Exhaust gas

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This diesel-powered truck emits an exhaust gas rich in black particulate matter when starting its engine. Diesel-smoke.jpg
This diesel-powered truck emits an exhaust gas rich in black particulate matter when starting its engine.

Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel, fuel oil, biodiesel blends, [1] or coal. According to the type of engine, it is discharged into the atmosphere through an exhaust pipe, flue gas stack, or propelling nozzle. It often disperses downwind in a pattern called an exhaust plume.

Contents

It is a major component of motor vehicle emissions (and from stationary internal combustion engines), which can also include:

Motor vehicle emissions contribute to air pollution and are a major ingredient in the creation of smog in some large cities. A 2013 study by MIT indicates that 53,000 early deaths occur per year in the United States alone because of vehicle emissions. [2] According to another study from the same university, traffic fumes alone cause the death of 5,000 people every year just in the United Kingdom. [3]

Composition

The largest part of most combustion gas is nitrogen (N2), water vapor (H2O) (except with pure-carbon fuels), and carbon dioxide (CO2) (except for fuels without carbon); these are not toxic or noxious (although water vapor and carbon dioxide are greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming). A relatively small part of combustion gas is undesirable, noxious, or toxic substances, such as carbon monoxide (CO) from incomplete combustion, hydrocarbons (properly indicated as CxHy, but typically shown simply as "HC" on emissions-test slips) from unburnt fuel, nitrogen oxides (NOx) from excessive combustion temperatures, and particulate matter (mostly soot).

Exhaust gas temperature

Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is important to the functioning of the catalytic converter of an internal combustion engine. It may be measured by an exhaust gas temperature gauge. EGT is also a measure of engine health in gas-turbine engines (see below).

Cold engines

Steam from tailpipe of cold car Exhaust.jpg
Steam from tailpipe of cold car

During the first two minutes after starting the engine of a car that has not been operated for several hours, the amount of emissions can be very high. This occurs for two main reasons:

Passenger car emissions summary

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates of average passenger car emissions in the United States for April 2000 [5]
ComponentEmission RateAnnual pollution emitted
Hydrocarbons2.80 grams/mile (1.75 g/km)77.1 pounds (35.0 kg)
Carbon monoxide20.9 grams/mile (13.06 g/km)575 pounds (261 kg)
NOx1.39 grams/mile (0.87 g/km)38.2 pounds (17.3 kg)
Carbon dioxide - greenhouse gas415 grams/mile (258 g/km)11,450 pounds (5,190 kg)

Comparable with the European emission standards EURO III as it was applied on October 2000

In 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began to implement more stringent emissions standards for light duty vehicles. The requirements were phased in beginning with 2004 vehicles and all new cars and light trucks were required to meet the updated standards by the end of 2007.

United States Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle—Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards (for Bin 5) [6]
ComponentEmission RateAnnual pollution emitted
NMOG (Volatile organic compounds)0.075  grams/mile (0.046 g/km)2.1 pounds (0.95 kg)
Carbon Monoxide3.4 grams/mile (2.1 g/km)94 pounds (43 kg)
NOX0.05 grams/mile (0.0305 g/km)1.4 pounds (0.64 kg)
Formaldehyde 0.015 grams/mile (0.0092 g/km)0.41 pounds (0.19 kg)

Types

Internal-combustion engines

Automobile exhaust Automobile exhaust gas.jpg
Automobile exhaust

Spark-ignition and Diesel engines

In spark-ignition engines the gases resulting from combustion of the fuel and air mix are called exhaust gases. The composition varies from petrol to diesel engines, but is around these levels:

Combustion-engine exhaust gases [7]
All figures are approximate
 % of total
CompoundPetrolDiesel
nitrogen 7167
carbon dioxide 1412
water vapor 1311
oxygen 10
Trace elements[ citation needed ]< 0.6~ 0.3
nitrogen oxides < 0.25< 0.15
carbon monoxide 1 - 2< 0.045
particulate matter < 0.045
hydrocarbons < 0.25< 0.03
sulfur dioxide possible traces< 0.03

The 10% oxygen for "diesel" is likely if the engine was idling, e.g. in a test rig. It is much less if the engine is running under load, although diesel engines always operate with an excess of air over fuel. [ citation needed ] The CO content for petrol engines varies from ~ 15ppm for well tuned engine with fuel injection and a catalytic converter up to 100,000 ppm (10%) for a richly tuned carburetor engine, such as typically found on small generators and garden equipment. [8]

Nitromethane additive

Exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine whose fuel includes nitromethane will contain nitric acid vapour, which is corrosive, and when inhaled causes a muscular reaction making it impossible to breathe. People who are likely to be exposed to it should wear a gas mask. [9]

Diesel engines

Gas-turbine engines

  • In aircraft gas turbine engines, "exhaust gas temperature" (EGT) is a primary measure of engine health. Typically the EGT is compared with a primary engine power indication called "engine pressure ratio" (EPR). For example: at full power EPR there will be a maximum permitted EGT limit. Once an engine reaches a stage in its life where it reaches this EGT limit, the engine will require specific maintenance in order to rectify the problem. The amount the EGT is below the EGT limit is called EGT margin. The EGT margin of an engine will be greatest when the engine is new, or has been overhauled. For most airlines, this information is also monitored remotely by the airline maintenance department by means of ACARS.

Jet engines and rocket engines

What looks like exhaust from jet engines is actually contrail. Jet exhaust by David Shankbone.jpg
What looks like exhaust from jet engines is actually contrail.

In jet engines and rocket engines, exhaust from propelling nozzles which in some applications shows shock diamonds.[ citation needed ]

Other types

From burning coal

Steam engines

In steam engine terminology the exhaust is steam that is now so low in pressure that it can no longer do useful work.

Main motor vehicle emissions

NOx

Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in 1988 SmogNY.jpg
Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in 1988

Mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (NOx)(whether produced this way or naturally by lightning) react with ammonia, moisture, and other compounds to form nitric acid vapor and related particles. Small particles can penetrate deeply into sensitive lung tissue and damage it, causing premature death in extreme cases. Inhalation of NO species increases the risk of lung cancer [10] and colorectal cancer. [11] and inhalation of such particles may cause or worsen respiratory diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis and heart disease. [12] [13] [14]

In a 2005 U.S. EPA study the largest emissions of NOx came from on road motor vehicles, with the second largest contributor being non-road equipment which is mostly gasoline and diesel stations. [14]

The resulting nitric acid may be washed into soil, where it becomes nitrate, which is useful to growing plants.

Volatile organic compounds

Non-road equipment is mostly gasoline and diesel stations. Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds.PNG
Non-road equipment is mostly gasoline and diesel stations.

When oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, ground level ozone is formed, a primary ingredient in smog. A 2005 U.S. EPA report gives road vehicles as the second largest source of VOCs in the U.S. at 26% and 19% are from non road equipment which is mostly gasoline and diesel stations. [15] 27% of VOC emissions are from solvents which are used in the manufacturer of paints and paint thinners and other uses. [16]

Ozone

Ozone is beneficial in the upper atmosphere, [17] but at ground level ozone irritates the respiratory system, causing coughing, choking, and reduced lung capacity. [18] It also has many negative effects throughout the ecosystem. [19]

Carbon monoxide (CO)

MOPITT satellite computer image of carbon monoxide March 2010 MOPITT www.acd.ucar.edu.Web-201003-mixing ratio at surface.png
MOPITT satellite computer image of carbon monoxide March 2010

Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries. [20] Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless and tasteless, but highly toxic. It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobin, which blocks the transport of oxygen. At concentrations above 1000ppm it is considered immediately dangerous and is the most immediate health hazard from running engines in a poorly ventilated space. In 2011, 52% of carbon monoxide emissions were created by mobile vehicles in the U.S. [21]

Hazardous air pollutants (toxics)

Chronic (long-term) exposure to benzene (C6H6) damages bone marrow. It can also cause excessive bleeding and depress the immune system, increasing the chance of infection. Benzene causes leukemia and is associated with other blood cancers and pre-cancers of the blood. [22] [23]

Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)

The health effects of inhaling airborne particulate matter have been widely studied in humans and animals and include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, premature death. [24] [25] [26] Because of the size of the particles, they can penetrate the deepest part of the lungs. [27] A 2011 UK study estimates 90 deaths per year due to passenger vehicle PM. [28] In a 2006 publication, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) state that in 2002 about 1 per-cent of all PM10 and 2 per-cent of all PM2.5 emissions came from the exhaust of on-road motor vehicles (mostly from diesel engines). [29]

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Motor vehicle CO2 emissions are part of the anthropogenic contribution to the growth of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere which according to the vast majority of the scientific community is causing climate change. [30] Motor vehicles are calculated to generate about 20% of the European Union's man-made CO2 emissions, with passenger cars contributing about 12%. [31] European emission standards limit the CO2 emissions of new passenger cars and light vehicles. The European Union average new car CO2 emissions figure dropped by 5.4% in the year to the first quarter of 2010, down to 145.6 g/km. [32]

Water vapour

Vehicle exhaust contains much water vapour.

Water recovery

There has been research into ways that troops in deserts can recover drinkable water from their vehicles' exhaust gases. [33]

Pollution reduction

Emission standards focus on reducing pollutants contained in the exhaust gases from vehicles as well as from industrial flue gas stacks and other air pollution exhaust sources in various large-scale industrial facilities such as petroleum refineries, natural gas processing plants, petrochemical plants and chemical production plants. [34] [35] However, these are often referred to as flue gases. Catalytic converters in cars intend to break down the pollution of exhaust gases using a catalyst. Scrubbers in ships intend to remove the sulfur dioxide (SO2) of marine exhaust gases. The regulations on marine sulfur dioxide emissions are tightening, however only a small number of special areas worldwide have been designated for low sulfur diesel fuel use only.

One of the advantages claimed for advanced steam technology engines is that they produce smaller quantities of toxic pollutants (e.g. oxides of nitrogen) than petrol and diesel engines of the same power.[ citation needed ] They produce larger quantities of carbon dioxide but less carbon monoxide due to more efficient combustion.

Health studies

Researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health say preliminary results of their statistical study of children listed in the California Cancer Registry born between 1998 and 2007 found that traffic pollution may be associated with a 5% to 15% increase in the likelihood of some cancers. [36] A World Health Organization study found that diesel fumes cause an increase in lung cancer. [37]

Localised effects

The California Air Resources Board found in studies that 50% or more of the air pollution (smog) in Southern California is due to car emissions.[ citation needed ] Concentrations of pollutants emitted from combustion engines may be particularly high around signalized intersections because of idling and accelerations. Computer models often miss this kind of detail. [38]

See also

Related Research Articles

Catalytic converter

A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that reduces toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction. Catalytic converters are usually used with internal combustion engines fueled by either gasoline or diesel—including lean-burn engines as well as kerosene heaters and stoves.

Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.

Vehicle emission standard

Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere. Emission standards set quantitative limits on the permissible amount of specific air pollutants that may be released from specific sources over specific timeframes. They are generally designed to achieve air quality standards and to protect human life. Different regions and countries have different standards for vehicle emissions.

Zero-emissions vehicle

A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV, is a vehicle that never emits exhaust gas from the onboard source of power.

Diesel exhaust

Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates. Its composition may vary with the fuel type or rate of consumption, or speed of engine operation, and whether the engine is in an on-road vehicle, farm vehicle, locomotive, marine vessel, or stationary generator or other application.

The National Emissions Standards Act, officially known as the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act, is a 1965 amendment to the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1963. The amendment set the first federal vehicle emissions standards, beginning with the 1968 models. These standards were reductions from the 1963 emissions: 72% reduction for hydrocarbons, 56% reduction for carbon monoxide, and 100% reduction for crankcase hydrocarbons. The impact the regulatory standards will have on air quality in the future, as well as the potential characteristics of the vehicle fleet can be analyzed with the use of roadway air dispersion models.

Fossil fuel power station Facility that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity

A fossil fuel power station is a thermal power station which burns a fossil fuel, such as coal or natural gas, to produce electricity. Fossil fuel power stations have machinery to convert the heat energy of combustion into mechanical energy, which then operates an electrical generator. The prime mover may be a steam turbine, a gas turbine or, in small plants, a reciprocating gas engine. All plants use the energy extracted from expanding gas, either steam or combustion gases. Although different energy conversion methods exist, all thermal power station conversion methods have efficiency limited by the Carnot efficiency and therefore produce waste heat.

Exhaust system The part of the internal combustion engine which conducts the hot exhaust gases away from the engine

An exhaust system is used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. The entire system conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or more exhaust pipes. Depending on the overall system design, the exhaust gas may flow through one or more of:

In atmospheric chemistry, NO
x
is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide. These gases contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain, as well as affecting tropospheric ozone.

Flue-gas stack

A flue-gas stack, also known as a smoke stack, chimney stack or simply as a stack, is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. Flue gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other fuel is combusted in an industrial furnace, a power plant's steam-generating boiler, or other large combustion device. Flue gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 metres (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater area and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policy and environmental regulation.

Air pollution Harmful substances in the atmosphere

Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, such as gases, particulates, and biological molecules. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment or built environment. Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution.

A mobile emission reduction credit (MERC) is an emission reduction credit generated within the transportation sector. The term “mobile sources” refers to motor vehicles, engines, and equipment that move, or can be moved, from place to place. Mobile sources include vehicles that operate on roads and highways, as well as nonroad vehicles, engines, and equipment. Examples of mobile sources are passenger cars, light trucks, large trucks, buses, motorcycles, earth-moving equipment, nonroad recreational vehicles, farm and construction equipment, cranes, lawn and garden power tools, marine engines, ships, railroad locomotives, and airplanes. In California, mobile sources account for about 60 percent of all ozone forming emissions and for over 90 percent of all carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from all sources.

United States vehicle emission standards are set through a combination of legislative mandates enacted by Congress through Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments of 1970 and beyond, and executive regulations managed nationally by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and more recently along with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). These standard cover common motor vehicle air pollution, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions, and newer versions have incorporated fuel economy standards.

Carl Donald Keith was a chemist who was inventor of the three-way catalytic converter, which has played a dramatic role in reducing pollution from motor vehicles since their introduction in the mid-1970s.

John Joseph Mooney was an American chemical engineer who was co-inventor of the three-way catalytic converter, which has played a dramatic role in reducing pollution from motor vehicles since their introduction in the mid-1970s.

Cerium(III) oxide Chemical compound

Cerium(III) oxide, also known as cerium oxide, cerium trioxide, cerium sesquioxide, cerous oxide or dicerium trioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium. It has chemical formula Ce2O3 and is gold-yellow in color.

Pollution in California Overview of pollution in the U.S. state of California

Pollution in California relates to the degree of pollution in the air, water, and land of the state of California. Pollution is defined as the addition of any substance or any form of energy to the environment at a faster rate than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The combination of three main factors are the cause of notable unhealthy levels of air pollution in California: the activities of over 39 million people, a mountainous terrain that traps pollution, and a warm climate that helps form ozone and other pollutants. Eight of the ten cities in the US with the highest year-round concentration of particulate matter between 2013 and 2015 were in California, and seven out of the ten cities in the US with the worst ozone pollution were also in California. Studies show that pollutants prevalent in California are linked to several health issues, including asthma, lung cancer, birth complications, and premature death. In 2016, Bakersfield, California recorded the highest level of airborne pollutants of any city in the United States.

The California Statewide Truck and Bus Rule was initially adopted in December 2008 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and requires all heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses that operate in California to retrofit or replace engines in order to reduce diesel emissions. All privately and federally owned diesel-fueled trucks and buses, and privately and publicly owned school buses with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 14,000 pounds, are covered by the regulation.

Mobile source air pollution

Mobile source air pollution includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and equipment that can be moved from one location to another. Many of these pollutants contribute to environmental degradation and have negative effects on human health. To prevent unnecessary damage to human health and the environment, environmental regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have established policies to minimize air pollution from mobile sources. Similar agencies exist at the state level. Due to the large number of mobile sources of air pollution, and their ability to move from one location to another, mobile sources are regulated differently from stationary sources, such as power plants. Instead of monitoring individual emitters, such as an individual vehicle, mobile sources are often regulated more broadly through design and fuel standards. Examples of this include corporate average fuel economy standards and laws that ban leaded gasoline in the United States. The increase in the number of motor vehicles driven in the U.S. has made efforts to limit mobile source pollution challenging. As a result, there have been a number of different regulatory instruments implemented to reach the desired emissions goals.

Transportation and health is a branch of public health dealing with efforts to improve health outcomes related to transportation.

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