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Sustainability studies focuses on the interdisciplinary perspective of the sustainability concept. Programs include instruction in sustainable development, geography, environmental policies, ethics, ecology, landscape architecture, city and regional planning, economics, natural resources, sociology, and anthropology.Sustainability studies also focuses on the importance of climate change, poverty and development. Studies in Sustainability are now available in many different universities across America. The main goal of sustainability studies is for students to find ways to develop creative solutions to the crisis in environmental sustainability.
Towards the end of 1980s a new focus emerged in the global sphere in which a focus on the environment and ecological sustainability emerged. In 1987 the Brundtland Report was delivered by the World Commission on Environment and Development.The commission was appointed to examine the consequences of global environmental change and was chaired by Norway’s Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland. It introduced the concept of sustainable development, which it defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. This report started a paradigm shift in which global actors soon began to engage in initiatives that vowed to focus on sustainable development.
Five years after the report was launched the UN Earth’s Summitt in Rio adopted the Framework Convention on Climate Change.Five years later this policy developed into the creation of the Kyoto Protocol, a plan in which rich nations pledged to reduce carbon emissions. All countries that partook in the UNFCCC also signed onto the Kyoto Protocol. Unfortunately progress towards sustainability stalled when the Kyoto Protocol was never ratified by the United States, and other nations consequently ignored their pledges to the agreement.
Recently, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a report that says “urgent and unprecedented changes are needed to reach the target” of keeping the global temperature at moderate levels.They state that countries MUST follow the Paris Agreement pledge to keep temperatures between 1.5 degrees Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius, otherwise the earth faces the complete eradication of corals and the melting of the Arctic ice caps. The Panel continues to explain that a rise in temperatures would also trigger catastrophic results in the form of intense natural disasters, unpredictable weather, and food shortages. In order to prevent this outcome governments would need to require a “supercharged roll-back of emissions courses that have built up over the past 250 years.” In order to do so developments in land use and technological changes are necessary. Carbon pollution would have to be cut by 45% by 2030 and come down to 0 by 2050. Although this would require carbon prices to be three to four times higher, the consequences of global warming at this rate would be far more severe. The world is currently on course to reaching 3 degrees Celsius of global warming, and scientists have 12 years to impose significant changes to prevent this from happening. This shift towards environmental protection demands for a workforce that is more heavily dedicated to studying sustainable development. Individuals studying sustainable development will likely be focused on reducing the climate in which catastrophic global warming would take place.
Sustainability studies is a degree which emphasizes an interdisciplinary approach. Since it covers a wide variety of topics from multiple perspectives, it can lead into multiple avenues for a future career such as:
The salary range for a professional involved in sustainability studies is based on the average salaries of those involved in engineering and environmental sciences.This starting salary ranged from 75 000 on the low end, to 93 000. Chief sustainability executives can earn an average of 167 000.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012) to the Protocol.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. It then entered into force on 21 March 1994, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified it. The UNFCCC objective is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system". The framework sets non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. Instead, the framework outlines how specific international treaties may be negotiated to specify further action towards the objective of the UNFCCC.
This glossary of climate change is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to climate change, global warming, and related topics.
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of global warming and its related effects. This generally involves reductions in human emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs).
The complex politics of global warming results from numerous cofactors arising from the global economy's dependence on carbon dioxide emitting fossil fuels; and because greenhouse gases such as CO
2, methane and N
2O cause global warming.
Individual and political action on climate change can take many forms. Many actions aim to build social and political support to limit, and subsequently reduce, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, with the goal of mitigating climate change. Other actions seek to address the ethical and moral aspects of climate justice, especially with regard to the anticipated unequal impacts of climate change adaptation.
Global warming is the ongoing rise of the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and has been demonstrated by direct temperature measurements and by measurements of various effects of the warming. It is a major aspect of climate change which, in addition to rising global surface temperatures, also includes its effects, such as changes in precipitation. While there have been prehistoric periods of global warming, observed changes since the mid-20th century have been unprecedented in rate and scale.
Yuri Antonovich Izrael was a vice-chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) until September 2008, when the new bureau was elected. He was the "most influential scientific adviser" for Vladimir Putin, the president of Russia, according to CNN.
This is a list of climate change topics.
Climate change in New Zealand refers to historical changes in the climate of New Zealand and New Zealand's contribution and response to global warming. In 2014, New Zealand contributed 0.17 per cent to the world's total greenhouse gas emissions. However, on a per capita basis, New Zealand is a significant emitter - the 21st highest contributor in the world and fifth highest within the OECD.
The 2008 United Nations Climate Change Conference took place at PIF Congress Centre, Poznań International Fair (PIF), in Poznań, Poland, between December 1 and December 12, 2008. Representatives from over 180 countries attended along with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations.
The Copenhagen Accord is a document which delegates at the 15th session of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to "take note of" at the final plenary on 18 December 2009.
Although it is a worldwide treaty, the Kyoto Protocol has received criticism.
The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016. The agreement's language was negotiated by representatives of 196 state parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. As of February 2020, all UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, 189 have become party to it, and the only significant emitters which are not parties are Iran and Turkey.
The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP17) was held in Durban, South Africa, from 28 November to 11 December 2011 to establish a new treaty to limit carbon emissions.
Territorialisation of Carbon Governance (ToCG) is a concept used in political geography or environmental policy which is considered to be a new logic of environmental governance. This method creates carbon-relevant citizens who become enrolled in the process of governing the climate. The territorialisation of carbon governance transforms climate change from a global to local issue. It embodies political practices that serve to connect the causes and consequences of global climate change to local communities.
The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP19 or CMP9 was held in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 23 November 2013. This is the 19th yearly session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 9th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The conference delegates continue the negotiations towards a global climate agreement. UNFCCC's Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres and Poland's Minister of the Environment Marcin Korolec led the negotiations.
The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP20 or CMP10 was held in Lima, Peru, from December 1 to 12, 2014. This was the 20th yearly session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 10th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The conference delegates held negotiations towards a global climate agreement.
Deforestation is a primary contributor to climate change. Land use changes, especially in the form of deforestation, are the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions, after fossil fuel combustion. Greenhouse gases are emitted during combustion of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon. Global models and national greenhouse gas inventories give similar results for deforestation emissions. Although deforestation and peatland degradation are only about 10% of global carbon dioxide emissions as of 2019, growing forests are also a carbon sink with additional potential to mitigate the effects of climate change. Some of the effects of climate change, such as more wildfires, may increase deforestation.
The Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C (SR15) was published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on 8 October 2018. The report, approved in Incheon, South Korea, includes over 6,000 scientific references, and was prepared by 91 authors from 40 countries. In December 2015, the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference called for the report. The report was delivered at the United Nations' 48th session of the IPCC to "deliver the authoritative, scientific guide for governments" to deal with climate change.