Urbanization

Last updated

Global urbanization map showing the percentage of urbanization per country in 2015 2015 World Urbanization Map.png
Global urbanization map showing the percentage of urbanization per country in 2015
Guangzhou dusk panorama.jpg
Guangzhou, a city of 14.5 million people, is one of the 8 adjacent metropolises located in the largest single agglomeration on earth, ringing the Pearl River Delta of China.
Mumbai Downtown.jpg
Mumbai is the most populous city in India, and the eighth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 18.4 million.

Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural areas to urban areas, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change. [1] It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas. [2] Although the two concepts are sometimes used interchangeably, urbanization should be distinguished from urban growth: urbanization is "the proportion of the total national population living in areas classed as urban", while urban growth refers to "the absolute number of people living in areas classed as urban". [3] The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. [4] It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized. [5] That is equivalent to approximately 3 billion urbanites by 2050, much of which will occur in Africa and Asia. [6] Notably, the United Nations has also recently projected that nearly all global population growth from 2017 to 2030 will be by cities, about 1.1 billion new urbanites over the next 13 years. [7]

Urban area Human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment

An urban area or urban agglomeration, is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources leads to human impact on the environment.

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague.

World population The total number of living humans on Earth

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.7 billion people as of April 2019. It took over 200,000 years of human history for the world's population to reach 1 billion; and only 200 years more to reach 7 billion.

Contents

Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning, geography, sociology, architecture, economics, and public health. The phenomenon has been closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. [8] Urbanization can be seen as a specific condition at a set time (e.g. the proportion of total population or area in cities or towns), or as an increase in that condition over time. So urbanization can be quantified either in terms of, say, the level of urban development relative to the overall population or as the rate at which the urban proportion of the population is increasing. Urbanization creates enormous social, economic and environmental changes, which provide an opportunity for sustainability with the "potential to use resources more efficiently, to create more sustainable land use and to protect the biodiversity of natural ecosystems." [6]

Urban planning technical and political process concerned with the use of land and design of the urban environment

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks. Urban planning deals with physical layout of human settlements. The primary concern is the public welfare, which includes considerations of efficiency, sanitation, protection and use of the environment, as well as effects on social and economic activities. Urban planning is considered an interdisciplinary field that includes social engineering and design sciences. It is closely related to the field of urban design and some urban planners provide designs for streets, parks, buildings and other urban areas. Urban planning is also referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development or some combination in various areas worldwide.

Geography The science that studies the terrestrial surface, the societies that inhabit it and the territories, landscapes, places or regions that form it

Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

Sociology Scientific study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions

Sociology is the study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction and culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social evolution. Sociology is also defined as the general science of society. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.

Urbanization is not merely a modern phenomenon, but a rapid and historic transformation of human social roots on a global scale, whereby predominantly rural culture is being rapidly replaced by predominantly urban culture. The first major change in settlement patterns was the accumulation of hunter-gatherers into villages many thousand years ago. Village culture is characterized by common bloodlines, intimate relationships, and communal behavior, whereas urban culture is characterized by distant bloodlines, unfamiliar relations, and competitive behavior. This unprecedented movement of people is forecast to continue and intensify during the next few decades, mushrooming cities to sizes unthinkable only a century ago. As a result, the world urban population growth curve has up till recently followed a quadratic-hyperbolic pattern. [9]

Social network Theoretical concept in sociology

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors, sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors. The social network perspective provides a set of methods for analyzing the structure of whole social entities as well as a variety of theories explaining the patterns observed in these structures. The study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, and examine network dynamics.

Urban culture is the culture of towns and cities. The defining theme is the presence of a great number of very different people in a very limited space - most of them are strangers to each other. This makes it possible to build up a vast array of subcultures close to each other, exposed to each other's influence, but without necessarily intruding into people's private lives.

Today, in Asia the urban agglomerations of Osaka, Karachi, Jakarta, Mumbai, Shanghai, Manila, Seoul, and Beijing are each already home to over 20 million people, while Delhi is forecast to approach or exceed 40 million people in the year 2035. [10] Cities such as Tehran, Istanbul, Mexico City, São Paulo, London, New York City, Lagos, and Cairo are, or soon will be, home to over 10 million people each.

Keihanshin Place in Japan ----

Keihanshin is a metropolitan region in Japan encompassing the metropolitan areas of the cities of Kyoto in Kyoto Prefecture, Osaka in Osaka Prefecture and Kobe in Hyōgo Prefecture. The entire region has a population of 19,341,976 over an area of 13,033 km2 (5,032 sq mi). It is the second-most-populated urban region in Japan, containing approximately 15% of Japan's population.

Karachi Megacity in Sindh

Karachi (Urdu: کراچی‎; ALA-LC: Karācī, IPA: [kəˈraːtʃi]; is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh. It is the most populous city in Pakistan, and fifth-most-populous city proper in the world. Ranked as a beta-global city, the city is Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre. It is the cultural, economic, philanthropic, educational, and political hub of the country, and Pakistan's most cosmopolitan city. Situated on the Arabian Sea, Karachi serves as a transport hub, and is home to Pakistan's two largest seaports, the Port of Karachi and Port Bin Qasim, as well as Pakistan's busiest airport, Jinnah International Airport.

Jakarta Special Capital Region in Indonesia

Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Situated on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island of Java, it is the centre of economy, culture and politics of Indonesia with a population of more than ten million as of 2014. The Jakarta metropolitan area, which has an area of 6,392 square kilometres, is the world's second most populous urban area after Tokyo, with a population of about 30 million as of 2010. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, have attracted migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, making it a melting pot of numerous cultures. Jakarta is nicknamed the "Big Durian", the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York.

History

Historical global urban/rural population trends Historical global urban - rural population trends.png
Historical global urban/rural population trends

From the development of the earliest cities in Mesopotamia and Egypt until the 18th century, an equilibrium existed between the vast majority of the population who were engaged in subsistence agriculture in a rural context, and small centres of populations in the towns where economic activity consisted primarily of trade at markets and manufactures on a small scale. Due to the primitive and relatively stagnant state of agriculture throughout this period, the ratio of rural to urban population remained at a fixed equilibrium. However, a significant increase in the percentage of the global urban population can be traced in the 1st millennium BCE. [12] Another significant increase can be traced to Mughal India, where 15% of its population lived in urban centers during the 16th–17th centuries, higher than in Europe at the time. [13] [14] In comparison, the percentage of the European population living in cities was 8–13% in 1800. [15]

Mesopotamia Historical region within the Tigris–Euphrates river system

Mesopotamia is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Subsistence agriculture farming which meets the basic needs of the farmer and family

Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to feed themselves and their families. In subsistence agriculture, farm output is targeted to survival and is mostly for local requirements with little or no surplus trade. The typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to feed and clothe themselves during the year. Planting decisions are made principally with an eye toward what the family will need during the coming year, and secondarily toward market prices. Tony Waters writes: "Subsistence peasants are people who grow what they eat, build their own houses, and live without regularly making purchases in the marketplace."

With the onset of the British agricultural and industrial revolution in the late 18th century, this relationship was finally broken and an unprecedented growth in urban population took place over the course of the 19th century, both through continued migration from the countryside and due to the tremendous demographic expansion that occurred at that time. In England and Wales, the proportion of the population living in cities with more than 20,000 people jumped from 17% in 1801 to 54% in 1891. Moreover, and adopting a broader definition of urbanization, we can say that while the urbanized population in England and Wales represented 72% of the total in 1891, for other countries the figure was 37% in France, 41% in Prussia and 28% in the United States. [16]

British Agricultural Revolution Increase in agricultural production in Britain in mid-17th and late 19th centuries

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world. This increase in the food supply contributed to the rapid growth of population in England and Wales, from 5.5 million in 1700 to over 9 million by 1801, though domestic production gave way increasingly to food imports in the nineteenth century as the population more than tripled to over 32 million. The rise in productivity accelerated the decline of the agricultural share of the labour force, adding to the urban workforce on which industrialization depended: the Agricultural Revolution has therefore been cited as a cause of the Industrial Revolution.

Demographic transition transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system

The phenomenon and theory of the demographic transition refers to the historical shift in demographics from high birth rates and high infant death rates in societies with minimal technology, education and economic development, to demographics of low birth rates and low death rates in societies with advanced technology, education and economic development, as well as the stages between these two scenarios. Although this shift has occurred in many industrialized countries, the theory and model are frequently imprecise when applied to individual countries due to specific social, political and economic factors affecting particular populations.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

As labourers were freed up from working the land due to higher agricultural productivity they converged on the new industrial cities like Manchester and Birmingham which were experiencing a boom in commerce, trade, and industry. Growing trade around the world also allowed cereals to be imported from North America and refrigerated meat from Australasia and South America. Spatially, cities also expanded due to the development of public transport systems, which facilitated commutes of longer distances to the city centre for the working class.

Urbanization rapidly spread across the Western world and, since the 1950s, it has begun to take hold in the developing world as well. At the turn of the 20th century, just 15% of the world population lived in cities. [17] According to the UN, the year 2007 witnessed the turning point when more than 50% of the world population were living in cities, for the first time in human history. [16]

Yale University in June 2016 published urbanization data from the time period 3700 BC to 2000 AD, the data was used to make a video showing the development of cities on the world during the time period. [18] [19] [20] . The origins and spread of urban centers around the world were also mapped by archaeologists [21] .

A global map illustrating the first onset and spread of urban centers around the world, based on . ArchaeoGLOBE URBAN.gif
A global map illustrating the first onset and spread of urban centers around the world, based on .

Causes

Population age comparises between rural Pocahontas County, Iowa and urban Johnson County, Iowa, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centres in Iowa. Rural flight.jpg
Population age comparises between rural Pocahontas County, Iowa and urban Johnson County, Iowa, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centres in Iowa.
The City of Chicago, Illinois is an example of the early American grid system of development. The grid is enforced even on uneven topography. Chicago Downtown Aerial View.jpg
The City of Chicago, Illinois is an example of the early American grid system of development. The grid is enforced even on uneven topography.

Urbanization occurs either organically or planned as a result of individual, collective and state action. Living in a city can be culturally and economically beneficial since it can provide greater opportunities for access to the labor market, better education, housing, and safety conditions, and reduce the time and expense of commuting and transportation. Conditions like density, proximity, diversity, and marketplace competition are elements of an urban environment that deemed positive. However, there are also negative social phenomena that arise, alienation, stress, increased cost of living, and mass marginalization that are connected to an urban way of living. Suburbanization, which is happening in the cities of the largest developing countries, may be regarded as an attempt to balance these negative aspects of urban life while still allowing access to the large extent of shared resources.

In cities, money, services, wealth and opportunities are centralized. Many rural inhabitants come to the city to seek their fortune and alter their social position. Businesses, which provide jobs and exchange capital, are more concentrated in urban areas. Whether the source is trade or tourism, it is also through the ports or banking systems, commonly located in cities, that foreign money flows into a country.

Many people move into cities for economic opportunities, but this does not fully explain the very high recent urbanization rates in places like China and India. Rural flight is a contributing factor to urbanization. In rural areas, often on small family farms or collective farms in villages, it has historically been difficult to access manufactured goods, though the relative overall quality of life is very subjective, and may certainly surpass that of the city. Farm living has always been susceptible to unpredictable environmental conditions, and in times of drought, flood or pestilence, survival may become extremely problematic.

Thai farmers are seen as poor, stupid, and unhealthy. As young people flee the farms, the values and knowledge of rice farming and the countryside are fading, including the tradition of long kek, helping neighbors plant, harvest, or build a house. We are losing what we call Thai-ness, the values of being kind, helping each other, having mercy and gratefulness. — Iam Thongdee, Professor of Humanities, Mahidol University in Bangkok [24]

In a New York Times article concerning the acute migration away from farming in Thailand, life as a farmer was described as "hot and exhausting". "Everyone says the farmer works the hardest but gets the least amount of money". In an effort to counter this impression, the Agriculture Department of Thailand is seeking to promote the impression that farming is "honorable and secure". [24]

However, in Thailand, urbanization has also resulted in massive increases in problems such as obesity. Shifting from a rural environment to an urbanized community also caused a transition to a diet that was mainly carbohydrate-based to a diet higher in fat and sugar, consequently causing a rise in obesity. [25] City life, especially in modern urban slums of the developing world, is certainly hardly immune to pestilence or climatic disturbances such as floods, yet continues to strongly attract migrants. Examples of this were the 2011 Thailand floods and 2007 Jakarta flood. Urban areas are also far more prone to violence, drugs, and other urban social problems. In the United States, industrialization of agriculture has negatively affected the economy of small and middle-sized farms and strongly reduced the size of the rural labour market.

These are the costs of participating in the urban economy. Your increased income is canceled out by increased expenditure. In the end, you have even less left for food. — Madhura Swaminathan, economist at Kolkata’s Indian Statistical Institute [26]

Particularly in the developing world, conflict over land rights due to the effects of globalization has led to less politically powerful groups, such as farmers, losing or forfeiting their land, resulting in obligatory migration into cities. In China, where land acquisition measures are forceful, there has been far more extensive and rapid urbanization (54%) than in India (36%), where peasants form militant groups (e.g. Naxalites) to oppose such efforts. Obligatory and unplanned migration often results in the rapid growth of slums. This is also similar to areas of violent conflict, where people are driven off their land due to violence.

Cities offer a larger variety of services, including specialist services not found in rural areas. These services require workers, resulting in more numerous and varied job opportunities. Elderly people may be forced to move to cities where there are doctors and hospitals that can cater to their health needs. Varied and high-quality educational opportunities are another factor in urban migration, as well as the opportunity to join, develop, and seek out social communities.

Urbanization also creates opportunities for women that are not available in rural areas. This creates a gender-related transformation where women are engaged in paid employment and have access to education. This may cause fertility to decline. However, women are sometimes still at a disadvantage due to their unequal position in the labour market, their inability to secure assets independently from male relatives and exposure to violence. [27]

People in cities are more productive than in rural areas. An important question is whether this is due to agglomeration effects or whether cities simply attract those who are more productive. Urban geographers have shown that there exists a large productivity gain due to locating in dense agglomerations. [28] It is thus possible that agents[ clarification needed ] locate in cities in order to benefit from these agglomeration effects.

Dominant conurbation

The dominant conurbation(s) of a country can benefit to a greater extent from the same things cities offer, making them magnets for not just the non-urban population, but also urban and suburban population from other cities. Dominant conurbations are quite often primate cities, but do not have to be. For instance Greater Manila is rather a conurbation than a city: its 20 million overall population (over 20% national population) make it very much a primate city, but Quezon City (2.7 million), the largest municipality in Greater Manila, and Manila (1.6 million), the capital, are not. A conurbation's dominance can be measured by output, wealth, and especially population, each expressed as a percentage of an entire country. Greater Seoul is one conurbation with massive dominance over South Korea, it is home to 50% of the entire national population. [29]

Though Greater Busan-Ulsan (15%, 8 million) and Greater Osaka (14%, 18 million) exhibit strong dominance in their respective countries, they are losing population to their even more dominant rivals, Seoul and Tokyo respectively.

Economic effect

Crowded people on Siam BTS Station on the rush hour in Bangkok, Thailand Crowded BTS skytrain Bangkok.jpg
Crowded people on Siam BTS Station on the rush hour in Bangkok, Thailand

As cities develop, effects can include a dramatic increase and change in costs, often pricing the local working class out of the market, including such functionaries as employees of the local municipalities. For example, Eric Hobsbawm's book The age of revolution: 1789–1848 (published 1962 and 2005) chapter 11, stated "Urban development in our period [1789–1848] was a gigantic process of class segregation, which pushed the new labouring poor into great morasses of misery outside the centres of government, business, and the newly specialized residential areas of the bourgeoisie. The almost universal European division into a 'good' west end and a 'poor' east end of large cities developed in this period." This is likely due to the prevailing south-west wind which carries coal smoke and other airborne pollutants downwind, making the western edges of towns preferable to the eastern ones. [30] Similar problems now affect the developing world, rising inequality resulting from rapid urbanization trends. The drive for rapid urban growth and often efficiency can lead to less equitable urban development. Think tanks such as the Overseas Development Institute have proposed policies that encourage labor-intensive growth as a means of absorbing the influx of low-skilled and unskilled labor. [31] One problem these migrant workers are involved with is the growth of slums. In many cases, the rural-urban low skilled or unskilled migrant workers, attracted by economic opportunities in urban areas, cannot find a job and afford housing in cities and have to dwell in slums. [32] Urban problems, along with infrastructure developments, are also fueling suburbanization trends in developing nations, though the trend for core cities in said nations tends to continue to become ever denser. Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend, but there are positives in the reduction of expenses in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity and diversity. [33] [34] [35] [36] While cities have a greater variety of markets and goods than rural areas, infrastructure congestion, monopolization, high overhead costs, and the inconvenience of cross-town trips frequently combine to make marketplace competition harsher in cities than in rural areas.

In many developing countries where economies are growing, the growth is often erratic and based on a small number of industries. For young people in these countries, barriers exist such as lack of access to financial services and business advisory services, difficulty in obtaining credit to start a business, and lack of entrepreneurial skills, in order for them to access opportunities in these industries. Investment in human capital so that young people have access to quality education and infrastructure to enable access to educational facilities is imperative to overcoming economic barriers. [37]

Environmental effects

The existence of urban heat islands has become a growing concern over the years. An urban heat island is formed when industrial and urban areas produce and retain heat. Much of the solar energy that reaches rural areas is consumed by evaporation of water from vegetation and soil. In cities, where there are less vegetation and exposed soil, most of the sun's energy is instead absorbed by buildings and asphalt; leading to higher surface temperatures. Vehicles, factories, and industrial and domestic heating and cooling units release even more heat. [38] As a result, cities are often 1 to 3 °C (1.8 to 5.4 °F) warmer than surrounding landscapes. [39] Impacts also include reducing soil moisture and a reduction in reabsorption of carbon dioxide emissions. [40]

In his book Whole Earth Discipline , Stewart Brand argues that the effects of urbanization are primarily positive for the environment. First, the birth rate of new urban dwellers falls immediately to replacement rate and keeps falling, reducing environmental stresses caused by population growth. [41] Secondly, emigration from rural areas reduces destructive subsistence farming techniques, such as improperly implemented slash and burn agriculture.

Urbanization may improve environmental quality as a result of numerous reasons. For instance, urbanization upsurges income levels which instigates the eco-friendly services sector and increases demand for green and environmentally compliant products. Furthermore, urbanization improves environmental eminence through superior facilities and better-quality living standards in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Lastly, urbanization curbs pollution emissions by increasing R&D and innovations. [42]

In the book "Carbon Zero: Imagining Cities that can save the planet", Alex Steffen also speaks of the environmental benefits of increasing the urbanization level. [43]

In July 2013 a report issued by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs [44] warned that with 2.4 billion more people by 2050, the amount of food produced will have to increase by 70%, straining food resources, especially in countries already facing food insecurity due to changing environmental conditions. The mix of changing environmental conditions and the growing population of urban regions, according to UN experts, will strain basic sanitation systems and health care, and potentially cause a humanitarian and environmental disaster. [45]

Water quality

The occurrence of eutrophication in bodies of water is another effect large urban populations have on the environment. When rain occurs in these large cities, the rain filters down the pollutants such as CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the air onto the ground below. Then, those chemicals are washed directly into rivers, streams, and oceans, causing a decline in water quality and damaging marine ecosystems. [46]

Eutrophication is a process which causes hypoxic water conditions and algal blooms that may be detrimental to the survival of aquatic life. [47] Harmful algal blooms, which produce dangerous toxins, thrive in eutrophic environments that are also rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. [48] In these ideal conditions, they overtake surface water, making it difficult for other organisms to receive sunlight and nutrients. Overgrowth of algal blooms causes a decrease in overall water quality and disrupts the natural balance of aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, as algal blooms die, CO2 is produced, causing a more acidic environment, a process known as acidification. [49]

The ocean's surface also has the ability to absorb CO2 from the earth's atmosphere as emissions increase with the rise in urbanization. In fact, it is reported that the ocean absorbs a quarter of the CO2 produced by humans. [50] This has been useful to the environment by decreasing the harmful effects of greenhouse gases, but also further perpetuates acidification. [51] Changes in pH inhibit the proper formation of calcium carbonate, a crucial component for many marine organisms to maintain shells or skeletons. [52] [50] This is especially true for many species of mollusks and coral. Regardless, some species have been able to instead adapt or thrive in a more acidic environment [53]

Food waste

Rapid growth of communities create new challenges in the developed world and one such challenge is an increase in food waste [54] also known as urban food waste. [55] [56] [57] Food waste is the disposal of food products that can no longer be used due to unused products, expiration, or spoilage. The increase of food waste can raise environmental concerns such as increase production of methane gases and attraction of disease vectors. [56] [58] Landfills are the third leading cause of the release of methane, [59] causing a concern on its impact to our ozone and on the health of individuals. Accumulation of food waste causes increased fermentation, which increases the risk of rodent and bug migration. An increase in migration of disease vectors creates greater potential of disease spreading to humans. [60]

Habitat fragmentation

Urbanization can have a large effect on biodiversity by causing a division of habitats and thereby alienation of species, a process known as habitat fragmentation. [61] Habitat fragmentation does not destroy the habitat, as seen in habitat loss, but rather breaks it apart with things like roads and railways [62] This change may affect a species ability to sustain life by separating it from the environment in which it is able to easily access food, and find areas that they may hide from predation [63] With proper planning and management, fragmentation can be avoided by adding corridors that aid in the connection of areas and allow for easier movement around urbanized regions.

Depending on the various factors, such as level of urbanization, both increases or decreases in "species richness" can be seen. [64] This means that urbanization may be detrimental to one species but also help facilitate the growth of others. In instances of housing and building development, many times vegetation is completely removed immediately in order to make it easier and less expensive for construction to occur, thereby obliterating any native species in that area. Other times, such as with birds, urbanization may allow for an increase in richness when organisms are able to adapt to the new environment. This can be seen in species that may find food while scavenging developed areas or vegetation that has been added after urbanization has occurred i.e. planted trees in city areas [65]

Health and social effects

When cities don’t plan for increases in population it drives up house and land prices, creating rich (ghettos) and poor ghettos. "You get a very unequal society and that inequality is manifested where people live, in our neighbourhoods, and it means there can be less capacity for empathy and less development for all society." — Jack Finegan, Urban Programme Specialist at UN-Habitat [66]

In the developing world, urbanization does not translate into a significant increase in life expectancy. [67] Rapid urbanization has led to increased mortality from non-communicable diseases associated with lifestyle, including cancer and heart disease. [68] Differences in mortality from contagious diseases vary depending on the particular disease and location. [67]

Urban health levels are on average better in comparison to rural areas. However, residents in poor urban areas such as slums and informal settlements suffer "disproportionately from disease, injury, premature death, and the combination of ill-health and poverty entrenches disadvantage over time." [27] Many of the urban poor have difficulty accessing health services due to their inability to pay for them; so they resort to less qualified and unregulated providers.

While urbanization is associated with improvements in public hygiene, sanitation and access to health care, it also entails changes in occupational, dietary, and exercise patterns. [68] It can have mixed effects on health patterns, alleviating some problems, and accentuating others. [67]

Nutrition

One such effect is the formation of food deserts. Nearly 23.5 million people in the United States lack access to supermarkets within one mile of their home. [69] Several studies suggest that long distances to a grocery store are associated with higher rates of obesity and other health disparities. [70]

Food deserts in developed countries often correspond to areas with a high-density of fast food chains and convenience stores that offer little to no fresh food. [71] Urbanization has been shown to be associated with the consumption of less fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and a higher consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. [70] Poor access to healthy food and high intakes of fat, sugar and salt are associated with a greater risk for obesity, diabetes and related chronic disease. Overall, body mass index and cholesterol levels increase sharply with national income and the degree of urbanization.[40]

Food deserts in the United States are most commonly found in low-income and predominately African American neighborhoods. [70] One study on food deserts in Denver, Colorado found that, in addition to minorities, the affected neighborhoods also had a high proportion of children and new births. [72] In children, urbanization is associated with a lower risk of under-nutrition but a higher risk of overweight.[39]

Asthma

Urbanization has also been associated with an increased risk of asthma as well. Throughout the world, as communities transition from rural to more urban societies, the number of people affected by asthma increases. The odds of reduced rates of hospitalization and death from asthmas has decreased for children and young adults in urbanized municipalities in Brazil. This finding indicates that urbanization may have a negative impact on population health particularly affecting people's susceptibility to asthma. [73]

In low and middle income countries many factors contribute to the high numbers of people with asthma. Similar to areas in the United States with increasing urbanization, people living in growing cities in low income countries experience high exposure to air pollution, which increases the prevalence and severity of asthma among these populations. [74] Links have been found between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and allergic diseases. [75] Children living in poor, urban areas in the United States now have an increased risk of morbidity due to asthma in comparison to other low-income children in the United States. [76] In addition, children with croup living in urban areas have higher hazard ratios for asthma than similar children living in rural areas. Researchers suggest that this difference in hazard ratios is due to the higher levels of air pollution and exposure to environmental allergens found in urban areas. [77]

Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), can cause DNA methylation of CpG sites in immune cells, which increases children's risk of developing asthma. Studies have shown a positive correlation between Foxp3 methylation and children's exposure to NO2, CO, and PM2.5. Furthermore, any amount of exposure to high levels of air pollution have shown long term effects on the Foxp3 region. [78]

Despite the increase in access to health services that usually accompanies urbanization, the rise in population density negatively affects air quality ultimately mitigating the positive value of health resources as more children and young adults develop asthma due to high pollution rates. [73] However, urban planning, as well as emission control, can lessen the effects of traffic-related air pollution on allergic diseases such as asthma. [75]

Crime

Historically crime and urbanization have gone hand in hand. The simplest explanation is that areas with a higher population density are surrounded by greater availability of goods. Committing crimes in urbanized areas is also more feasible. Modernization has led to more crime as well. There is a greater awareness of the income gap between the rich and poor due to modern media. This leads to feelings of deprivation which can lead to crime. In some regions where urbanization happens in wealthier areas, a rise in property crime and a decrease in violent crime is seen. [79]

Data shows that there is an increase in crime in urbanized areas. Some factors include per capita income, income inequality, and overall population size. There is also a smaller association between unemployment rate, police expenditures and crime. [80] The presence of crime also has the ability to produce more crime. These areas have less social cohesion and therefore less social control. This is evident in the geographical regions that crime occurs in. As most crime tends to cluster in city centers, the further the distance from the center of the city, the lower the occurrence of crimes are. [81]

Migration is also a factor that can increase crime in urbanized areas. People from one area are displaced and forced to move into an urbanized society. Here they are in a new environment with new norms and social values. This can lead to less social cohesion and more crime. [82]

Physical activity

Although urbanization tends to produce more negative effects, one positive effect that urbanization has impacted is an increase in physical activity in comparison to rural areas. Residents of rural areas and communities in the United States have higher rates of obesity and engage in less physical activity than urban residents. [83] Rural residents consume a higher percent of fat calories and are less likely to meet the guidelines for physical activity and more likely to be physically inactive. [84] [85] In comparison to regions within the United States, the west has the lowest prevalence of physical inactivity and the south has the highest prevalence of physical inactivity. [85] Metropolitan and large urban areas across all regions have the highest prevalence of physical activity among residents. [85]

Barriers such as geographic isolation, busy and unsafe roads, and social stigmas lead to decreased physical activity in rural environments. [86] Faster speed limits on rural roads prohibits the ability to have bike lanes, sidewalks, footpaths, and shoulders along the side of the roads. [83] Less developed open spaces in rural areas, like parks and trails, suggest that there is lower walkability in these areas in comparison to urban areas. [83] Many residents in rural settings have to travel long distances to utilize exercise facilities, taking up too much time in the day and deterring residents from using recreational facilities to obtain physical activity. [86] Additionally, residents of rural communities are traveling further for work, decreasing the amount of time that can be spent on leisure physical activity and significantly decreases the opportunity to partake in active transportation to work. [83]

Neighborhoods and communities with nearby fitness venues, a common feature of urbanization, have residents that partake in increased amounts of physical activity. [86] Communities with sidewalks, street lights, and traffic signals have residents participating in more physical activity than communities without those features. [83] Having a variety of destinations close to where people live, increases the use of active transportation, such as walking and biking. [87] Active transportation is also enhanced in urban communities where there is easy access to public transportation due to residents walking or biking to transportation stops. [87]

In a study comparing different regions in the United States, opinions across all areas were shared that environmental characteristics like access to sidewalks, safe roads, recreational facilities, and enjoyable scenery are positively associated with participation in leisure physical activity. [85] Perceiving that resources are nearby for physical activity increases the likelihood that residents of all communities will meet the guidelines and recommendations for appropriate physical activity. [87] Specific to rural residents, the safety of outdoor developed spaces and convenient availability to recreational facilities matters most when making decisions on increasing physical activity. [84] In order to combat the levels of inactivity in rural residents, more convenient recreational features, such as the ones discussed in this paragraph, need to be implemented into rural communities and societies.

Mental health

Urbanization factors that contribute to mental health can be thought of as factors that affect the individual and factors that affect the larger social group. At the macro, social group level, changes related to urbanization are thought to contribute to social disintegration and disorganization. These macro factors contribute to social disparities which affect individuals by creating perceived insecurity. [88] Perceived insecurity can be due problems with the physical environment, such as issues with personal safety, or problems with the social environment, such as a loss of positive self-concepts from negative events. [89] Increased stress is a common individual psychological stressor that accompanies urbanization and is thought to be due to perceived insecurity. Changes in social organization, a consequence of urbanization, are thought to lead to reduced social support, increased violence, and overcrowding. It is these factors that are thought to contribute to increased stress. [90] It is important to note that urbanization or population density alone does not cause mental health problems. It is the combination of urbanization with physical and social risk factors that contribute to mental health problems. As cities continue to expand it is important to consider and account for mental health along with other public health measures that accompany urbanization.

Changing forms

Different forms of urbanization can be classified depending on the style of architecture and planning methods as well as the historic growth of areas.

Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006. 2006megacities.svg
Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006.

In cities of the developed world urbanization traditionally exhibited a concentration of human activities and settlements around the downtown area, the so-called in-migration. In-migration refers to migration from former colonies and similar places. The fact that many immigrants settle in impoverished city centres led to the notion of the "peripheralization of the core", which simply describes that people who used to be at the periphery of the former empires now live right in the centre.

Recent developments, such as inner-city redevelopment schemes, mean that new arrivals in cities no longer necessarily settle in the centre. In some developed regions, the reverse effect, originally called counter urbanization has occurred, with cities losing population to rural areas, and is particularly common for richer families. This has been possible because of improved communications and has been caused by factors such as the fear of crime and poor urban environments. It has contributed to the phenomenon of shrinking cities experienced by some parts of the industrialized world.

When the residential area shifts outward, this is called suburbanization. A number of researchers and writers suggest that suburbanization has gone so far to form new points of concentration outside the downtown both in developed and developing countries such as India. [91] This networked, poly-centric form of concentration is considered by some emerging pattern of urbanization. It is called variously edge city (Garreau, 1991), network city (Batten, 1995), postmodern city (Dear, 2000), or exurb, though the latter term now refers to a less dense area beyond the suburbs. Los Angeles is the best-known example of this type of urbanization. In the United States, this process has reversed as of 2011, with "re-urbanization" occurring as suburban flight due to chronically high transport costs. [92]

Rural migrants are attracted by the possibilities that cities can offer, but often settle in shanty towns and experience extreme poverty. The inability of countries to provide adequate housing for these rural migrants is related to overurbanization, a phenomenon in which the rate of urbanization grows more rapidly than the rate of economic development, leading to high unemployment and high demand for resources. [93] In the 1980s, this was attempted to be tackled with the urban bias theory which was promoted by Michael Lipton.

...the most important class conflict in the poor countries of the world today is not between labour and capital. Nor is it between foreign and national interests. It is between rural classes and urban classes. The rural sector contains most of the poverty and most of the low-cost sources of potential advance; but the urban sector contains most of the articulateness, organization, and power. So the urban classes have been able to win most of the rounds of the struggle with the countryside...". — Michael Lipton, author of urban bias theory [94]

Most of the urban poor in developing countries unable to find work can spend their lives in insecure, poorly paid jobs. According to research by the Overseas Development Institute pro-poor urbanization will require labour-intensive growth, supported by labour protection, flexible land use regulation and investments in basic services.' [95]

Urbanization can be planned urbanization or organic. Planned urbanization, i.e.: planned community or the garden city movement, is based on an advance plan, which can be prepared for military, aesthetic, economic or urban design reasons. Examples can be seen in many ancient cities; although with exploration came the collision of nations, which meant that many invaded cities took on the desired planned characteristics of their occupiers. Many ancient organic cities experienced redevelopment for military and economic purposes, new roads carved through the cities, and new parcels of land were cordoned off serving various planned purposes giving cities distinctive geometric designs. UN agencies prefer to see urban infrastructure installed before urbanization occurs. Landscape planners are responsible for landscape infrastructure (public parks, sustainable urban drainage systems, greenways etc.) which can be planned before urbanization takes place, or afterward to revitalize an area and create greater livability within a region. Concepts of control of the urban expansion are considered in the American Institute of Planners.

As population continues to grow and urbanize at unprecedented rates, new urbanism and smart growth techniques are implemented to create a transition into developing environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable cities. Smart Growth and New Urbanism's principles include walkability, mixed-use development, comfortable high-density design, land conservation, social equity, and economic diversity. Mixed-use communities work to fight gentrification with affordable housing to promote social equity, decrease automobile dependency to lower use of fossil fuels, and promote a localized economy. Walkable communities have a 38% higher average GDP per capita than less walkable urban metros (Leinberger, Lynch). By combining economic, environmental, and social sustainability, cities will become equitable, resilient, and more appealing than urban sprawl that overuses land, promotes automobile use, and segregates the population economically. [96] [97]

See also

Historical

Regional

Related Research Articles

Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in which disease and infirmity are absent.

A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons. While slums differ in size and other characteristics, most lack reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Slum residences vary from shanty houses to professionally built dwellings which, because of poor-quality construction or provision of basic maintenance, have deteriorated.

Built environment environment created by humans

In the engineering and social sciences, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made environment that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to cities and beyond. It has been defined as "the human-made space in which people live, work and recreate on a day-to-day basis."

Urban agriculture The practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in or around urban areas

Urban agriculture,urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in or around urban areas. Urban agriculture can also involve animal husbandry, aquaculture, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, and horticulture. These activities occur in peri-urban areas as well, and peri-urban agriculture may have different characteristics.

Urban sprawl Expansion of auto-oriented, low-density development in suburbs

Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl mainly refers to the unrestricted growth in many urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning. In addition to describing a particular form of urbanization, the term also relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development. In Continental Europe, the term peri-urbanisation is often used to denote similar dynamics and phenomena, although the term urban sprawl is currently being used by the European Environment Agency. There is widespread disagreement about what constitutes sprawl and how to quantify it. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area. But others associate it with decentralization, discontinuity, segregation of uses, and so forth.

Environmental degradation deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution

Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. As indicated by the I=PAT equation, environmental impact (I) or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large and increasing human population (P), continually increasing economic growth or per capita affluence (A), and the application of resource-depleting and polluting technology (T).

The Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, was established in May 1980, and is the first special economic zone in the People's Republic of China. Five other special economic zones have since been established.

Ecologist Green Party (Moldova) political party in Moldova

The Ecologist Green Party, formerly known as the Ecologist Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" is a green political party in Moldova.

In China today, poverty refers mainly to the rural poor, as decades of economic growth have largely eradicated urban poverty. The dramatic progress in reducing poverty over the past three decades in China is well known. According to the World Bank, more than 850 million Chinese people have been lifted out of extreme poverty; China's poverty rate fell from 88 percent in 1981 to 0.7 percent in 2015, as measured by the percentage of people living on the equivalent of US$1.90 or less per day in 2011 purchasing price parity terms.

Nutrition transition is the shift in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincides with economic, demographic, and epidemiological changes. Specifically the term is used for the transition of developing countries from traditional diets high in cereal and fiber to more Western pattern diets high in sugars, fat, and animal-source food.

Sustainability process of maintaining change in a balanced fashion

Sustainability is the ability to exist constantly. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for the biosphere and human civilization to coexist. It is also defined as the process of people maintaining change in a homeostasis balanced environment, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. For many in the field, sustainability is defined through the following interconnected domains or pillars: environment, economic and social, which according to Fritjof Capra is based on the principles of Systems Thinking. Sub-domains of sustainable development have been considered also: cultural, technological and political. According to the Our Common Future, Sustainable development is defined as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainable development may be the organizing principle of sustainability, yet others may view the two terms as paradoxical.

Urban open space open space areas for "parks", "green spaces", and other open areas

In land use planning, urban open space is open space areas for "parks," "green spaces," and other open areas. The landscape of urban open spaces can range from playing fields to highly maintained environments to relatively natural landscapes. Generally considered open to the public, urban open spaces are sometimes privately owned, such as higher education campuses, neighborhood/community parks/gardens, and institutional or corporate grounds. Areas outside city boundaries, such as state and national parks as well as open space in the countryside, are not considered urban open space. Streets, piazzas, plazas and urban squares are not always defined as urban open space in land use planning.

Despite India's 50% increase in GDP since 1991, more than one third of the world's malnourished children live in India. Among these, half of the children under three years old are underweight and a third of wealthiest children are over-nutriented.

Rural poverty refers to poverty in rural areas, including factors of rural society, rural economy, and political systems that give rise to the poverty found there. Rural poverty is often discussed in conjunction with spatial inequality, which in this context refers to the inequality between urban and rural areas. Both rural poverty and spatial inequality are global phenomena, but like poverty in general, there are higher rates of rural poverty in developing countries than in developed countries. Eradicating rural poverty through effective policies and economic growth remains a challenge for the international community.

Poverty in Bangladesh has declined remarkably since the early-2000s, as result decades of accelerated economic growth. The remarkable progress in poverty alleviation has been recognized by international institutions. According to the World Bank, Bangladesh's poverty rate fell from 82% in 1972, to 18.5% in 2010, to 13.8% in 2016, and below 9% in 2018,as measured by the percentage of people living below the international extreme poverty line. Based on the current rate of poverty reduction, Bangladesh is projected to eliminate extreme poverty by 2021, first nation in South Asia to do so.

Overurbanization is a thesis originally developed by scholars of demography, geography, ecology, economics, political science, and sociology in the 20th century to describe cities whose rate of urbanization outpaces their industrial growth and economic development. A city is considered to be overurbanized when any additional population will lead to a decline in per capita income of the city. Overurbanized countries are characterized by an inability to provide for their populations in terms of employment and resources. The term is intentionally comparative and has been used to differentiate between developed and developing countries. Several causes have been suggested, but the most common is rural-push and urban-pull factors in addition to population growth.

The social determinants of health in poverty describe the factors that affect impoverished populations' health and health inequality. Inequalities in health stem from the conditions of people's lives, including living conditions, work environment, age, and other social factors, and how these affect people's ability to respond to illness. These conditions are also shaped by political, social, and economic structures. The majority of people around the globe do not meet their potential best health because of a "toxic combination of bad policies, economics, and politics". Daily living conditions work together with these structural drivers to result in the social determinants of health.

Urbanization in India began to accelerate after, due to the country's adoption of a mixed economy, which gave rise to the development of the private sector. Urbanisation is taking place at a faster rate in India. Population residing in urban areas in India, according to 1901 census, was 11.4%. This count increased to 28.53% according to 2001 census, and crossing 30% as per 2011 census, standing at 31.16%. In 2017, the numbers increased to 34%, according to The World Bank. According to a survey by UN State of the World Population report in 2007, by 2030, 40.76% of country's population is expected to reside in urban areas. As per World Bank, India, along with China, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the United States, will lead the world's urban population surge by 2050.

Environmental health policy is the interplay between the environment and health, and how the environment can affect human health. Policies are created by governments and organizations where they see the issues arising in the health of their jurisdiction related to the environment.

Laos is a nation with plentiful surface water and broad rivers, but outside of cities there is little infrastructure to make that water clean and accessible. Very little improvement has been made since the end of the Laotian Civil War in 1975, especially compared to peer nations such as Thailand. By 2015, 76% of Laotians nationwide were estimated to have access to “improved” water, while 71% were estimated to have access to “improved” sanitation.

References

  1. "Urbanization". MeSH browser. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 5 November 2014. The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
  2. "Urbanization in". demographic partitions. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  3. Tacoli, Cecilia (2015). Urbanisation, rural-urban migration and urban poverty. McGranahan, Gordon, Satterthwaite, David. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. ISBN   9781784311377. OCLC   942419887.
  4. "UN says half the world's population will live in urban areas by end of 2008". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 26 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009.
  5. "Urban life: Open-air computers". The Economist. 27 October 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  6. 1 2 "Urbanization". UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund.
  7. Barney Cohen (2015). "Urbanization, City Growth, and the New United Nations Development Agenda". 3 (2). Cornerstone, The Official Journal of the World Coal Industry. pp. 4–7.
  8. Gries, T. and Grundmann, R., 2018. Fertility and modernization: the role of urbanization in developing countries. Journal of International Development, 30(3), pp.493-506.
  9. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends. Moscow: URSS, 2006; Korotayev A. The World System urbanization dynamics. History & Mathematics: Historical Dynamics and Development of Complex Societies. Edited by Peter Turchin, Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev, and Victor C. de Munck. Moscow: KomKniga, 2006. The World System urbanization dynamics. History & Mathematics: Historical Dynamics and Development of Complex Societies. Edited by Peter Turchin, Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev, and Victor C. de Munck. Moscow: KomKniga, 2006. ISBN   5-484-01002-0. P. 44-62
  10. worldpopulationreview.com http://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/delhi-population/ . Retrieved 1 May 2019.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. "United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, CD-ROM Edition".
  12. The Urbanization and Political Development of the World System: A comparative quantitative analysis. History & Mathematics 2 (2006): 115–53.
  13. Abraham Eraly (2007), The Mughal World: Life in India's Last Golden Age, p. 5, Penguin Books
  14. Irfan Habib; Dharma Kumar; Tapan Raychaudhuri (1987). The Cambridge Economic History of India (PDF). 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 170.
  15. Paolo Malanima (2009). Pre-Modern European Economy: One Thousand Years (10th-19th Centuries). Brill Publishers. p. 244. ISBN   978-9004178229.
  16. 1 2 Christopher Watson (1993). K.B. Wildey; Wm H. Robinson (eds.). Trends in urbanisation. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Urban Pests. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.522.7409 .
  17. Annez, Patricia Clarke; Buckley, Robert M. (2009). "Urbanization and Growth: Setting the Context" (PDF). In Spence, Michael; Annez, Patricia Clarke; Buckley, Robert M. (eds.). Urbanization and Growth. ISBN   978-0-8213-7573-0.
  18. Reba, Meredith; Reitsma, Femke; Seto, Karen C. (7 June 2016). "Spatializing 6,000 years of global urbanization from 3700 BC to AD 2000". Scientific Data. 3: 160034. Bibcode:2016NatSD...360034R. doi:10.1038/sdata.2016.34. ISSN   2052-4463. PMC   4896125 . PMID   27271481.
  19. "Research Data–Seto Lab". www.urban.yale.edu. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  20. "The History of Urbanization, 3700 BC – 2000 AD". YouTube. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  21. Stephens, Lucas; Fuller, Dorian; Boivin, Nicole; Rick, Torben; Gauthier, Nicolas; Kay, Andrea; Marwick, Ben; Armstrong, Chelsey Geralda; Barton, C. Michael (30 August 2019). "Archaeological assessment reveals Earth's early transformation through land use". Science. 365 (6456): 897–902. doi:10.1126/science.aax1192. ISSN   0036-8075.
  22. Stephens, Lucas; Fuller, Dorian; Boivin, Nicole; Rick, Torben; Gauthier, Nicolas; Kay, Andrea; Marwick, Ben; Armstrong, Chelsey Geralda; Barton, C. Michael (30 August 2019). "Archaeological assessment reveals Earth's early transformation through land use". Science. 365 (6456): 897–902. doi:10.1126/science.aax1192. ISSN   0036-8075.
  23. based on 2000 U.S. Census Data
  24. 1 2 Fuller, Thomas (5 June 2012). "Thai Youth Seek a Fortune Away From the Farm". New York Times. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
  25. Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa (21 January 2010). "Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey". Nutrients. 2 (1): 60–74. doi:10.3390/nu2010060. PMC   3257614 . PMID   22253992.
  26. "Early Death Assured In India Where 900 Million Go Hungry". Bloomberg. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
  27. 1 2 "Urbanization, gender and urban poverty:Paid work and unpaid carework in the city". UNFPA. 2012.
  28. Borowiecki, Karol J. (2013) Geographic Clustering and Productivity: An Instrumental Variable Approach for Classical Composers, Journal of Urban Economics, 73(1): 94–110
  29. Archived 26 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  30. Benedictus, Leo (12 May 2017). "Blowing in the wind: why do so many cities have poor east ends?". The Guardian.
  31. Grant, Ursula (2008) Opportunity and exploitation in urban labour markets London: Overseas Development Institute
  32. Todaro, Michael P. (1969). "A Model of Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries". The American Economic Review. 59 (1): 148.
  33. Glaeser, Edward (Spring 1998). "Are Cities Dying?". The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 12 (2): 139–60. doi:10.1257/jep.12.2.139.
  34. Brand, Stewart. "Whole Earth Discipline – annotated extract" . Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  35. Nowak, J. (1997). "Neighborhood Initiative and the Regional Economy". Economic Development Quarterly. 11: 3–10. doi:10.1177/089124249701100101.
  36. Using the Gall-Peters Projection it is estimated that come 2015 the worlds urban population is set to exceed 4 billion, most of this growth is expected in Africa and Asia and China to be 50% urbanized.
  37. "State of the World Population 2014". UNFPA. 2014.
  38. Park, H.-S. (1987). Variations in the urban heat island intensity affected by geographical environments. Environmental Research Center papers, no. 11. Ibaraki, Japan: Environmental Research Center, The University of Tsukuba.
  39. "Heat Island Effect". Epa.gov (17 November 2010). Retrieved on 7 April 2014.
  40. "Heating Up: Study Shows Rapid Urbanization in China Warming the Regional Climate Faster than Other Urban Areas".
  41. Urbanization: An Environmental Force to Be Reckoned With
  42. Yasin, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Nawaz; Chaudhary, M. Aslam (22 July 2019). "Catechizing the Environmental-Impression of Urbanization, Financial Development, and Political Institutions: A Circumstance of Ecological Footprints in 110 Developed and Less-Developed Countries". Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-019-02163-3. ISSN   0303-8300.
  43. Carbon Zero: Imagining Cities that can save the planet by Alex Steffen
  44. "World Economic and Social Survey (WESS) 2013" World Economic and Social Affairs. July 2013.
  45. Auber, Tamar (17 July 2013) "Climate change and rapid urban expansion in Africa threaten children’s lives." UNEARTH News. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  46. Jiang, Leiwen; Hoepf Young, Malea; Hardee, Karen (2008). "Population, Urbanization, And The Environment". World Watch. 21 (5): 34–39.
  47. "About Eutrophication | World Resources Institute". www.wri.org. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  48. "Harmful Algal Blooms". US Environmental Protection Administration. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  49. Ramesh, R; Lakshmi, A; Purvaja, R; Costanzo, S.D; Kelsey, R.H; Hawkey, J; Datta, A; Dennison, W.C (2013). "Eutrophication and Ocean Acidification" (PDF).
  50. 1 2 "National Climate Assessment". National Climate Assessment. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  51. Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Newton, Jan; Sabine, Christopher L.; Warner, Mark; Devol, Allan; Krembs, Christopher; Maloy, Carol (August 2010). "The combined effects of ocean acidification, mixing, and respiration on pH and carbonate saturation in an urbanized estuary". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 88 (4): 442–449. Bibcode:2010ECSS...88..442F. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2010.05.004. ISSN   0272-7714.
  52. Fisheries, NOAA (9 September 2018). "Understanding Ocean Acidification | NOAA Fisheries". www.fisheries.noaa.gov. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  53. "Ocean Acidification". Smithsonian Ocean. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  54. Thyberg, Krista L.; Tonjes, David J. (2016). "Drivers of food waste and their implications for sustainable policy development". Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 106: 110–123. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.11.016. ISSN   0921-3449.
  55. "Article: "Urban Food Waste generation: challenges and opportunities" Journal: Int. J. of Environment and Waste Management, 2009 Vol.3 No.1/2 pp.4 - 21 Abstract: Greater economic activity and a wider economic gap between rural and urban areas is leading to accelerated urbanisation and the generation of 35% more Urban Food Waste (UFW) from 2007 to 2025. Besides landfilling, this paper examines the advantages of introducing onsite composting and anaerobic digestion for the environmental recycling of UFW and the lowering of handling cost. For Asia and Africa, these solutions for UFW could reduce the mass of MSW by 43% and 55%, respectively, thus help there cities manage almost all of their MSW. For North America and Europe, such practice could reduce earth warming trends. - Inderscience Publishers - linking academia, business and industry through research". www.inderscience.com. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  56. 1 2 Adhikari, Bijaya K.; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José (October 2006). "Predicted growth of world urban food waste and methane production". Waste Management & Research. 24 (5): 421–433. doi:10.1177/0734242X06067767. ISSN   0734-242X. PMID   17121114.
  57. Adhikari, Bijaya K.; Barrington, Suzelle F.; Martinez, Jose (2009). "Urban Food Waste generation: challenges and opportunities" (PDF). International Journal of Environment and Waste Management. 3 (1/2): 4. doi:10.1504/ijewm.2009.024696. ISSN   1478-9876.
  58. "Vector-borne diseases". World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  59. EPA,OA, US (23 December 2015). "Overview of Greenhouse Gases | US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  60. Venkateswaran, Sandhya (1994). "Managing Waste: Ecological, Economic and Social Dimensions". Economic and Political Weekly. 29 (45/46): 2907–2911. JSTOR   4401996.
  61. Elmqvist, Thomas; Zipperer, Wayne; Güneralp, Burak (2016). "10". Urbanization, habitat loss, biodiversity decline: solution pathways to break the cycle. pp. 139–151.
  62. Liu Z, He C, Wu J (2016). "The Relationship between Habitat Loss and Fragmentation during Urbanization: An Empirical Evaluation from 16 World Cities". PLOS ONE. 11 (4): e0154613. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1154613L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154613. PMC   4849762 . PMID   27124180.
  63. Skagen, Susan K.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Adams, Rod D. (2005). "Nest Survival Relative to Patch Size in a Highly Fragmented Shortgrass Prairie Landscape". The Wilson Bulletin. 117: 23–34. doi:10.1676/04-038.
  64. McKinney, Michael L. (29 January 2008). "Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals". Urban Ecosystems. 11 (2): 161–176. doi:10.1007/s11252-007-0045-4. ISSN   1083-8155.
  65. McKinney, Michael (October 2002). "Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Conservation". BioScience. 52.
  66. "In crowded Hlaing Tharyar township, slums sit next to gated communites (sic) | Coconuts Yangon". 22 February 2016.
  67. 1 2 3 Eckert S, Kohler S (2014). "Urbanization and health in developing countries: a systematic review". World Health & Population. 15 (1): 7–20. doi:10.12927/whp.2014.23722. PMID   24702762.
  68. 1 2 Allender S, Foster C, Hutchinson L, Arambepola C (November 2008). "Quantification of urbanization in relation to chronic diseases in developing countries: a systematic review". Journal of Urban Health. 85 (6): 938–51. doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9325-4. PMC   2587653 . PMID   18931915.
  69. Block, Jason P.; Subramanian, S. V. (8 December 2015). "Moving Beyond "Food Deserts": Reorienting United States Policies to Reduce Disparities in Diet Quality". PLOS Medicine. 12 (12): e1001914. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001914. ISSN   1549-1676. PMC   4672916 . PMID   26645285.
  70. 1 2 3 Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Hunter, Gerald; Zenk, Shannon N.; Huang, Christina; Beckman, Robin; Dubowitz, Tamara (2014). "Distance to Store, Food Prices, and Obesity in Urban Food Deserts". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 47 (5): 587–595. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.07.005. PMC   4205193 . PMID   25217097.
  71. Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D. (14 November 2017). "Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (11): 1366. doi:10.3390/ijerph14111366. PMC   5708005 . PMID   29135909.
  72. Stilley, Megan. The University of Colorado at Denver, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2012. 1509386.
  73. 1 2 Ponte, Eduardo Vieira; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Athanazio, Rodrigo; Carvalho-Pinto, Regina; Fernandes, Frederico L. A.; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Stelmach, Rafael (1 February 2018). "Urbanization is associated with increased asthma morbidity and mortality in Brazil". The Clinical Respiratory Journal. 12 (2): 410–417. doi:10.1111/crj.12530. ISSN   1752-699X. PMID   27400674.
  74. Cruz, Álvaro A.; Stelmach, Rafael; Ponte, Eduardo V. (1 June 2017). "Asthma prevalence and severity in low-resource communities". Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 17 (3): 188–193. doi:10.1097/aci.0000000000000360. ISSN   1528-4050. PMID   28333691.
  75. 1 2 Carlsten, Christopher; Rider, Christopher F. (1 April 2017). "Traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease". Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 17 (2): 85–89. doi:10.1097/aci.0000000000000351. ISSN   1528-4050. PMID   28141628.
  76. Keet, Corinne A.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Peng, Roger D. (September 2017). "Urban residence, neighborhood poverty, race/ethnicity, and asthma morbidity among children on Medicaid". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 140 (3): 822–827. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2017.01.036. PMID   28283418.
  77. Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Lin, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Bor-Luen (1 September 2017). "Association of croup with asthma in children". Medicine. 96 (35): e7667. doi:10.1097/md.0000000000007667. ISSN   0025-7974. PMC   5585480 . PMID   28858086.
  78. Prunicki, Mary; Stell, Laurel; Dinakarpandian, Deendayal; de Planell-Saguer, Mariangels; Lucas, Richard W.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Balmes, John R.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Paglino, Tara (5 January 2018). "Exposure to NO2, CO, and PM2.5 is linked to regional DNA methylation differences in asthma". Clinical Epigenetics. 10: 2. doi:10.1186/s13148-017-0433-4. ISSN   1868-7083. PMC   5756438 . PMID   29317916.
  79. Shelley, L. I. (1981). Crime and modernization: The impact of industrialization and urbanization on crime. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
  80. Gumus, E. (2004). Crime in urban areas: An empirical investigation.
  81. Bruinsma, G. J. (2007). Urbanization and urban crime: Dutch geographical and environmental research. Crime and Justice, 35(1), 453-502.
  82. Malik, A. A. (2016). Urbanization and Crime: A Relational Analysis. J. HUMAN. & Soc. Scl., 21, 68-69.
  83. 1 2 3 4 5 Umstattd Meyer, M. Renée; Moore, Justin B.; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B.; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L. (2016). "Rural Active Living". Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 22 (5): E11–E20. doi:10.1097/phh.0000000000000333. PMC   4775461 . PMID   26327514.
  84. 1 2 Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G. (1 September 2012). "Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults From Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings From NHANES (2005-2008)". The Journal of Rural Health. 28 (4): 392–397. doi:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2012.00411.x. ISSN   1748-0361. PMC   3481194 . PMID   23083085.
  85. 1 2 3 4 REIS, JARED P.; BOWLES, HEATHER R.; AINSWORTH, BARBARA E.; DUBOSE, KATRINA D.; SMITH, SHARON; LADITKA, JAMES N. (1 December 2004). "Nonoccupational Physical Activity by Degree of Urbanization and U.S. Geographic Region". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 36 (12): 2093–2098. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000147589.98744.85. ISSN   0195-9131.
  86. 1 2 3 Seguin, Rebecca; Connor, Leah; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea; Eldridge, Galen (2014). "Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities". Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2014: 146502. doi:10.1155/2014/146502. ISSN   2090-0724. PMC   4276670 . PMID   25574386.
  87. 1 2 3 Sallis, James F.; Floyd, Myron F.; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Saelens, Brian E. (7 February 2012). "Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease". Circulation. 125 (5): 729–737. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.110.969022. ISSN   0009-7322. PMC   3315587 . PMID   22311885.
  88. Luciano (2016). "Perceived insecurity, mental health and urbanization: Results from a multicentric study". International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 62 (6): 252–61. doi:10.1177/0020764016629694. PMID   26896027.
  89. Berry, Helen (6 December 2007). "'Crowded suburbs' and 'killer cities': a brief review of the relationship between urban environments and mental health". NSW Public Health Bulletin. 18 (12): 222–7. doi:10.1071/NB07024. PMID   18093463.
  90. Srivastava, Kalpana (July 2009). "Urbanization and mental health". Industrial Psychiatry Journal. 18 (2): 75–6. doi:10.4103/0972-6748.64028. PMC   2996208 . PMID   21180479.
  91. Sridhar, K. S. (2007). "Density gradients and their determinants: Evidence from India". Regional Science and Urban Economics. 37 (3): 314–44. doi:10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2006.11.001.
  92. Bora, Madhusmita (1 July 2012). "Shifts in U.S. housing demand will likely lead to the re-urbanization of America". Nwitimes.com. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  93. Davis, Kingsley; Hertz Golden, Hilda (1954). "Urbanization and the Development of Pre-Industrial Areas". Economic Development and Cultural Change. 3 (1): 6–26. doi:10.1086/449673.
  94. Varshney, A. (ed.) 1993. "Beyond Urban Bias", p. 5. London: Frank Cass.
  95. "Opportunity and exploitation in urban labour markets" (PDF). Overseas Development Institute. November 2008.
  96. http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/foot-traffic-ahead.pdf
  97. Lovelace, E.H. (1965). "Control of urban expansion: the Lincoln, Nebraska experience". Journal of the American Institute of Planners . 31:4 (4): 348–52. doi:10.1080/01944366508978191.

Further reading