Sustainable development

Last updated

Sustainable development requires six central capacities. Sustainable development - 6 central capacities.png
Sustainable development requires six central capacities.

Sustainable development is an organizing principle for meeting human development goals while also sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be defined as development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. [2] It is interlinked with the normative concept of sustainability. UNESCO formulated a distinction between the two concepts as follows: "Sustainability is often thought of as a long-term goal (i.e. a more sustainable world), while sustainable development refers to the many processes and pathways to achieve it." [3]

Contents

While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived mostly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is also rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and 20th-century environmental concerns. As the concept of sustainable development developed, it has shifted its focus more towards the economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations.

The concept of sustainable development has been criticized from different angles. While some see it as paradoxical (or an oxymoron) and regard development as inherently unsustainable, others are disappointed in the lack of progress that has been achieved so far. [4] [5]

The UN-level Sustainable Development Goals (2015–2030) address the global challenges, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace, and justice.

Development of the concept

Sustainable development has its roots in ideas about sustainable forest management, which were developed in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. [6] [7] :6–16 In response to a growing awareness of the depletion of timber resources in England, John Evelyn argued, in his 1662 essay Sylva , that "sowing and planting of trees had to be regarded as a national duty of every landowner, in order to stop the destructive over- exploitation of natural resources." In 1713, Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a senior mining administrator in the service of Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony published Sylvicultura economics, a 400-page work on forestry. Building upon the ideas of Evelyn and French minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, von Carlowitz developed the concept of managing forests for sustained yield. [6] His work influenced others, including Alexander von Humboldt and Georg Ludwig Hartig, eventually leading to the development of the science of forestry. This, in turn, influenced people like Gifford Pinchot, the first head of the US Forest Service, whose approach to forest management was driven by the idea of wise use of resources, and Aldo Leopold whose land ethic was influential in the development of the environmental movement in the 1960s. [6] [7]

Following the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in 1962, the developing environmental movement drew attention to the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation. Kenneth E. Boulding, in his influential 1966 essay The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth , identified the need for the economic system to fit itself to the ecological system with its limited pools of resources. [7] Another milestone was the 1968 article by Garrett Hardin that popularized the term "tragedy of the commons". [8] One of the first uses of the term sustainable in the contemporary sense was by the Club of Rome in 1972 in its classic report on the Limits to Growth , written by a group of scientists led by Dennis and Donella Meadows of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Describing the desirable "state of global equilibrium", the authors wrote: "We are searching for a model output that represents a world system that is sustainable without sudden and uncontrolled collapse and capable of satisfying the basic material requirements of all of its people." [9] That year also saw the publication of the influential A Blueprint for Survival book. [10] [11]

In 1975, an MIT research group prepared ten days of hearings on "Growth and Its Implication for the Future" for the US Congress, the first hearings ever held on sustainable development. [12]

In 1980, the International Union for Conservation of Nature published a world conservation strategy that included one of the first references to sustainable development as a global priority [13] and introduced the term "sustainable development". [14] :4 Two years later, the United Nations World Charter for Nature raised five principles of conservation by which human conduct affecting nature is to be guided and judged. [15]

Definition

In 1987, the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development released the report Our Common Future, commonly called the Brundtland Report. [16] The report included a definition which is now widely used: [16] :Chapter 2

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:

  • The concept of 'needs', in particular, the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
  • The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.

Further developments

Since the Brundtland Report, the concept of sustainable development has developed beyond the initial intergenerational framework to focus more on the goal of "socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable economic growth". [14] :5 In 1992, the UN Conference on Environment and Development published the Earth Charter, which outlines the building of a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. The action plan Agenda 21 for sustainable development identified information, integration, and participation as key building blocks to help countries achieve development that recognizes these interdependent pillars. Furthermore, Agenda 21 emphasizes that broad public participation in decision making is a fundamental prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. [17]

Dimensions

Sustainable development, like sustainability, is regarded to have three dimensions (also called pillars, domains, aspects, spheres etc.): the environmental, economic and social dimension. This framework has been expanded by some authors to include a fourth pillar of culture, institutions or governance. [18] [19]

Critique

The concept of sustainable development has been, and still is, subject to criticism, including the question of what is to be sustained in sustainable development. It has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to the exhaustion of earth's finite stock; [20] :13 this perspective renders the Industrial Revolution as a whole unsustainable. [21] :20f [22] :61–67 [23] :22f

The sustainable development debate is based on the assumption that societies need to manage three types of capital (economic, social, and natural), which may be non-substitutable and whose consumption might be irreversible. [24] Natural capital can not necessarily be substituted by economic capital. [23] While it is possible that we can find ways to replace some natural resources, it is much less likely that they will ever be able to replace ecosystem services, such as the protection provided by the ozone layer, or the climate stabilizing function of the Amazonian forest.

The concept of sustainable development has been criticized from different angles. While some see it as paradoxical (or an oxymoron) and regard development as inherently unsustainable, others are disappointed in the lack of progress that has been achieved so far. [4] [5]

The Rio Protocol was a huge leap forward: for the first time, the world agreed on a sustainability agenda. In fact, a global consensus was facilitated by neglecting concrete goals and operational details. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) now have concrete targets (unlike the results from the Rio Process) but no methods for sanctions. [25] [26] :137

Pathways

Requirements

Six interdependent capacities are deemed to be necessary for the successful pursuit of sustainable development. [1] These are the capacities to measure progress towards sustainable development; promote equity within and between generations; adapt to shocks and surprises; transform the system onto more sustainable development pathways; link knowledge with action for sustainability; and to devise governance arrangements that allow people to work together in the exercising of the other capacities. [1]

Improving on environmental aspects

Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon rainforest are a concern because of increased human encroachment upon wilderness areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity. Operacao Hymenaea, Julho-2016 (29399454651).jpg
Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. Deforestation and increased road-building in the Amazon rainforest are a concern because of increased human encroachment upon wilderness areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity.

Environmental sustainability concerns the natural environment and how it endures and remains diverse and productive. Since natural resources are derived from the environment, the state of air, water, and the climate is of particular concern. Environmental sustainability requires society to design activities to meet human needs while preserving the life support systems of the planet. This, for example, entails using water sustainably, using renewable energy and sustainable material supplies (e.g. harvesting wood from forests at a rate that maintains the biomass and biodiversity). [27]

An unsustainable situation occurs when natural capital (the total of nature's resources) is used up faster than it can be replenished. Sustainability requires that human activity only uses nature's resources at a rate at which they can be replenished naturally. The concept of sustainable development is intertwined with the concept of carrying capacity. Theoretically, the long-term result of environmental degradation is the inability to sustain human life.

Important operational principles of sustainable development were published by Herman Daly in 1990: renewable resources should provide a sustainable yield (the rate of harvest should not exceed the rate of regeneration); for non-renewable resources there should be equivalent development of renewable substitutes; waste generation should not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environment. [28]

Consumption of natural resourcesState of the environmentSustainability
More than nature's ability to replenishEnvironmental degradationNot sustainable
Equal to nature's ability to replenishEnvironmental equilibrium Steady state economy
Less than nature's ability to replenishEnvironmental renewalEnvironmentally sustainable

Land use changes, agriculture and food

Environmental problems associated with industrial agriculture and agribusiness are now being addressed through approaches such as sustainable agriculture, organic farming and more sustainable business practices. [29] The most cost-effective climate change mitigation options include afforestation, sustainable forest management, and reducing deforestation. [30] At the local level there are various movements working towards sustainable food systems which may include less meat consumption, local food production, slow food, sustainable gardening, and organic gardening. [31] The environmental effects of different dietary patterns depend on many factors, including the proportion of animal and plant foods consumed and the method of food production. [32] [33]

Materials and waste

Relationship between ecological footprint and Human Development Index (HDI) Human welfare and ecological footprint sustainability.jpg
Relationship between ecological footprint and Human Development Index (HDI)
Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the air-polluting emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide. Air pollution by industrial chimneys.jpg
Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the air-polluting emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.

As global population and affluence have increased, so has the use of various materials increased in volume, diversity, and distance transported. Included here are raw materials, minerals, synthetic chemicals (including hazardous substances), manufactured products, food, living organisms, and waste. [34] By 2050, humanity could consume an estimated 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass per year (three times its current amount) unless the economic growth rate is decoupled from the rate of natural resource consumption. Developed countries' citizens consume an average of 16 tons of those four key resources per capita per year, ranging up to 40 or more tons per person in some developed countries with resource consumption levels far beyond what is likely sustainable. By comparison, the average person in India today consumes four tons per year. [35]

Sustainable use of materials has targeted the idea of dematerialization, converting the linear path of materials (extraction, use, disposal in landfill) to a circular material flow that reuses materials as much as possible, much like the cycling and reuse of waste in nature. [36] Dematerialization is being encouraged through the ideas of industrial ecology, eco design [37] and ecolabelling.

This way of thinking is expressed in the concept of circular economy, which employs reuse, sharing, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing and recycling to create a closed-loop system, minimizing the use of resource inputs and the creation of waste, pollution and carbon emissions. [38] The European Commission has adopted an ambitious Circular Economy Action Plan in 2020, which aims at making sustainable products the norm in the EU. [39] [40]

Biodiversity and ecosystem services

In 2019, a summary for policymakers of the largest, most comprehensive study to date of biodiversity and ecosystem services was published by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. It recommended that human civilization will need a transformative change, including sustainable agriculture, reductions in consumption and waste, fishing quotas and collaborative water management. [41] [42]

The 2022 IPCC report emphasizes how there have been many studies done on the loss of biodiversity, and provides additional strategies to decrease the rate of our declining biodiversity. The report suggests how preserving natural ecosystems, fire and soil management, and reducing the competition for land can create positive impacts on our environment, and contribute to sustainable development. [43]

A sewage treatment plant that uses solar energy, located at Santuari de Lluc monastery, Majorca. Depuradora de Lluc.JPG
A sewage treatment plant that uses solar energy, located at Santuari de Lluc monastery, Majorca.

Management of human consumption and impacts

Waste generation, measured in kilograms per person per day Waste generation per day per capita, September 2018.jpg
Waste generation, measured in kilograms per person per day

The environmental impact of a community or humankind as a whole depends both on population and impact per person, which in turn depends in complex ways on what resources are being used, whether or not those resources are renewable, and the scale of the human activity relative to the carrying capacity of the ecosystems involved. [44] Careful resource management can be applied at many scales, from economic sectors like agriculture, manufacturing and industry, to work organizations, the consumption patterns of households and individuals, and the resource demands of individual goods and services. [45] [46]

The underlying driver of direct human impacts on the environment is human consumption. [47] This impact is reduced by not only consuming less but also making the full cycle of production, use, and disposal more sustainable. Consumption of goods and services can be analyzed and managed at all scales through the chain of consumption, starting with the effects of individual lifestyle choices and spending patterns, through to the resource demands of specific goods and services, the impacts of economic sectors, through national economies to the global economy. [48] Key resource categories relating to human needs are food, energy, raw materials and water.

Improving on economic and social aspects

It has been suggested that because of rural poverty and overexploitation, environmental resources should be treated as important economic assets, called natural capital. [49] Economic development has traditionally required a growth in the gross domestic product. This model of unlimited personal and GDP growth may be over. Sustainable development may involve improvements in the quality of life for many but may necessitate a decrease in resource consumption. [50]

As early as the 1970s, the concept of sustainability was used to describe an economy "in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems". [51] Scientists in many fields have highlighted The Limits to Growth , [52] [53] and economists have presented alternatives, for example a 'steady-state economy', to address concerns over the impacts of expanding human development on the planet. [23] In 1987, the economist Edward Barbier published the study The Concept of Sustainable Economic Development, where he recognized that goals of environmental conservation and economic development are not conflicting and can be reinforcing each other. [54]

A World Bank study from 1999 concluded that based on the theory of genuine savings (defined as "traditional net savings less the value of resource depletion and environmental degradation plus the value of investment in human capital"), policymakers have many possible interventions to increase sustainability, in macroeconomics or purely environmental. [55] Several studies have noted that efficient policies for renewable energy and pollution are compatible with increasing human welfare, eventually reaching a golden-rule[ clarification needed ] steady state. [56] [57] [58] [59]

A meta review in 2002 looked at environmental and economic valuations and found a "lack of concrete understanding of what “sustainability policies” might entail in practice". [60] A study concluded in 2007 that knowledge, manufactured and human capital (health and education) has not compensated for the degradation of natural capital in many parts of the world. [61] It has been suggested that intergenerational equity can be incorporated into a sustainable development and decision making, as has become common in economic valuations of climate economics. [62]

The 2022 IPCC Sixth Assessment Report discussed how ambitious climate change mitigation policies have created negative social and economical impacts when they are not aligned with sustainable development goals. As a result, the transition towards sustainable development mitigation policies has slowed down which is why the inclusivity and considerations of justice of these policies may weaken or support improvements on certain regions as there are other limiting factors such as poverty, food insecurity, and water scarcity that may impede the governments application of policies that aim to build a low carbon future. [63]

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development published a Vision 2050 document in 2021 to show "How business can lead the transformations the world needs". The vision states that "we envision a world in which 9+billion people can live well, within planetary boundaries, by 2050." [64] This report was highlighted by The Guardian as "the largest concerted corporate sustainability action plan to date – include reversing the damage done to ecosystems, addressing rising greenhouse gas emissions and ensuring societies move to sustainable agriculture." [65]

Research

Integral elements for a sustainable development are research and innovation activities. An example is the European environmental research and innovation policy, which aims at defining and implementing a transformative agenda to greening the economy and the society as a whole so to achieve sustainable development. Research and innovation in Europe is financially supported by the programme Horizon 2020. [66]

Sustainable Development Goals

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Sustainable Development Goals.png
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all". [67] The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly (UN-GA) and are intended to be achieved by 2030. They are included in a UN-GA Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030. [68] The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which were ended in 2015.

Education for sustainable development

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is defined as education that encourages changes in knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to enable a more sustainable and just society for all. ESD aims to empower and equip current and future generations to meet their needs using a balanced and integrated approach to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. [69] ESD is the term most used internationally and by the United Nations.

See also

Related Research Articles

Natural resource Resources that exist without actions of humankind

Natural resources are resources that are drawn from nature and used with few modifications. This includes the sources of valued characteristics such as commercial and industrial use, aesthetic value, scientific interest and cultural value. On Earth, it includes sunlight, atmosphere, water, land, all minerals along with all vegetation, and animal life.

Natural capital

Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms. Some natural capital assets provide people with free goods and services, often called ecosystem services. All of these underpin our economy and society, and thus make human life possible.

Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics concerned with environmental issues. It has become a widely studied subject due to growing environmental concerns in the twenty-first century. Environmental economics "undertakes theoretical or empirical studies of the economic effects of national or local environmental policies around the world. ... Particular issues include the costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies to deal with air pollution, water quality, toxic substances, solid waste, and global warming."

Ecological economics Interdependence of human economies and natural ecosystems

Ecological economics, bioeconomics, ecolonomy, eco-economics, or ecol-econ is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially. By treating the economy as a subsystem of Earth's larger ecosystem, and by emphasizing the preservation of natural capital, the field of ecological economics is differentiated from environmental economics, which is the mainstream economic analysis of the environment. One survey of German economists found that ecological and environmental economics are different schools of economic thought, with ecological economists emphasizing strong sustainability and rejecting the proposition that physical (human-made) capital can substitute for natural capital.

Overconsumption describes a situation where the use of a renewable natural resource exceeds its capacity to regenerate. A prolonged pattern of overconsumption leads to the eventual loss of resource bases. The term overconsumption is quite controversial in use and does not necessarily have a single unifying definition. Overconsumption is driven several factors of the current global economy, including forces like consumerism, planned obsolescence, and other unsustainable business models and can be contrasted with sustainable consumption.

A green economy is an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment. It is closely related with ecological economics, but has a more politically applied focus. The 2011 UNEP Green Economy Report argues "that to be green, an economy must not only be efficient, but also fair. Fairness implies recognizing global and country level equity dimensions, particularly in assuring a Just Transition to an economy that is low-carbon, resource efficient, and socially inclusive."

Environmental resource management Type of resource management

Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. It is not, as the phrase might suggest, the management of the environment itself. Environmental resources management aims to ensure that ecosystem services are protected and maintained for future human generations, and also maintain ecosystem integrity through considering ethical, economic, and scientific (ecological) variables. Environmental resource management tries to identify factors affected by conflicts that rise between meeting needs and protecting resources. It is thus linked to environmental protection, sustainability, integrated landscape management, natural resource management, fisheries management, forest management, and wildlife management, and others.

Steady-state economy Constant capital and population size

A steady-state economy is an economy made up of a constant stock of physical wealth (capital) and a constant population size. In effect, such an economy does not grow in the course of time. The term usually refers to the national economy of a particular country, but it is also applicable to the economic system of a city, a region, or the entire world. Early in the history of economic thought, classical economist Adam Smith of the 18th century developed the concept of a stationary state of an economy: Smith believed that any national economy in the world would sooner or later settle in a final state of stationarity.

Environmental policy Government efforts protecting the natural environment

Environmental policy is the commitment of an organization or government to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues. These issues generally include air and water pollution, waste management, ecosystem management, maintenance of biodiversity, the management of natural resources, wildlife and endangered species. For example, concerning environmental policy, the implementation of an eco-energy-oriented policy at a global level to address the issues of global warming and climate changes could be addressed. Policies concerning energy or regulation of toxic substances including pesticides and many types of industrial waste are part of the topic of environmental policy. This policy can be deliberately taken to influence human activities and thereby prevent undesirable effects on the biophysical environment and natural resources, as well as to make sure that changes in the environment do not have unacceptable effects on humans.

Ecological resilience Capacity of ecosystems to resist and recover from change

In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly. Such perturbations and disturbances can include stochastic events such as fires, flooding, windstorms, insect population explosions, and human activities such as deforestation, fracking of the ground for oil extraction, pesticide sprayed in soil, and the introduction of exotic plant or animal species. Disturbances of sufficient magnitude or duration can profoundly affect an ecosystem and may force an ecosystem to reach a threshold beyond which a different regime of processes and structures predominates. When such thresholds are associated with a critical or bifurcation point, these regime shifts may also be referred to as critical transitions.

Regenerative design

Regenerative design is a process-oriented whole systems approach to design. The term "regenerative" describes processes that restore, renew or revitalize their own sources of energy and materials. Regenerative design uses whole systems thinking to create resilient and equitable systems that integrate the needs of society with the integrity of nature.

Outline of sustainability Overview of and topical guide to sustainability

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sustainability:

Degrowth is a term used for both a political, economic, and social movement as well as a set of theories that critiques the paradigm of economic growth. It is based on ideas from a diverse range of lines of thought such as political ecology, ecological economics, feminist political ecology, and environmental justice, pointing out the social and ecological harm caused by the pursuit of infinite growth and Western "development" imperatives. Degrowth emphasizes the need to reduce global consumption and production and advocates a socially just and ecologically sustainable society with social and environmental well-being replacing GDP as the indicator of prosperity. Hence, although GDP is likely to shrink in a "Degrowth society", i.e. a society in which the objectives of the degrowth movement are achieved, this is not the primary objective of degrowth.

Sustainability Capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way

Sustainability is a societal goal with three dimensions : the environmental, economic and social dimension. This concept can be used to guide decisions at the global, national and at the individual consumer level. A related concept is that of sustainable development. Both terms are often used synonymously. UNESCO formulated a distinction as follows: "Sustainability is often thought of as a long-term goal, while sustainable development refers to the many processes and pathways to achieve it."

Green growth Economic growth that is environmentally sustainable

Green growth is a term to describe a hypothetical path of economic growth that is environmentally sustainable. It is based on the understanding that as long as economic growth remains a predominant goal, a decoupling of economic growth from resource use and adverse environmental impacts is required. As such, green growth is closely related to the concepts of green economy and low-carbon or sustainable development. A main driver for green growth is the transition towards sustainable energy systems. Advocates of green growth policies argue that well-implemented green policies can create opportunities for employment in sectors such as renewable energy, green agriculture, or sustainable forestry.

The history of environmental pollution traces human-dominated ecological systems from the earliest civilizations to the present day. This history is characterized by the increased regional success of a particular society, followed by crises that were either resolved, producing sustainability, or not, leading to decline. In early human history, the use of fire and desire for specific foods may have altered the natural composition of plant and animal communities. Between 8,000 and 12,000 years ago, agrarian communities emerged which depended largely on their environment and the creation of a "structure of permanence."

International Resource Panel

The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs. It provides independent scientific assessments and expert advice on a variety of areas, including:

Weak and strong sustainability

Although related, sustainable development and sustainability are two different concepts. Weak sustainability is an idea within environmental economics which states that 'human capital' can substitute 'natural capital'. It is based upon the work of Nobel Laureate Robert Solow, and John Hartwick. Contrary to weak sustainability, strong sustainability assumes that "human capital" and "natural capital" are complementary, but not interchangeable.

Natural capital accounting is the process of calculating the total stocks and flows of natural resources and services in a given ecosystem or region. Accounting for such goods may occur in physical or monetary terms. This process can subsequently inform government, corporate and consumer decision making as each relates to the use or consumption of natural resources and land, and sustainable behaviour.

Nature-based solutions Sustainable management and use of nature for tackling socio-environmental challenges

The term Nature-based solutions (NBS) refers to the sustainable management and use of natural features and processes to tackle socio-environmental challenges. These challenges include issues such as climate change, water security, water pollution, food security, human health, biodiversity loss, and disaster risk management.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Clark, William; Harley, Alicia (2020). "Sustainability Science: Toward a Synthesis". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 45 (1): 331–86. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-012420-043621 . CC-BY-icon-80x15.png  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  2. "Sustainable Development". UNESCO. 3 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. "Sustainable Development". UNESCO. 3 August 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. 1 2 Brown, James H. (1 October 2015). "The Oxymoron of Sustainable Development". BioScience. 65 (10): 1027–1029. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biv117 .
  5. 1 2 Williams, Colin C; Millington, Andrew C (June 2004). "The diverse and contested meanings of sustainable development". The Geographical Journal. 170 (2): 99–104. doi:10.1111/j.0016-7398.2004.00111.x. S2CID   143181802.
  6. 1 2 3 Ulrich Grober: Deep roots A conceptual history of "sustainable development" (Nachhaltigkeit), Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, 2007
  7. 1 2 3 Blewitt, John (2015). Understanding Sustainable Development (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN   9780415707824 . Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  8. Hardin, Garrett (13 December 1968). "The Tragedy of the Commons". Science. 162 (3859): 1243–1248. Bibcode:1968Sci...162.1243H. doi: 10.1126/science.162.3859.1243 . ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   5699198.
  9. Finn, Donovan (2009). Our Uncertain Future: Can Good Planning Create Sustainable Communities?. Champaign-Urbana: University of Illinois.
  10. "A Blueprint for Survival". The New York Times. 5 February 1972. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  11. "The Ecologist January 1972: a blueprint for survival". The Ecologist. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  12. "Growth and its implications for the future" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.
  13. World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development (PDF). International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 1980.
  14. 1 2 Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2015). The Age of Sustainable Development. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231173155.
  15. World Charter for Nature, United Nations, General Assembly, 48th Plenary Meeting, 28 October 1982
  16. 1 2 United Nations General Assembly (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Transmitted to the General Assembly as an Annex to document A/42/427 – Development and International Co-operation: Environment.
  17. Will Allen. 2007."Learning for Sustainability: Sustainable Development."
  18. United Nations (2014). Prototype Global Sustainable Development Report (Online unedited ed.). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development.
  19. James, Paul; with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred B. (2015). Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of Sustainability. London: Routledge.
  20. Turner, R. Kerry (1988). "Sustainability, Resource Conservation and Pollution Control: An Overview". In Turner, R. Kerry (ed.). Sustainable Environmental Management. London: Belhaven Press.
  21. Georgescu-Roegen, Nicholas (1971). The Entropy Law and the Economic Process (Full book accessible at Scribd). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN   978-0674257801.
  22. Rifkin, Jeremy (1980). Entropy: A New World View (PDF contains only the title and contents pages of the book). New York: The Viking Press. ISBN   978-0670297177.
  23. 1 2 3 Daly, Herman E. (1992). Steady-state economics (2nd ed.). London: Earthscan Publications.
  24. Dyllick, T.; Hockerts, K. (2002). "Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability". Business Strategy and the Environment. 11 (2): 130–141. doi:10.1002/bse.323.
  25. "Why Rio failed in the past and how it can succeed this time". The Guardian . 12 June 2012.
  26. Berg, Christian (2020). Sustainable action : overcoming the barriers. Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN   978-0-429-57873-1. OCLC   1124780147.
  27. "Sustainable development domains". Semantic portal. Retrieved 6 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. Daly, H.E. (1990). "Toward some operational principles of sustainable development". Ecological Economics. 2 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1016/0921-8009(90)90010-r.
  29. World Business Council for Sustainable Development Archived 10 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine This web site has multiple articles on WBCSD contributions to sustainable development. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
  30. "AR5 Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change — IPCC" . Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  31. Holmgren, D. (March 2005). "Retrofitting the suburbs for sustainability." Archived 15 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine CSIRO Sustainability Network. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  32. McMichael A.J.; Powles J.W.; Butler C.D.; Uauy R. (September 2007). "Food, Livestock Production, Energy, Climate change, and Health" (PDF). Lancet. 370 (9594): 1253–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61256-2. hdl:1885/38056. PMID   17868818. S2CID   9316230. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  33. Baroni L.; Cenci L.; Tettamanti M.; Berati M. (February 2007). "Evaluating the Environmental Impact of Various Dietary Patterns Combined with Different Food Production Systems" (PDF). Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 61 (2): 279–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602522. PMID   17035955. S2CID   16387344. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  34. Bournay, E. et al.. (2006). Vital waste graphics 2. The Basel Convention, UNEP, GRID-Arendal. ISBN   82-7701-042-7.
  35. UNEP (2011). Decoupling Natural Resource Use and Environmental Impacts from Economic Growth. ISBN   978-92-807-3167-5. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  36. Anderberg, S (1998). "Industrial metabolism and linkages between economics, ethics, and the environment". Ecological Economics. 24 (2–3): 311–320. doi:10.1016/s0921-8009(97)00151-1.
  37. Fuad-Luke, A. (2006). The Eco-design Handbook. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN   978-0-500-28521-3.
  38. Geissdoerfer, Martin; Savaget, Paulo; Bocken, Nancy M. P.; Hultink, Erik Jan (1 February 2017). "The Circular Economy – A new sustainability paradigm?". Journal of Cleaner Production. 143: 757–768. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.048. S2CID   157449142.
  39. European Commission (2020). Circular economy action plan. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  40. "EUR-Lex - 52020DC0098 - EN - EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  41. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (PDF). the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. 6 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  42. Deutsche Welle, Deutsche (6 May 2019). "Why Biodiversity Loss Hurts Humans as Much as Climate Change Does". Ecowatch. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  43. "Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change". www.ipcc.ch. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  44. Basiago, Andrew D. (1995). "Methods of defining 'sustainability'". Sustainable Development. 3 (3): 109–119. doi:10.1002/sd.3460030302. ISSN   0968-0802.
  45. Clark, D. (2006). A Rough Guide to Ethical Living. London: Penguin. ISBN   978-1-84353-792-2 [ page needed ]
  46. Brower, M. & Leon, W. (1999). The Consumer's Guide to Effective Environmental Choices: Practical Advice from the Union of Concerned Scientists. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN   0-609-80281-X.[ page needed ]
  47. Michaelis, L. & Lorek, S. (2004). "Consumption and the Environment in Europe: Trends and Futures." Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Project No. 904.
  48. Jackson, T. & Michaelis, L. (2003). "Policies for Sustainable Consumption". The UK Sustainable Development Commission.
  49. Barbier, Edward B. (2006). Natural Resources and Economic Development. https://books.google.com/books?id=fYrEDA-VnyUC&pg=PA45: Cambridge University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN   9780521706513 . Retrieved 8 April 2014.{{cite book}}: External link in |location= (help)CS1 maint: location (link)
  50. Brown, L. R. (2011). World on the Edge. Earth Policy Institute. Norton. ISBN   978-0-393-08029-2.
  51. Stivers, R. 1976. The Sustainable Society: Ethics and Economic Growth. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
  52. Meadows, D.H., D.L. Meadows, J. Randers, and W.W. Behrens III. 1972. The Limits to Growth. Universe Books, New York, NY. ISBN   0-87663-165-0
  53. Meadows, D.H.; Randers, Jørgen; Meadows, D.L. (2004). Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN   978-1-931498-58-6.
  54. Barbier, E. (1987). "The Concept of Sustainable Economic Development". Environmental Conservation. 14 (2): 101–110. doi:10.1017/S0376892900011449.
  55. Hamilton, K.; Clemens, M. (1999). "Genuine savings rates in developing countries". World Bank Economic Review. 13 (2): 333–356. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.452.7532 . doi:10.1093/wber/13.2.333.
  56. Ayong Le Kama, A. D. (2001). "Sustainable growth renewable resources, and pollution". Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. 25 (12): 1911–1918. doi:10.1016/S0165-1889(00)00007-5.
  57. Chichilnisky, G.; Heal, G.; Beltratti, A. (1995). "A Green Golden Rule". Economics Letters. 49 (2): 175–179. doi:10.1016/0165-1765(95)00662-Y. S2CID   154964259.
  58. Endress, L.; Roumasset, J. (1994). "Golden rules for sustainable resource management" (PDF). Economic Record. 70 (210): 266–277. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4932.1994.tb01847.x.
  59. Endress, L.; Roumasset, J.; Zhou, T. (2005). "Sustainable Growth with Environmental Spillovers". Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 58 (4): 527–547. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.529.5305 . doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.09.003.
  60. Pezzey, John C. V.; Michael A., Toman (2002). "The Economics of Sustainability: A Review of Journal Articles" (PDF). . Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  61. Dasgupta, P. (2007). "The idea of sustainable development". Sustainability Science . 2 (1): 5–11. doi:10.1007/s11625-007-0024-y. S2CID   154597956.
  62. Heal, G. (2009). "Climate Economics: A Meta-Review and Some Suggestions for Future Research". Review of Environmental Economics and Policy. 3 (1): 4–21. doi:10.1093/reep/ren014. S2CID   154917782.
  63. New, M., D. Reckien, D. Viner, C. Adler, S.-M. Cheong, C. Conde, A. Constable, E. Coughlan de Perez, A. Lammel, R. Mechler, B. Orlove, and W. Solecki, 2022: Decision Making Options for Managing Risk. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In Press.
  64. "Vision 2050 - Time to transform". WBCSD. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  65. Wills, Jackie (15 May 2014). "World Business Council for Sustainable Development: Vision 2050". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  66. See Horizon 2020 – the EU's new research and innovation programme http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-1085_en.htm
  67. United Nations (2017) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017, Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (A/RES/71/313 Archived 28 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine )
  68. United Nations (2015) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (A/RES/70/1 Archived 28 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine )
  69. Issues and trends in education for sustainable development. Paris: UNESCO. 2018. p. 7. ISBN   978-92-3-100244-1. CC-BY-icon-80x15.png  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.