between the art of building, the making of community, and the conservation of our natural world". They promote the use of passive heating and cooling solutions, the use of locally obtained materials, and in general, a "culture of permanence". [12]

New Urbanism is a broad movement that spans a number of different disciplines and geographic scales. And while the conventional approach to growth remains dominant, New Urbanist principles have become increasingly influential in the fields of planning, architecture, and public policy. [13]

Defining elements

Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, two of the founders of the Congress for the New Urbanism, observed mixed-use streetscapes with corner shops, front porches, and a diversity of well-crafted housing while living in one of the Victorian neighborhoods of New Haven, Connecticut. They and their colleagues observed patterns including the following:

A park in Celebration, Florida Celebration fl park.JPG
A park in Celebration, Florida
Great King St, New Town, Edinburgh Great King St., New Town.jpg
Great King St, New Town, Edinburgh

Terminology

A Mediterranean Revival house in Celebration, Florida House in celebration.JPG
A Mediterranean Revival house in Celebration, Florida

Several terms are viewed either as synonymous, included in, or overlapping with the New Urbanism. The terms Neotraditional Development [14] or Traditional Neighborhood Development are often associated with the New Urbanism. These terms generally refer to complete New Towns or new neighborhoods, often built in traditional architectural styles, as opposed to smaller infill and redevelopment projects. The term Traditional Urbanism has also been used to describe the New Urbanism by those who object to the "new" moniker. The term "Walkable Urbanism" was proposed as an alternative term by developer and professor Christopher Leinberger. [15] Many debate whether Smart Growth and the New Urbanism are the same or whether substantive differences exist between the two; overlap exists in membership and content between the two movements. Placemaking is another term that is often used to signify New Urbanist efforts or those of like-minded groups. The term Transit-Oriented Development is sometimes cited as being coined by prominent New Urbanist Peter Calthorpe [16] and is heavily promoted by New Urbanists. The term sustainable development is sometimes associated with the New Urbanism as there has been an increasing focus on the environmental benefits of New Urbanism associated with the rise of the term sustainability in the 2000s, however, this has caused some confusion as the term is also used by the United Nations and Agenda 21 to include human development issues (e.g., developing country) that exceed the scope of land development intended to be addressed by the New Urbanism or Sustainable Urbanism. The term "livability" or "livable communities" was popular under the Obama administration, [17] though it dates back at least to the mid-1990s when the term was used by the Local Government Commission. [18]

A Key West style house in Baldwin Park, Florida House in baldwin park.JPG
A Key West style house in Baldwin Park, Florida

Planning magazine discussed the proliferation of "urbanisms" in an article in 2011 titled "A Short Guide to 60 of the Newest Urbanisms". [19] Several New Urbanists have popularized terminology under the umbrella of the New Urbanism including Sustainable Urbanism and Tactical Urbanism [20] (of which Guerrilla Urbanism can be viewed as a subset). The term Tactical Urbanism was coined by Frenchman Michel de Certau in 1968 and revived in 2011 by New Urbanist Mike Lydon and the co-authors of the Tactical Urbanism Guide. [21] In 2011 Andres Duany authored a book that used the term Agrarian Urbanism to describe an agriculturally-focused subset of New Urbanist town design. [22] In 2013 a group of New Urbanists led by CNU co-founder Andres Duany began a research project under the banner of Lean Urbanism [23] which purported to provide a bridge between Tactical Urbanism and the New Urbanism.

Other terms have surfaced in reaction to the New Urbanism intended to provide a contrast, alternative to, or a refinement of the New Urbanism. Some of these terms include Everyday Urbanism by Harvard Professor Margaret Crawford, John Chase, and John Kaliski, [24] Ecological Urbanism, and True Urbanism by architect Bernard Zyscovich. Landscape urbanism was popularized by Charles Waldheim who explicitly defined it as in opposition to the New Urbanism in his lectures at Harvard University. [25] Landscape Urbanism and its Discontents, edited by Andres Duany and Emily Talen, specifically addressed the tension between these two views of urbanism. [26]

Organizations

New urbanist Sankt Eriksomradet quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s. (More photos) Sankt Eriksomradet 2014, 1.JPG
New urbanist Sankt Eriksområdet quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s. (More photos)

The primary organization promoting the New Urbanism in the United States is the Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU). The Congress for the New Urbanism is the leading organization promoting walkable, mixed-use neighborhood development, sustainable communities and healthier living conditions. CNU members promote the principles of CNU's Charter and the hallmarks of New Urbanism, including:

The CNU has met annually since 1993 when they held their first general meeting in Alexandria, Virginia, with approximately one hundred attendees. By 2008 the Congress was drawing two to three thousand attendees to the annual meetings.

The CNU began forming local and regional chapters circa 2004 with the founding of the New England and Florida Chapters. [27] By 2011 there were 16 official chapters and interest groups for 7 more. As of 2013, Canada hosts two full CNU Chapters, one in Ontario (CNU Ontario), and one in British Columbia (Cascadia) which also includes a portion of the north-west US states.

While the CNU has international participation in Canada, sister organizations have been formed in other areas of the world including the Council for European Urbanism (CEU), [28] the Movement for Israeli Urbanism (MIU) and the Australian Council for the New Urbanism.

By 2002 chapters of Students for the New Urbanism began appearing at universities including the Savannah College of Art and Design, University of Georgia, University of Notre Dame, and the University of Miami. In 2003, a group of younger professionals and students met at the 11th Congress in Washington, D.C. and began developing a "Manifesto of the Next Generation of New Urbanists". The Next Generation of New Urbanists held their first major session the following year at the 12th meeting of the CNU in Chicago in 2004. The group has continued meeting annually as of 2014 with a focus on young professionals, students, new member issues, and ensuring the flow of fresh ideas and diverse viewpoints within the New Urbanism and the CNU. Spinoff projects of the Next Generation of the New Urbanists include the Living Urbanism publication first published in 2008 and the first Tactical Urbanism Guide. [29]

The CNU has spawned publications and research groups. Publications include the New Urban News and the New Town Paper. Research groups have formed independent nonprofits to research individual topics such as the Form-Based Codes Institute, The National Charrette Institute and the Center for Applied Transect Studies.

In the United Kingdom New Urbanist and European urbanism principles are practised and taught by The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment.

Around the world, other organisations promote New Urbanism as part of their remit, such as INTBAU, A Vision of Europe, Council for European Urbanism, and others.

The CNU and other national organizations have also formed partnerships with like-minded groups. Organizations under the banner of Smart Growth also often work with the Congress for the New Urbanism. In addition the CNU has formed partnerships on specific projects such as working with the United States Green Building Council and the Natural Resources Defense Council to develop the LEED for Neighborhood Development standards, and with the Institute of Transportation Engineers to develop a Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) Design manual.

Film

The New Urbanism Film Festival [30] was held in 2013 and 2014 in Los Angeles to highlight films and short films about the New Urbanism and related topics. The 2011 film Urbanized by Gary Hustwit featured then CNU Board Chair Ellen Dunham-Jones [31] and other urban thinkers on the international story of urbanization including the New Urbanist efforts in the United States.

The 2004 documentary The End of Suburbia: Oil Depletion and the Collapse of the American Dream argues that the depletion of oil will result in the demise of the sprawl-type development. [32]

Criticism

New Urbanism has drawn both praise and criticism from all parts of the political spectrum. [33] It has been criticized both for being a social engineering scheme and for failing to address social equity and for both restricting private enterprise and for being a deregulatory force in support of private sector developers.

Journalist Alex Marshall has decried New Urbanism as essentially a marketing scheme that repackages conventional suburban sprawl behind a façade of nostalgic imagery and empty, aspirational slogans. [34] In a 1996 article in Metropolis magazine, Marshall denounced New Urbanism as "a grand fraud". [35] The attack continued in numerous articles, including an opinion column in the Washington Post in September of the same year, [36] and in Marshall's first book, How Cities Work: Suburbs, Sprawl, and the Roads Not Taken. [37]

Critics have asserted that the effectiveness claimed for the New Urbanist solution of mixed income developments lacks statistical evidence. [38] Independent studies have supported the idea of addressing poverty through mixed-income developments, [39] [40] but the argument that New Urbanism produces such diversity has been challenged from findings from one community in Canada. [41]

Some parties have criticized the New Urbanism for being too accommodating of motor vehicles and not going far enough to promote walking, cycling, and public transport. The Charter of the New Urbanism states that "communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car". [4] Some critics suggest that communities should exclude the car altogether in favor of car-free developments. Steve Melia proposes the idea of "filtered permeability" (see Permeability (spatial and transport planning)) which increases the connectivity of the pedestrian and cycling network resulting in a time and convenience advantage over drivers while still limiting the connectivity of the vehicular network and thus maintaining the safety benefits of cul de sacs and horseshoe loops in resistance to property crime. [42]

In response to critiques of a lack of evidence for the New Urbanism's claimed environmental benefits, a rating system for neighborhood environmental design, LEED-ND, was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, Natural Resources Defense Council, and the Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU), [43] to quantify the sustainability of New Urbanist neighborhood design. [44] New Urbanist and board member of CNU Doug Farr has taken a step further and coined Sustainable Urbanism, which combines New Urbanism and LEED-ND to create walkable, transit-served urbanism with high performance buildings and infrastructure.

Criticizing the lack of evidence for low greenhouse gas emissions results, Susan Subak [45] has pointed out that while New Urbanism emphasizes walkability and building variety, it is the scale of dwellings, especially the absence of large houses that may determine successful, low carbon outcomes at the community level.

New Urbanism has been criticized for being a form of centrally planned, large-scale development, "instead of allowing the initiative for construction to be taken by the final users themselves". [46] It has been criticized for asserting universal principles of design instead of attending to local conditions. [47]

Examples

United States

New Urbanism is having a growing influence on how and where metropolitan regions choose to grow. At least fourteen large-scale planning initiatives are based on the principles of linking transportation and land-use policies, and using the neighborhood as the fundamental building block of a region.[ citation needed ] Miami, Florida has adopted the most ambitious New Urbanist-based zoning code reform yet undertaken by a major U.S. city. [48]

More than six hundred new towns, villages, and neighborhoods, following New Urbanist principles, have been planned or are currently under construction in the U.S. Hundreds of new, small-scale, urban and suburban infill projects are under way to reestablish walkable streets and blocks. In Maryland and several other states, New Urbanist principles are an integral part of smart growth legislation.

In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) adopted the principles of the New Urbanism in its multibillion-dollar program to rebuild public housing projects nationwide. New Urbanists have planned and developed hundreds of projects in infill locations. Most were driven by the private sector, but many, including HUD projects, used public money.

Prospect New Town

Founded in the mid-1990s, Prospect New Town is Colorado's first full-scale New Urbanist community. [49] Developer Kiki Wallace worked the firm of Duany Plater Zyberk & Company to develop the 32-acre (130,000 m2) neighborhood that was formerly his family's tree farm. Currently in its final phase of development, the neighborhood is intended to have a population of approximately 2,000 people in 585 units on 340 lots. The development includes a town center interwoven into the center of the residential area, with businesses ranging from restaurants to professional offices. The streets are oriented to maximize the view of the mountains, and the traditional town center is no more than five minutes on foot from any place in the neighborhood.

University Place in Memphis

In 2010 University Place in Memphis became the second only U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) LEED certified neighborhood. LEED ND (neighborhood development) standards integrates principles of smart growth, urbanism and green building and were developed through a collaboration between USGBC, Congress for the New Urbanism, and the Natural Resources Defense Council. University Place, developed by McCormack Baron Salazar, is a 405-unit, 30-acre (120,000 m2), mixed-income, mixed use, multigenerational, HOPE VI grant community that revitalized the severely distressed Lamar Terrace public housing site. [50]

The Cotton District

The Cotton District in Starkville, Mississippi was the first New Urbanist development, begun in 1968 long before the New Urbanism movement was organized. [51] The District borders Mississippi State University, and consists mostly of residential rental units for college students along with restaurants, bars and retail. The Cotton District got its name because it is built in the vicinity of an old cotton mill.

Seaside

Seaside, Florida, the first fully New Urbanist town, began development in 1981 on 80 acres (324,000 m²) of Florida Panhandle coastline. It was featured on the cover of the Atlantic Monthly in 1988, when only a few streets were completed, and has become internationally famous for its architecture, and the quality of its streets and public spaces. [52]

Seaside is now a tourist destination and appeared in the 1998 movie The Truman Show . Lots sold for $15,000 in the early 1980s, and slightly over a decade later, the price had escalated to about $200,000. Today, most lots sell for more than $1 million, and some houses top $5 million.[ citation needed ]

Mueller Community

The Mueller Community is located on the 700-acre (2.8 km2) site of the former Robert Mueller Municipal Airport in Austin, Texas, which closed in 1999. Per the developer, the value of the Mueller development upon completion will be $1.3 billion, and will comprise 4.2 million square feet of non-residential development, 650,000-square-foot (60,000 m2) of retail space, 4,600 homes, and 140-acre (57 ha) of open space. An estimated 10,000 permanent jobs within the development will have been created by the time it is complete. The Mueller Community also has more electric cars per capita than any other neighborhood in the United States – a fact partially attributable to an incentive program.

Stapleton

The site of the former Stapleton International Airport in Denver and Aurora, Colorado, closed in 1995, is now being redeveloped by Forest City Enterprises. [53] Stapleton is expected to be home to at least 30,000 residents, six schools and 2 million square feet (180,000 m²) of retail. Construction began in 2001. [54] [55] Northfield Stapleton, one of the development's major retail centers, recently opened.

San Antonio

In 1997 San Antonio, Texas, as part of a new master plan, created new regulations called the Unified Development Code (UDC), largely influenced by New Urbanism. One feature of the UDC is six unique land development patterns that can be applied to certain districts: Conservation Development, Commercial Center Development, Office or Institutional Campus Development, Commercial Retrofit Development, Tradition Neighborhood Development, Transit Oriented Development. Each district has specific standards and design regulation. The six development patterns were created to reflect existing development patterns. [56]

Mountain House

Mountain House, one of the latest New Urbanist projects in the United States, is a new town located near Tracy, California. Construction started in 2001. Mountain House will consist of 12 villages, each with its own elementary school, park, and commercial area. In addition, a future train station, transit center and bus system are planned for Mountain House.

Mesa del Sol

Mesa del Sol, New Mexico—the largest New Urbanist project in the United States—was designed by architect Peter Calthorpe, and is being developed by Forest City Enterprises. Mesa del Sol may take five decades to reach full build-out, at which time it should have 38,000 residential units, housing a population of 100,000; a 1,400-acre (5.7 km2) industrial office park; four town centers; an urban center; and a downtown that would provide a twin city within Albuquerque.

I'On

Located in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, I'On is a traditional neighborhood development, mixed with a new urbanism styled architecture, reflecting on the building designs of the nearby downtown areas of Charleston, South Carolina. Founded on April 30, 1995, I'On was designed by the town planning firms of Dover, Kohl & Partners and Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company, and currently holds over 750 single family homes. Features of the community include extensive sidewalks, shared public greens and parks, trails and a grid of narrow, traffic calming streets. Most homes are required to have a front porch of not less than eight feet (2.46 m) in depth. Floor heights of 10 feet (3.1 m), raised foundations and smaller lot sizes give the community a dense, vertical feel.

Haile Plantation

Haile Plantation, Florida, is a 2,600-household (1,700 acres (6.9 km2)) development of regional impact southwest of the city of Gainesville, within Alachua County. Haile Village Center is a traditional neighborhood center within the development. It was originally started in 1978 and completed in 2007. In addition to the 2,600 homes the neighborhood consists of two merchant centers (one a New England narrow street village and the other a chain grocery strip mall). There are also two public elementary schools and an 18-hole golf course.

Celebration, Florida

In June 1996, the Walt Disney Company unveiled its 5,000 acre (20 km²) town of Celebration, near Orlando, Florida. Celebration opened its downtown in October 1996, relying heavily on the experiences of Seaside, whose downtown was nearly complete. Disney shuns the label New Urbanism, calling Celebration simply a "town".

Celebration's Downtown has become one of the area's most popular tourist destinations making the community a showcase for New Urbanism as a prime example of the creation of a "sense of place". [57]

Jersey City

The construction of the Hudson Bergen Light Rail in Hudson County, New Jersey has spurred transit-oriented development. In Jersey City, two projects are planned to transform brownfield sites, both of which have required remediation of toxic waste by previous owners. Bayfront, once site of a Honeywell plant is a 100 acres (0.40 km2) site on the Hackensack River, and is nearby the planned West Campus of New Jersey City University. Canal Crossing, named for the former Morris Canal, was once partially owned by PPG Industries, and is a 117 acres (0.47 km2) site west of Liberty State Park.

Old York Village, Chesterfield Township, New Jersey

The sparsely developed agricultural Township of Chesterfield in New Jersey covers approximately 21.61 square miles (56.0 km2) and has made farmland preservation a priority since the 1970s. Chesterfield has permanently preserved more than 7,000 acres (28 km2) of farmland through state and county programs and a township-wide transfer of development credits program that directs future growth to a designated "receiving area" known as Old York Village. Old York Village is a neo-traditional, new urbanism town on 560 acres (2.3 km2) incorporating a variety of housing types, neighborhood commercial facilities, a new elementary school, civic uses, and active and passive open space areas with preserved agricultural land surrounding the planned village. Construction began in the early 2000s and a significant percentage of the community is now complete. Old York Village was the winner of the American Planning Association National Outstanding Planning Award in 2004. [58] [59] [60]

Civita

Civita is a sustainable, transit-oriented 230-acre (93 ha) master-planned village under development in the Mission Valley area of San Diego, California, United States. Located on a former quarry site, the urban-style village is organized around a community park that cascades down the terraced property. [61] Civita development plans call for 70-acre (28 ha) of parks and open space, 4,780 residences (including approximately 478 affordable units), an approximately 480,000-square-foot (45,000 m2) retail center, and 420,000-square-foot (39,000 m2) for an office/business campus. [62] [63]

Sudberry Properties, the developer of Civita, incorporated numerous green building practices in the Civita design. [64] In 2009, Civita achieved a Stage 1 Gold rating for the U.S. Green Building Council's 2009 LEED-ND (Neighborhood Development) pilot and received the California Governor's Environmental and Economic Leadership Award. [62] [65] In 2010, Civita was designated as a California Catalyst Community by the California Department of Housing and Community Development to support innovation and test sustainable strategies that reflect the interdependence of environmental, economic, and community health. [66]

Del Mar Station

Del Mar Station, which won a Congress for the New Urbanism Charter Award in 2003, [67] is a transit-oriented development surrounding a prominent Metro Rail stop on the Gold Line, which connects Los Angeles and Pasadena. Located at the southern edge of downtown Pasadena, it serves as a gateway to the city with 347 apartments, out of which 15% are affordable units. Approximately 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) of retail is linked with a network of public plazas, paseos and private courtyards. The 3.4-acre (14,000 m2), $77 million project sits above a 1,200-car multi-level subterranean parking garage, with 600 spaces dedicated to transit. The light rail right of way, detailed as a public street, bisects the site. It was designed by Moule & Polyzoides. [68] [69]

Norfolk VA East Beach

Norfolk, VA, East Beach. designed and built in the style of traditional Atlantic coastal villages. The Master Plan for East Beach was developed in the style of “New Urbanism” by world renowned TND master planners Duany Plater-Zyberk. Newly constructed homes reflect traditional classic detail and proportion of Tidewater Virginia homes, and are built with materials that will withstand the test of time and forces of Mother Nature and the Chesapeake Bay. [70]

Other countries

New Urbanism is closely related to the Urban village movement in Europe. They both occurred at similar times and share many of the same principles although urban villages has an emphasis on traditional city planning. In Europe many brown-field sites have been redeveloped since the 1980s following the models of the traditional city neighbourhoods rather than Modernist models. One well-publicized example is Poundbury in England, a suburban extension to the town of Dorchester, which was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall under the overview of Prince Charles. The original masterplan was designed by Leon Krier. A report carried out after the first phase of construction found a high degree of satisfaction by residents, although the aspirations to reduce car dependency had not been successful. Rising house prices and a perceived premium have made the open market housing unaffordable for many local people. [71]

The Council for European Urbanism (CEU), formed in 2003, shares many of the same aims as the U.S.'s New Urbanists. CEU's Charter is a development of the Congress for the New Urbanism Charter revised and reorganised to relate better to European conditions. An Australian organisation, Australian Council for New Urbanism has since 2001 run conferences and events to promote New Urbanism in that country. A New Zealand Urban Design Protocol was created by the Ministry for the Environment in 2005.

There are many developments around the world that follow New Urbanist principles to a greater or lesser extent:

Europe

  • Le Plessis-Robinson, a 21st-century example of neo-traditionalism, [72] in the south-west of Paris. This city is in the process of transforming itself, destroying old modern blocklike buildings and replacing them with traditional buildings and houses in one of the biggest worldwide projects with Val d'Europe. In 2008 the city was nominated best architectural project of the European Union. [73]
  • Poundbury, in Dorset, England, is a neotraditionalist urban extension focussed on high quality urban realm and the expression of traditional modes of urban or village life. [74]
  • Tornagrain, Between Inverness and Nairn, Scotland, The design is based on the architectural and planning traditions of the Highlands and the rest of Scotland. [75]
  • Val d'Europe, east of Paris, France. Developed by Disneyland Resort Paris, this town is a kind of European counterpart to Walt Disney World Celebration City.
  • Jakriborg, in Southern Sweden, is a recent example of the New Urbanist movement.
  • Brandevoort, in Helmond, in the Netherlands, is a new example of the New Urbanist movement.
  • Sankt Eriksområdet quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s.
  • Other developments can be found at Heulebrug, part of Knokke-Heist, in Belgium, and Fonti di Matilde in San Bartolomeo (outside of Reggio Emilia), [76] Italy.
  • Kartanonkoski, in Vantaa, Finland, is the only example of neotraditional architecture in Finland implemented on a larger scale. The area has around 4000 inhabitants and its architecture has been mainly influenced by Nordic Classicism.

Americas

Asia

Traffic along Lornie Road, Singapore. Traffic along Lornie Road, Singapore - 20130728.JPG
Traffic along Lornie Road, Singapore.

Africa

There are several such developments in South Africa. The most notable is Melrose Arch in Johannesburg. Triple Point is a comparable mixed-use development in East London, in Eastern Cape province. The development, announced in 2007, comprises 30 hectares. It is made up of three apartment complexes together with over 30 residential sites as well as 20,000 sq m of residential and office space. The development is valued at over R2 billion ($250 million). [78] There have been cases where market forces of urban decay are confused with new urbanism in African cities. [79] This has led to a form of suburban mixed-use development that does not promote walkability. [80] [81]

Australia

Most new developments on the edges of Australia's major cities are master planned, often guided expressly by the principles of New Urbanism. The relationship between housing, activity centres, the transport network and key social infrastructure (sporting facilities, libraries, community centres etc.) is defined at structure planning stage. [5]

Another important factor or principle of New Urbanism that guides Australia's major cities is how good their foot circulation seems to be which is guided by the wayfinding systems that are implemented. Kenneth B. Hall, Jr. and Gerald A. Porterfield said in their book, "Community by Design," the way to gain good circulation is to take some thoughtful consideration to things like wayfinding, sight lines, transition, visual clues, and reference points. [83] Circulation design should work to create an interesting and informative system that utilizes subtle elements as well as technical ones. [83] City of Port Philip, Australia, is a good example of wayfinding where they have come up with a comprehensive pedestrian signage system, specifically for their local areas of St Kilda, South Melbourne and Port Melbourne. [84] [85] The city's wayfinding system consists of 26 individually designed panels that are placed on some major streets such as St Kilda and St Kilda East, linking St Kilda Junction and Balaclava Station to the foreshore via Fitzroy, Carlisle and Acland Streets. [84] [85] City of Port Philip also created directional signage systems that makes use of the already existing street furniture such as trash cans to help provide for 130 directional indicators across Port Melbourne. [84] [85]

20-minute neighbourhoods

Melbourne followed up a 2014 plan [86] by launching 20-minute neighbourhoods in January 2018, aiming to provide for most daily needs within a 20-minute walk from home, together with safe cycling and public transport options. [87] Another definition has used the time taken to cycle, or take a bus. [88] In Melbourne the concept was initiated in the suburbs of Croydon South, Strathmore, and Sunshine West. [89] The concept has since expanded to other cities, such as Singapore [90] and Hamilton in New Zealand. [91] Critics have pointed out that Melbourne's plan excludes jobs and that a previous target for public transport use has been shelved. [92] The concept has been equated with localism. [86]

See also

Related Research Articles

Smart growth

Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in compact walkable urban centers to avoid sprawl. It also advocates compact, transit-oriented, walkable, bicycle-friendly land use, including neighborhood schools, complete streets, and mixed-use development with a range of housing choices. The term "smart growth" is particularly used in North America. In Europe and particularly the UK, the terms "compact city", "urban densification" or "urban intensification" have often been used to describe similar concepts, which have influenced government planning policies in the UK, the Netherlands and several other European countries.

Urban design

Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns, and villages and planning for the provision of municipal services to residents and visitors. Although it deals with issues of a larger scale than architecture, it cannot be understood as a wholly separated field of research and design, since the quality of one depends on the quality of the other. In fact, it is this very interdependency, which has been termed relational design by Barcelona-based architect Enric Massip-Bosch, which makes urban design and architecture inextricably linked in many university education programs, especially in Europe. This tendency towards reintegration in architectural studies is also gaining momentum in the USA.

DPZ CoDesign is an architecture and town planning firm based in Miami, Florida, founded in 1980 by the husband-and-wife team of Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. The firm is one of the preeminent advocates of New Urbanist town planning in the United States and other countries, having completed designs for over 300 new and existing communities. In addition to Duany and Plater-Zyberk, DPZ's Partners include Galina Tachieva, Marina Khoury, Senen M. A. Antonio and Matthew J. Lambert.

Seaside, Florida Unincorporated community in Florida, United States

Seaside is an unincorporated master-planned community on the Florida panhandle in Walton County, between Panama City Beach and Destin. One of the first communities in America designed on the principles of New Urbanism, the town has become the topic of slide lectures in architectural schools and in housing-industry magazines, and is visited by design professionals from all over the United States. The town rose to global fame as being the main filming location of the movie The Truman Show. On April 18, 2012, the American Institute of Architects's Florida Chapter placed the community on its list of Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places as the Seaside – New Urbanism Township.

Andrés Duany American architect and urban planner

Andrés Duany is an American architect, an urban planner, and a founder of the Congress for the New Urbanism.

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk American architect and urban planner

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk is an American architect and urban planner based in Miami, Florida. She is considered to be a representative of the New Urbanism school of urban planning, and an advocate of the New Classical school of architecture. She is also a co-founder and principal of the firm of Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company (DPZ).

Kentlands, Gaithersburg, Maryland Neighborhood of Gaithersburg in Montgomery, Maryland, United States

Kentlands is a neighborhood of the U.S. city of Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Prospect New Town

Prospect New Town is a New Urbanist housing development located on the southern edge of the city of Longmont in Boulder County, Colorado, in the United States. The first full-scale new urbanist new development in Colorado, it was developed starting in the mid-1990s by Kiki Wallace and designed by the firm of Duany Plater Zyberk & Company, who also designed the new urbanist communities of Seaside, Florida, and Kentlands in Gaithersburg, Maryland. As of 2009, the project is in its sixth phase of development. It is intended to have a population of approximately 2,000 people in 585 units on 340 lots.

The urban-to-ruraltransect is an urban planning model created by New Urbanist Andrés Duany. The transect defines a series of zones that transition from sparse rural farmhouses to the dense urban core. Each zone is fractal in that it contains a similar transition from the edge to the center of the neighborhood. The transect is an important part of the New Urbanism and smart growth movements. Duany's firm DPZ has embodied the transect philosophy into their SmartCode generic planning code for municipal ordinances.

SmartCode is a unified land development ordinance template for planning and urban design. Originally developed by Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company, this open source program is a model form-based unified land development ordinance designed to create walkable neighborhoods across the full spectrum of human settlement, from the most rural to the most urban, incorporating a transect of character and intensity within each. It folds zoning, subdivision regulations, urban design, and basic architectural standards into one compact document. Because the SmartCode enables community vision by coding specific outcomes that are desired in particular places, it is meant to be locally calibrated by professional planners, architects, and attorneys.

The Local Government Commission (LGC) is a non-profit organization in Sacramento, California dedicated to local environmental sustainability, economic prosperity and social equity. LCG has worked for over 35 years to support local policymakers on topics involving climate change, energy, water and community design. The LGC approach includes connecting leaders, advancing policies and implementing solutions. They do this through the creation of programs to connect local leaders and work on policy advancement by providing technical assistance and advice to local jurisdictions. Some of the specific services provided by the LGC including forums, workshops, training programs, presentations, design charrettes, and community image surveys. The LCG is led by a board of fifteen elected California city and county elected officials and the total membership of the nonprofit encompasses over seven hundred local leaders from around the California and the greater U.S.

Crawford Square is a New Urbanist style housing development located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was a project of the city's Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh.

Jaime Correa (architect) American architect

Jaime Correa is an urban planner, architect, and professor at the University of Miami. Correa is a respected authority in the fields of architecture, urban design, and sustainable development. He is the founding principal of Jaime Correa and Associates, the Miami-based design firm, as well as a former founding partner of several other New Urbanism firms in the State of Florida. He is one of the 14 architects and urban planners who instituted the New Urbanism movement in America and one of its most important representatives and critics in Latin America. He held the Knight Professorship in Community Building at the University of Miami for seven consecutive years. He was responsible for teaching and coordinating the Master in Urban Design and the graduate program in Suburb and Town Design at the School of Architecture, where he is currently an Associate Professor in Practice.

Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) refers to the development of a complete neighborhood or town using traditional town planning principles. TND may occur in infill settings and involve adaptive reuse of existing buildings, but often involves all-new construction on previously undeveloped land. To qualify as a TND, a project should include a range of housing types, a network of well-connected streets and blocks, humane public spaces, and have amenities such as stores, schools, and places of worship within walking distance of residences. TND is limited to the scale of neighborhood or town, and should not be confused with New Urbanism, which encompasses all scales of planning and development, from building to region. TND projects incorporate many different architectural styles and are not exclusively traditional in aesthetic. An example of a TND known for modern style as opposed to neotraditional style is Prospect New Town. An example of neotraditional style is Baxter Village in Fort Mill, SC.

Sustainable urbanism

Sustainable urbanism is both the study of cities and the practices to build them (urbanism), that focuses on promoting their long term viability by reducing consumption, waste and harmful impacts on people and place while enhancing the overall well being of both people and place. Well being includes the physical, ecological, economic, social, health and equity factors, among others, that comprise cities and their populations. In the context of contemporary urbanism, the term cities refers to several scales of human settlements from towns to cities, metropolises and mega-city regions that includes their peripheries / suburbs / exurbs. Sustainability is a key component to professional practice in urban planning and urban design along with its related disciplines landscape architecture, architecture, and civil and environmental engineering. Green urbanism and ecological urbanism are other common terms that are similar to sustainable urbanism, however they can be construed as focusing more on the natural environment and ecosystems and less on economic and social aspects. Also related to sustainable urbanism are the practices of land development called Sustainable development, which is the process of physically constructing sustainable buildings, as well as the practices of urban planning called smart growth or growth management, which denote the processes of planning, designing, and building urban settlements that are more sustainable than if they were not planned according to sustainability criteria and principles.

Moule & Polyzoides, Architects and Urbanists is an architecture and urban planning firm based out of Pasadena, CA founded in 1990 by partners Elizabeth Moule & Stefanos Polyzoides.

Las Catalinas is a beach town recently developed along the shores of the Pacific Ocean in the Guanacaste Province of northwest Costa Rica. Envisioned as a compact, car-free, and fully walkable beach town, Las Catalinas was founded in 2006 by Charles Brewer (businessman) to foster a way of life that aims to be healthy, sustainable, fulfilling, and fun. Is it based on the principles of New Urbanism.

Urban Design Associates is an international urban design and architecture firm headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Jeff Speck is an American city planner, writer, and lecturer who is the principal at the urban design and consultancy firm, Speck & Associates. He has authored or co-authored several books on urban planning, including his 2012 book, Walkable City: How Downtown Saves America, One Step at a Time. He is an advocate for New Urbanism and more "walkable" cities and has given TED Talks on the subjects.

References

  1. Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City . Routledge. pp.  491. ISBN   9780415252256.
  2. Kelbaugh, Douglas S. 2002. Repairing the American Metropolis: Common Place Revisited. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 161.
  3. "Urbanism Principles". www.newurbanism.org. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
  4. 1 2 "The Charter of the New Urbanism". 2015-04-20.
  5. 1 2 Wear, Andrew (16 February 2016). "Planning, Funding and Delivering Social Infrastructure in Australia's Outer Suburban Growth Areas". Urban Policy and Research. 34 (3): 284–297. doi:10.1080/08111146.2015.1099523. S2CID   155633165.
  6. Kunstler, James Howard. 1998. Home from nowhere: remaking our everyday world for the twenty-first Century. A Touchstone book. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p.28.
  7. David Gordon and Shayne Vipond: "Gross Density and New Urbanism: Comparing Conventional and New Urbanist Suburbs in Markham, Ontario". Journal of the American Planning Association, 1939-0130, Volume 71, Issue 1, 2005, pages 41–54
  8. Reid, Barton (1985). The New Urbanism as a Way of Life: The Relationship Between Inner City Revitalization in Canada and the Rise of the New Middle Class. ISBN   9780315148628 . Retrieved 2014-09-06.
  9. Meinig, Donald (1986). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2. Yale University Press. p. 255. ISBN   978-0-300-17394-9 . Retrieved 2014-09-06.
  10. Urban Design Update: Newsletter of the Institute for Urban Design, Volumes 7–15. Institute for Urban Design. 1991. Retrieved 2014-09-06.
  11. "Principles – Local Government Commission". Local Government Commission.
  12. The Canons of Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism Archived 2014-06-25 at the Wayback Machine |date=October 8, 2014
  13. Cozens, Paul Michael. 2008. New Urbanism, Crime and the Suburbs: A Review of the Evidence. Urban Policy and Research. 26(4):429–444.
  14. http://facweb.arch.ohio-state.edu/jnasar/crpinfo/research/NeoTradJPER2003.pdf%5B%5D
  15. Leinberger, Christopher (2009). The Option of Urbanism. District of Columbia: Island Press. ISBN   978-1-59726-137-1.
  16. "Does China's Urbanization Spell Doom or Salvation? Peter Calthorpe Weighs In ..." ArchDaily. 2013-08-02.
  17. "President Obama's Transportation Bill Prioritizes Livability, High-Speed Rail – Streetsblog USA". 2011-05-04.
  18. "About the Event". Archived from the original on 2014-10-23.
  19. Barnett, Jonathan (April 2014). "A Short Guide to 60 of the Newest Urbanisms". 77 (4): 19–21. Retrieved 23 October 2014.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. "The Official Guide to Tactical Urbanism". CityLab.
  21. "Tactical urbanism: Citizen projects go mainstream". 1 May 2014.
  22. Duany, Andres (2011). Garden Cities: Theory & Practice of Agrarian Urbanism. The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment. ISBN   978-1-906384-04-3.
  23. "Why Andrés Duany Is So Focused on Making 'Lean Urbanism' a Thing". CityLab.
  24. Chase, John (1999). Everyday Urbanism. The Monacelli Press. ISBN   978-1-885254-81-8.
  25. Mehaffy, Michael. "The Landscape Urbanism: Sprawl in a Pretty Green Dress?". Planetizen.
  26. Landscape Urbanism and its Discontents. New Society Publishers.
  27. "Home – Congress For The New Urbanism Florida Chapter". Congress For The New Urbanism Florida Chapter.
  28. "C.E.U. Council for European Urbanism".
  29. "Tactical Urbanism Materials Guide – Your resource for getting TU Projects done in your community!".
  30. "New Urbanism Film Festival".
  31. "About Urbanized". Gary Hustwit. Archived from the original on 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2014-10-22.
  32. http://www.endofsuburbia.com link to official website
  33. Sharifi, Ayyoob (September 2015). "From Garden City to Eco-urbanism: The quest for sustainable neighborhood development". Sustainable Cities and Society. 20: 1–16. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2015.09.002.
  34. See, e.g., Alex Marshall, "Building New Urbanism: Less Filling, But Not So Tasty", Builder Magazine, 30 November 1999, p. ___. Print; archived on Marshall's web site, http://www.alexmarshall.org/2006/08/02/building-new-urbanism-less-filling-but-not-so-tasty/. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  35. Alex Marshall, "Suburbs in Disguise", Metropolis Magazine, July 1996, p. 70, republished as "New Urbanism" in Busch, Akiko, ed., Design is ... Words, Things, People, Buildings and Places (New York:Metropolis Books/Princeton Architectural Press, 2002), p. 272; and as "Suburbs in Disguise" on Marshall's web site, http://www.alexmarshall.org/2007/08/31/suburbs-in-disguise/, retrieved 2 October 2013.
  36. Alex Marshall, "Putting Some 'City' Back In the Suburbs", Washington Post, 1 September 1996, p. C1, print, https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/growth/solutions/nokent.htm; retrieved 2 October 2013.
  37. U. of Texas Press 2000.
  38. Popkin, S. et al. (2004) A Decade of HOPE VI. The Urban Institute
  39. Goetz, Edward G. (2003) Clearing the Way: Deconcentrating the Poor in Urban America, The Urban Institute Press: Washington, DC
  40. Chaskin, R.J., Joseph, M.L., Webber, H.S. (2007) The Theoretical Basis for Addressing Poverty Through Mixed-Income Development. Urban Affairs Review 42 (3): 369–409.
  41. Grant, J. and K. Perrott (2009) Producing diversity in a new urbanism community. Town Planning Review 80 (3): 267–289.
  42. "Neighbourhoods Should be Made Permeable for Walking and Cycling but not for Cars", Steve Melia, Local Transport Today, January 23, 2008
  43. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-14. Retrieved 2014-10-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  44. "Getting to know LEED: Neighborhood Development". 1 January 2014.
  45. Subak, Susan (2018). "The Five-Ton Life". University of Nebraska Press.
  46. "A brief history of Peer-to-peer Urbanism", Nikos Salingaros and Federico Mena-Quintero, October 2010
  47. Grant, J. (2006) Planning the Good Community: New Urbanism in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge
  48. "Saving western Maryland before it's swallowed up". January 2005.
  49. "Story - Prospect New Town, Longmont, CO Homes". Prospect New Town. Retrieved 2019-06-24.
  50. Architecture Inc. Celebrates LEED-ND Certification of University Place in Memphis, Multi Housing News, May 18, 2011.
  51. The Town Paper, Vol. 4, No. 1 — December 2001/ January 2002
  52. Hamer, David (2000). "Learning from the past: Historic Districts and the New Urbanism in the United States". Planning Perspectives. 15 (2): 107–122. doi:10.1080/026654300364047. S2CID   144859077.
  53. Vincent, Roger and Groves, Martha (October 18, 2003) "L.A.'s Urban Model" Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 12 October 2016
  54. DSST Web site
  55. https://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-10-26-100-million_x.htm USA Today
  56. Greenburg, Ellen, 2004. Codifying New Urbanism: How to Reform Municipal Land Development Regulations. American Planning Association PAS Report Number 526
  57. Celebration Business Alliance, Sept 2010
  58. "Old York Village, Chesterfield Wins an American Planning Association Award for an Outstanding Project/ Program/ Tool"
  59. "Old York Village Implementing Smart Growth" Archived 2011-10-01 at the Wayback Machine
  60. "Master Plan Amendment: Township of Chesterfield" [ permanent dead link ]
  61. "Sand and gravel quarry becoming a sustainable, urban village". U-T San Diego. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  62. 1 2 Kirk, Patricia (2013-04-19). "Civita: San Diego's New City within the City". Urban Land Magazine. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  63. Leung, Lily. "Mission Valley's 230-acre Civita to debut". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  64. Newman, Morris (February 28, 2012). "Terraced Living in a San Diego Quarry". New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  65. McCandless, Catherine. "No Longer Just A Hole In The Ground" (PDF). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  66. "Catalyst Projects for California Sustainable Communities" (PDF). California Department of Housing and Community Development. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  67. "Charter Award Recipients", Congress for the New Urbanism (accessed 8 April 2015).
  68. "Del Mar Station Transit Village". Moule & Polyzoides. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  69. Del Mar Station Archived 2015-04-12 at the Wayback Machine , Congress for the New Urbanism, September 14, 2007.
  70. "East Beach Norfolk – Luxury Condos, Villas, Waterfront Homes – A Simple Life on the Chesapeake Bay" . Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  71. WATSON, G., BENTLEY, I., ROAF, S. and SMITH, P., 2004. Learning from Poundbury, Research for the West Dorset District Council and the Duchy of Cornwall. Oxford Brookes University.
  72. "Le Plessis-Robinson: A Model for Smart Growth". Planetizen: The independent resource for people passionate about planning and related fields.
  73. http://www.jeunesarchi.com%5B%5D
  74. "Behind the Façade of Prince Charles's Poundbury". Architect. 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  75. http://www.tornagrain.com/.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  76. "Bontempi Selected Works". WTTW Chicago Public Media – Television and Interactive. 2014-03-13.
  77. "Is new urbanism the answer to suburbia's dying communities?". Canadian Geographic. Archived from the original on 2010-11-17. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  78. ""EAST LONDON GETS OWN MELROSE ARCH", eProp.co.za, 12 December 2007". Archived from the original on 2015-04-27. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
  79. Muzenda, Archimedes (2017-07-12). "Debunking New Urbanism in Harare". African Urban Institute. Archived from the original on 2018-09-07.
  80. "In search of a new African urbanism | Infrastructure news". www.infrastructurene.ws. Retrieved 2018-09-07.
  81. Viana. "African City: towards a new paradigm –"chameleonic" urbanism for hybrid cities" (PDF). African Perspectives Conference Proceedings.
  82. Art, Screen. "Tullimbar Village :: Wollongong NSW :: Contemporary Lifestyle Community". www.tullimbarvillage.com.au. Archived from the original on 2015-05-01. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  83. 1 2 Hall, Kenneth B. (2001). Community by Design. Gerald A. Porterfield. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p. 97. doi:10.1036/007141794X.
  84. 1 2 3 "Case study - Wayfinding signage". www.victoriawalks.org.au. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
  85. 1 2 3 "City of Port Phillip: Wayfinding - Studio Binocular". Studio Binocular. 2013-02-09. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
  86. 1 2 Stanley, John; Stanley, Janet; Davis, Stephen (2015-03-23). Moving People: Connecting Neighbourhoods: The 20 minute city, Bus Industry Confederation Inc.
  87. Department of Environment, Land. "20 minute neighbourhoods". www.planmelbourne.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
  88. Stanley, John (2015-03-25). Connecting neighbourhoods: The 20 minute city. Bus and Coach Industry Policy paper 4.
  89. "20-Minute Neighbourhoods" (PDF). Victoria State Government. 2019.
  90. Stanley, John; Hansen, Roz. "People love the idea of 20-minute neighbourhoods. So why isn't it top of the agenda?". The Conversation. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
  91. "Hamilton Mode Shift Programme - 20 Minute City" (PDF). Hamilton City Council. March 2020.
  92. "Is the "20-minute city" mostly spin? – The Urbanist". blogs.crikey.com.au. Retrieved 2020-05-01.

Further reading