|A septic tank being installed in the ground|
|Position in sanitation chain||Collection and storage/treatment (on-site)|
|Application level||Household or neighborhood level (schools, hotels etc.)|
|Management level||Household, public, shared (most common is household level)|
|Inputs||blackwater (waste), greywater, brownwater|
|Outputs||Fecal sludge, effluent|
|Types||Single tank or multi-chamber septic tanks (potentially with baffles)|
|Environmental concerns||Groundwater pollution, water pollution e.g. during floods|
A septic tank is an underground chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, or plastic through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for basic treatment.Settling and anaerobic processes reduce solids and organics, but the treatment efficiency is only moderate (referred to as "primary treatment"). Septic tank systems are a type of simple onsite sewage facility (OSSF). They can be used in areas that are not connected to a sewerage system, such as rural areas. The treated liquid effluent is commonly disposed in a septic drain field, which provides further treatment. Nonetheless, groundwater pollution may occur and can be a problem.
The term "septic" refers to the anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank that decomposes or mineralizes the waste discharged into the tank. Septic tanks can be coupled with other onsite wastewater treatment units such as biofilters or aerobic systems involving artificially forced aeration.
The rate of accumulation of sludge—also called septage or fecal sludge—is faster than the rate of decomposition.Therefore, the accumulated fecal sludge must be periodically removed, which is commonly done with a vacuum truck.
A septic tank consists of one or more concrete or plastic tanks of between 4000 and 7500 litres (1,000 and 2,000 gallons); one end is connected to an inlet wastewater pipe and the other to a septic drain field. Generally these pipe connections are made with a T pipe, allowing liquid to enter and exit without disturbing any crust on the surface. Today, the design of the tank usually incorporates two chambers, each equipped with a manhole cover, and separated by a dividing wall with openings located about midway between the floor and roof of the tank.
Wastewater enters the first chamber of the tank, allowing solids to settle and scum to float. The settled solids are anaerobically digested, reducing the volume of solids. The liquid component flows through the dividing wall into the second chamber, where further settlement takes place. The excess liquid, now in a relatively clear condition, then drains from the outlet into the septic drain field, also referred to as a leach field, drain field or seepage field, depending upon locality. A percolation test is required prior to installation to ensure the porosity of the soil is adequate to serve as a drain field.
The remaining impurities are trapped and eliminated in the soil, with the excess water eliminated through percolation into the soil, through evaporation, and by uptake through the root system of plants and eventual transpiration or entering groundwater or surface water. A piping network, often laid in a stone-filled trench (see weeping tile), distributes the wastewater throughout the field with multiple drainage holes in the network. The size of the drain field is proportional to the volume of wastewater and inversely proportional to the porosity of the drainage field. The entire septic system can operate by gravity alone or, where topographic considerations require, with inclusion of a lift pump. Certain septic tank designs include siphons or other devices to increase the volume and velocity of outflow to the drainage field. These help to fill the drainage pipe more evenly and extend the drainage field life by preventing premature clogging or bioclogging.
An Imhoff tank is a two-stage septic system where the sludge is digested in a separate tank. This avoids mixing digested sludge with incoming sewage. Also, some septic tank designs have a second stage where the effluent from the anaerobic first stage is aerated before it drains into the seepage field.
A properly designed and normally operating septic system is odor-free. Besides periodic inspection and emptying, a septic tank should last for decades with minimal maintenance, with concrete, fiberglass, or plastic tanks lasting about 50 years.
Waste that is not decomposed by the anaerobic digestion must eventually be removed from the septic tank. Otherwise the septic tank fills up and wastewater containing undecomposed material discharges directly to the drainage field. Not only is this detrimental for the environment but, if the sludge overflows the septic tank into the leach field, it may clog the leach field piping or decrease the soil porosity itself, requiring expensive repairs.
When a septic tank is emptied, the accumulated sludge (septage, also known as fecal sludge) is pumped out of the tank by a vacuum truck. How often the septic tank must be emptied depends on the volume of the tank relative to the input of solids, the amount of indigestible solids, and the ambient temperature (because anaerobic digestion occurs more efficiently at higher temperatures), as well as usage, system characteristics and the requirements of the relevant authority. Some health authorities require tanks to be emptied at prescribed intervals, while others leave it up to the decision of an inspector. Some systems require pumping every few years or sooner, while others may be able to go 10–20 years between pumpings. An older system with an undersize tank that is being used by a large family will require much more frequent pumping than a new system used by only a few people. Anaerobic decomposition is rapidly restarted when the tank is refilled.
Services for de-sludging tend to empty a septic tank completely, i.e. take out all septage, although the actual removal of settled solids is left purposefully incomplete, so as to leave at least some of the microbial populations in place to continue the anaerobic degradation processes that take place in a septic tank.[ citation needed ] An empty tank may be damaged by hydrostatic pressure causing the tank to partially "float" out of the ground, especially in flood situations or very wet ground conditions.
The maintenance of a septic system is often the responsibility of the resident or property owner. Some forms of abuse or neglect include the following:
Septic tank additives have been promoted by some manufacturers with the aim to improve the effluent quality from septic tanks, reduce sludge build-up and to reduce odors. These additives—which are commonly based on "effective microorganisms"—are usually costly in the longer term and fail to live up to expectations.It has been estimated that in the U.S. more than 1,200 septic system additives were available on the market in 2011. Very little peer-reviewed and replicated field research exists regarding the efficacy of these biological septic tank additives.
While a properly maintained and located septic tank does not pose any more environmental problems than centralized municipal sewage treatment[ citation needed ], certain problems could arise with a septic tank in an unsuitable location. Since septic systems require large drainfields, they are unsuitable for densely built areas.
Some constituents of wastewater, especially sulfates, under the anaerobic conditions of septic tanks, are reduced to hydrogen sulfide, a pungent and toxic gas. Methane may also be released. Nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds can be reduced to ammonia. Because of the anaerobic conditions, fermentation processes take place, which may generate carbon dioxide and/or methane.[ citation needed ]
Septic tanks by themselves are ineffective at removing nitrogen compounds that have potential to cause algal blooms in waterways into which affected water from a septic system finds its way. This can be remedied by using a nitrogen-reducing technology, [ citation needed ]or by simply ensuring that the leach field is properly sited to prevent direct entry of effluent into bodies of water.
The fermentation processes cause the contents of a septic tank to be anaerobic with a low redox potential, which keeps phosphates in a soluble and, thus, mobilized form. Phosphates discharged from a septic tank into the environment can trigger prolific plant growth including algal blooms, which can also include blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria.
The soil's capacity to retain phosphorus is usually large enough to handle the load through a normal residential septic tank. An exception occurs when septic drain fields are located in sandy or coarser soils on property adjacent to a water body. Because of limited particle surface area, these soils can become saturated with phosphates. Phosphates will progress beyond the treatment area, posing a threat of eutrophication to surface waters.
In areas with high population density, groundwater pollution beyond acceptable limits may occur. Some small towns experience the costs of building very expensive centralized wastewater treatment systems because of this problem, due to the high cost of extended collection systems. To reduce residential development that might increase the demand to construct an expensive centralized sewerage system, building moratoriums and limitations on the subdivision of property are often imposed. Ensuring existing septic tanks are functioning properly can also be helpful for a limited time, but becomes less effective as a primary remediation strategy as population density increases.
In areas adjacent to water bodies with fish or shellfish intended for human consumption, improperly maintained and failing septic systems contribute to pollution levels that can force harvest restrictions and/or commercial or recreational harvest closures.
In the United States, the 2007 American Housing Survey indicated that about 20 percent of all households rely on septic tanks, [ citation needed ]and that the overwhelming majority of systems are located in rural (50%) and suburban (47%) areas. Indianapolis is one example of a large city where many of the city's neighborhoods still rely on separate septic systems. In Europe, septic systems are generally limited to rural areas.
The examples and perspective in this section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards the European Union. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In the European Union the EN 12566 standard provides the general requirements for packaged and site assembled treatment plants used for domestic wastewater treatment.
Part 1 (EN 12566-1) is for septic tanks that are prefabricated or factory manufactured and made of polyethylene, glass reinforced polyester, polypropylene, PVC-U, steel or concrete. Part 4 (EN 12566-4) regulates septic tanks that are assembled in situ from prefabricated kits, generally of concrete construction. Certified septic tanks of both types must pass a standardized hydraulic test to assess their ability to retain suspended solids within the system. Additionally, their structural adequacy in relevant ground conditions is assessed in terms of water-tightness, treatment efficiency, and structural behaviour.
In France, about 4 million households (or 20% of the population) are using on-site wastewater disposal systems (l’assainissement non collectif),including septic tanks (fosse septique). The legal framework for regulating the construction and maintenance of septic systems was introduced in 1992 and updated in 2009 and 2012 with the intent to establish the technical requirements applicable to individual sewerage systems. Septic tanks in France are subject to inspection by SPANC (Service Public d’Assainissement Non Collectif), a professional body appointed by the respective local authorities to enforce wastewater collection laws, at least once in four years. Following the introduction of EN 12566, the discharge of effluent directly into ditches or watercourses is prohibited, unless the effluent meets prescribed standards.
According to the Census of Ireland 2011, 27.5% of Irish households (i.e. about 440,000 households), with the majority in rural areas, use an individual septic tank.
Following a European Court of Justice judgment made against Ireland in 2009 that deemed the country non-compliant with the Waste Framework Directive in relation to domestic wastewaters disposed of in the countryside, the Water Services (Amendment) Act 2012 was passed in order to regulate wastewater discharges from domestic sources that are not connected to the public sewer network and to provide arrangements for registration and inspection of existing individual domestic wastewater treatment systems.
Additionally, a code of practice has been developed by the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate the planning and construction of new septic tanks, secondary treatment systems, septic drain fields and filter systems.Direct discharge of septic tank effluent into groundwater is prohibited in Ireland, while the indirect discharge via unsaturated subsoil into groundwater, e.g. by means of a septic drain field, or the direct discharge into surface water is permissible in accordance with a Water Pollution Act license. Registered septic tanks must be desludged by an authorized contractor at least once a year; the removed fecal sludge is disposed of, either to a managed municipal wastewater treatment facility or to agriculture provided that nutrient management regulations are met.
Since 2015, only certain property owners in England and Wales with septic tanks or small packaged sewage treatment systems need to register their systems, and either apply for a permit or qualify for an exemption with the Environment Agency.Permits need to be granted to systems that discharge more than a certain volume of effluent in a given time or that discharge effluent directly into sensitive areas (e.g., some groundwater protection zones). In general, permits are not granted for new septic tanks that discharge directly into surface waters. A septic tank discharging into a watercourse must be replaced or upgraded by 1 January 2020 to a Sewage Treatment Plant (also called an Onsite sewage facility), or sooner if the property is sold before this date, or if the Environment Agency (EA) finds that it is causing pollution.
In Northern Ireland, the Department of the Environment must give permission for all wastewater discharges where it is proposed that the discharge will go to a waterway or soil infiltration system. The discharge consent will outline conditions relating to the quality and quantity of the discharge in order to ensure the receiving waterway or the underground aquifer can absorb the discharge.
The Water Environment Regulations 2011 regulate the registration of septic tank systems in Scotland. Proof of registration is required when new properties are being developed or existing properties change ownership.
In Australia, septic tank design and installation requirements are regulated by State Governments, through Departments of Health and Environmental Protection Agencies. Regulation may include Codes of Practiceand Legislation. Regulatory requirements for the design and installation of septic tanks commonly references Australian Standards (1547 and 1546). Capacity requirements for septic tanks may be outlined within Codes of Practice, and can vary between states.
In many council districts (e.g. Sunshine Coast) septic systems have been banned and need to be replaced with much more expensive small scale sewage treatment systems that actively pump air into the tank producing an aerobic environment.[ citation needed ] Septic systems need to be replaced with any new building applications, regardless of how well the old system performed.[ citation needed ]
According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, in the United States it is the home owners' responsibility to maintain their septic systems.Anyone who ignores this requirement will eventually experience costly repairs when solids escape the tank and clog the clarified liquid effluent disposal system.
In Washington, for example, a "shellfish protection district" or "clean water district" is a geographic service area designated by a county to protect water quality and tideland resources. The district provides a mechanism to generate local funds for water quality services to control non-point sources of pollution, such as septic system maintenance. The district also serves as an educational resource, calling attention to the pollution sources that threaten shellfish growing waters.
Wastewater is any water that has been affected by human use. Wastewater is "used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and any sewer inflow or sewer infiltration". Therefore, wastewater is a byproduct of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities. The characteristics of wastewater vary depending on the source. Types of wastewater include: domestic wastewater from households, municipal wastewater from communities and industrial wastewater. Wastewater can contain physical, chemical and biological pollutants.
A sanitary sewer or foul sewer is an underground pipe or tunnel system for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment facilities or disposal. Sanitary sewers are part of an overall system called a sewage system or sewerage.
Wastewater treatment is a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused. The latter is called water reclamation because treated wastewater can be used for other purposes. The treatment process takes place in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), often referred to as a Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF) or a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). Pollutants in municipal wastewater are removed or broken down.
A composting toilet is a type of dry toilet that treats human excreta by a biological process called composting. This process leads to the decomposition of organic matter and turns human excreta into compost-like material but does not destroy all pathogens. Composting is carried out by microorganisms under controlled aerobic conditions. Most composting toilets use no water for flushing and are therefore called "dry toilets".
Human waste refers to the waste products of the human digestive system and the human metabolism, namely feces and urine. As part of a sanitation system that is in place, human waste is collected, transported, treated and disposed of or reused by one method or another, depending on the type of toilet being used, ability by the users to pay for services and other factors. Fecal sludge management is used to deal with fecal matter collected in on-site sanitation systems such as pit latrines and septic tanks.
Waste stabilization ponds are ponds designed and built for wastewater treatment to reduce the organic content and remove pathogens from wastewater. They are man-made depressions confined by earthen structures. Wastewater or "influent" enters on one side of the waste stabilization pond and exits on the other side as "effluent", after spending several days in the pond, during which treatment processes take place.
An aerated lagoon is a simple wastewater treatment system consisting of a pond with artificial aeration to promote the biological oxidation of wastewaters.
Septic drain fields, also called leach fields or leach drains, are subsurface wastewater disposal facilities used to remove contaminants and impurities from the liquid that emerges after anaerobic digestion in a septic tank. Organic materials in the liquid are catabolized by a microbial ecosystem.
Onsite sewage facilities (OSSF) are wastewater systems designed to treat and dispose of effluent on the same property that produces the wastewater.
Secondary treatment is a treatment process for wastewater to achieve a certain degree of effluent quality by using a sewage treatment plant with physical phase separation to remove settleable solids and a biological process to remove dissolved and suspended organic compounds. After this kind of treatment, the wastewater may be called as secondary-treated wastewater.
Sewage sludge treatment describes the processes used to manage and dispose of sewage sludge produced during sewage treatment. Sludge is mostly water with lesser amounts of solid material removed from liquid sewage. Primary sludge includes settleable solids removed during primary treatment in primary clarifiers. Secondary sludge separated in secondary clarifiers includes treated sewage sludge from secondary treatment bioreactors.
An aerobic treatment system or ATS, often called (incorrectly) an aerobic septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment system similar to a septic tank system, but which uses an aerobic process for digestion rather than just the anaerobic process used in septic systems. These systems are commonly found in rural areas where public sewers are not available, and may be used for a single residence or for a small group of homes.
A trickling filter is a type of wastewater treatment system. It consists of a fixed bed of rocks, coke, gravel, slag, polyurethane foam, sphagnum peat moss, ceramic, or plastic media over which sewage or other wastewater flows downward and causes a layer of microbial slime (biofilm) to grow, covering the bed of media. Aerobic conditions are maintained by splashing, diffusion, and either by forced-air flowing through the bed or natural convection of air if the filter medium is porous.
A mound system is an engineered drain field for treating wastewater in places with limited access to multi-stage wastewater treatment systems. Mound systems are an alternative to the traditional rural septic system drain field. They are used in areas where septic systems are prone to failure from extremely permeable or impermeable soils, soil with the shallow cover over porous bedrock, and terrain that features a high water table.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from municipal wastewater, containing mainly household sewage plus some industrial wastewater. Physical, chemical, and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater that is safe enough for release into the environment. A by-product of sewage treatment is a semi-solid waste or slurry, called sewage sludge. The sludge has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land.
Effluent sewer systems, also called septic tank effluent drainage (STED) or solids-free sewer (SFS) systems, have septic tanks that collect sewage from residences and businesses, and the effluent that comes out of the tank is sent to either a centralized sewage treatment plant or a distributed treatment system for further treatment. Most of the solids are removed by the septic tanks, so the treatment plant can be much smaller than a typical plant. In addition, because of the vast reduction in solid waste, a pumping system can be used to move the wastewater rather than a gravity system.
Fecal sludge management (FSM) is the collection, transport, and treatment of fecal sludge from pit latrines, septic tanks or other onsite sanitation systems. Fecal sludge is a mixture of human excreta, water and solid wastes that are disposed of in pits, tanks or vaults of onsite sanitation systems. Fecal sludge that is removed from septic tanks is called septage.
Pit additives is a commercially-produced material that aims to reduce fecal sludge build-up and control odor in pit latrines, septic tanks and wastewater treatment plants. Manufacturers claim to use effective microorganisms (EM) in their products. Current scientific evidence does not back up most claims made by manufacturers about the benefits. Removing sludge continues to be a problem in pit latrines and septic tanks.
A vermifilter is an aerobic treatment system, consisting of a biological reactor containing media that filters organic material from wastewater. The media also provides a habitat for aerobic bacteria and composting earthworms that produce humus. The "trickling action" of the wastewater through the media dissolves oxygen into the wastewater. This is an important feature because bacteria and worms that rapidly decompose organic substances need oxygen to survive. Wastewater is purified by removing pathogens and oxygen demand.
Decentralized wastewater systems convey, treat and dispose or reuse wastewater from small communities, buildings and dwellings in remote areas, individual public or private properties. Wastewater flow is generated when appropriate water supply is available within the buildings or close to them.