Indoor air quality

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Indoor air quality (IAQ) is the air quality within and around buildings and structures. IAQ is known to affect the health, comfort and well-being of building occupants. Poor indoor air quality has been linked to sick building syndrome, reduced productivity and impaired learning in schools.

Building structure, typically with a roof and walls, standing more or less permanently in one place

A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures.

Structure arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in an object or system, or the object or system so organized

Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as biological organisms, minerals and chemicals. Abstract structures include data structures in computer science and musical form. Types of structure include a hierarchy, a network featuring many-to-many links, or a lattice featuring connections between components that are neighbors in space.

Contents

IAQ can be affected by gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds), particulates, microbial contaminants (mold, bacteria), or any mass or energy stressor that can induce adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Residential units can further improve indoor air quality by routine cleaning of carpets and area rugs.

Carbon monoxide chemical compound

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to animals that use hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions. In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of ground-level ozone.

Radon Chemical element with atomic number 86

Radon is a chemical element with the symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas. It occurs naturally in minute quantities as an intermediate step in the normal radioactive decay chains through which thorium and uranium slowly decay into lead and various other short-lived radioactive elements; radon itself is the immediate decay product of radium. Its most stable isotope, 222Rn, has a half-life of only 3.8 days, making radon one of the rarest elements since it decays away so quickly. However, since thorium and uranium are two of the most common radioactive elements on Earth, and they have three isotopes with very long half-lives, on the order of several billions of years, radon will be present on Earth long into the future in spite of its short half-life as it is continually being generated. The decay of radon produces many other short-lived nuclides known as radon daughters, ending at stable isotopes of lead.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as volatility. For example, formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint and releases from materials like resin, has a boiling point of only –19 °C (–2 °F).

Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces, and computer modelling of air flow inside buildings.

IAQ is part of indoor environmental quality (IEQ), which includes IAQ as well as other physical and psychological aspects of life indoors (e.g., lighting, visual quality, acoustics, and thermal comfort). [1]

Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard. [2] A major source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass (e.g. wood, charcoal, dung, or crop residue) for heating and cooking. [3] The resulting exposure to high levels of particulate matter resulted in between 1.5 million and 2 million deaths in 2000. [4]

Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.

Biomass Biological material used as a renewable energy source

Biomass is plant or animal material used for energy production, or in various industrial processes as raw material for a range of products. It can be purposely grown energy crops, wood or forest residues, waste from food crops, horticulture, food processing, animal farming, or human waste from sewage plants.

Common pollutants

Secondhand smoke

Secondhand smoke is tobacco smoke which affects people other than the 'active' smoker. Second-hand tobacco smoke includes both a gaseous and a particulate phase, with particular hazards arising from levels of carbon monoxide (as indicated below) and very small particulates (fine particular matter at especially PM2.5 size, and PM10) which get into the bronchioles and alveoles in the lung. [5] [ dead link ] The only certain method to improve indoor air quality as regards secondhand smoke is to eliminate smoking indoors. [6]

Gas One of the four fundamental states of matter

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter. A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms, elemental molecules made from one type of atom, or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms. A gas mixture, such as air, contains a variety of pure gases. What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles. This separation usually makes a colorless gas invisible to the human observer. The interaction of gas particles in the presence of electric and gravitational fields are considered negligible, as indicated by the constant velocity vectors in the image.

Particulates microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earths atmosphere

Particulates – also known as atmospheric aerosol particles, atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), or suspended particulate matter (SPM) – are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere of Earth. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone. Sources of particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic. They have impacts on climate and precipitation that adversely affect human health, in addition to direct inhalation.

Bronchiole passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli of the lungs

The bronchioles or bronchioli are the smaller branches of the bronchial airways in the respiratory tract. They include the terminal bronchioles, and finally the respiratory bronchioles that mark the start of the respiratory zone delivering air to the gas exchanging units of the alveoli. The bronchioles no longer contain the cartilage, that is found in the bronchi, or glands in their submucosa.

Radon

Radon is an invisible, radioactive atomic gas that results from the radioactive decay of radium, which may be found in rock formations beneath buildings or in certain building materials themselves. Radon is probably the most pervasive serious hazard for indoor air in the United States and Europe, and is probably responsible for tens of thousands of deaths from lung cancer each year. [7] There are relatively simple test kits for do-it-yourself radon gas testing, but if a home is for sale the testing must be done by a licensed person in some U.S. states. Radon gas enters buildings as a soil gas and is a heavy gas and thus will tend to accumulate at the lowest level. Radon may also be introduced into a building through drinking water particularly from bathroom showers. Building materials can be a rare source of radon, but little testing is carried out for stone, rock or tile products brought into building sites; radon accumulation is greatest for well insulated homes. [8] The half life for radon is 3.8 days, indicating that once the source is removed, the hazard will be greatly reduced within a few weeks. Radon mitigation methods include sealing concrete slab floors, basement foundations, water drainage systems, or by increasing ventilation. [9] They are usually cost effective and can greatly reduce or even eliminate the contamination and the associated health risks.

Radium Chemical element with atomic number 88

Radium is a chemical element with the symbol Ra and atomic number 88. It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. Pure radium is silvery-white, but it readily reacts with nitrogen (rather than oxygen) on exposure to air, forming a black surface layer of radium nitride (Ra3N2). All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years and decays into radon gas (specifically the isotope radon-222). When radium decays, ionizing radiation is a product, which can excite fluorescent chemicals and cause radioluminescence.

Soil gases are the gases found in the air space between soil components. The primary soil gases include nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen. The oxygen is critical because it allows for respiration of both plant roots and soil organisms. Other natural soil gases are atmospheric methane and radon. Some environmental contaminants below ground produce gas which diffuses through the soil such as from landfill wastes, mining activities, and contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons which produce volatile organic compounds. Soil gases can diffuse into buildings, the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes cancer and methane which can be flammable at only 4.4% concentration.

Radon mitigation is any process used to reduce radon gas concentrations in the breathing zones of occupied buildings, or radon from water supplies. Radon is a significant contributor to environmental radioactivity.

Radon is measured in picocuries per liter of air (pCi/L), a measurement of radioactivity. In the United States, the average indoor radon level is about 1.3 pCi/L. The average outdoor level is about 0.4 pCi/L. The U.S. Surgeon General and EPA recommend fixing homes with radon levels at or above 4 pCi/L. EPA also recommends that people think about fixing their homes for radon levels between 2 pCi/L and 4 pCi/L. [10]

Molds and other allergens

These biological chemicals can arise from a host of means, but there are two common classes: (a) moisture induced growth of mold colonies and (b) natural substances released into the air such as animal dander and plant pollen. Mold is always associated with moisture, [11] and its growth can be inhibited by keeping humidity levels below 50%. Moisture buildup inside buildings may arise from water penetrating compromised areas of the building envelope or skin, from plumbing leaks, from condensation due to improper ventilation, or from ground moisture penetrating a building part. Even something as simple as drying clothes indoors on radiators can increase the risk of exposure to (amongst other things) Aspergillus – a highly dangerous mould that can be fatal for asthma sufferers and the elderly. In areas where cellulosic materials (paper and wood, including drywall) become moist and fail to dry within 48 hours, mold mildew can propagate and release allergenic spores into the air.

In many cases, if materials have failed to dry out several days after the suspected water event, mold growth is suspected within wall cavities even if it is not immediately visible. Through a mold investigation, which may include destructive inspection, one should be able to determine the presence or absence of mold. In a situation where there is visible mold and the indoor air quality may have been compromised, mold remediation may be needed. Mold testing and inspections should be carried out by an independent investigator to avoid any conflict of interest and to insure accurate results; free mold testing offered by remediation companies is not recommended.

There are some varieties of mold that contain toxic compounds (mycotoxins). However, exposure to hazardous levels of mycotoxin via inhalation is not possible in most cases, as toxins are produced by the fungal body and are not at significant levels in the released spores. The primary hazard of mold growth, as it relates to indoor air quality, comes from the allergenic properties of the spore cell wall. More serious than most allergenic properties is the ability of mold to trigger episodes in persons that already have asthma, a serious respiratory disease.

Carbon monoxide

One of the most acutely toxic indoor air contaminants is carbon monoxide (CO), a colourless and odourless gas that is a by-product of incomplete combustion. Common sources of carbon monoxide are tobacco smoke, space heaters using fossil fuels, defective central heating furnaces and automobile exhaust. By depriving the brain of oxygen, high levels of carbon monoxide can lead to nausea, unconsciousness and death. According to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the time-weighted average (TWA) limit for carbon monoxide (630–08–0) is 25 ppm.

Volatile organic compounds

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions. [12]

Chlorinated drinking water releases chloroform when hot water is used in the home. Benzene is emitted from fuel stored in attached garages. Overheated cooking oils emit acrolein and formaldehyde. A meta-analysis of 77 surveys of VOCs in homes in the US found the top ten riskiest indoor air VOCs were acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, hexachlorobutadiene, acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzyl chloride, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride. These compounds exceeded health standards in most homes. [13]

Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints, varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of organic chemicals. All of these products can release organic compounds during usage, and, to some degree, when they are stored. Testing emissions from building materials used indoors has become increasingly common for floor coverings, paints, and many other important indoor building materials and finishes. [14]

Several initiatives envisage to reduce indoor air contamination by limiting VOC emissions from products. There are regulations in France and in Germany, and numerous voluntary ecolabels and rating systems containing low VOC emissions criteria such as EMICODE, [15] M1, [16] Blue Angel [17] and Indoor Air Comfort [18] in Europe, as well as California Standard CDPH Section 01350 [19] and several others in the USA. These initiatives changed the marketplace where an increasing number of low-emitting products has become available during the last decades.

At least 18 Microbial VOCs (MVOCs) have been characterised [20] [21] including 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentanol, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 2-octen-1-ol, 1-octene, 2-pentanone, 2-nonanone, borneol, geosmin, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanol, and thujopsene. The first of these compounds is called mushroom alcohol. The last four are products of Stachybotrys chartarum , which has been linked with sick building syndrome. [20]

Legionella

Legionellosis or Legionnaire's Disease is caused by a waterborne bacterium Legionella that grows best in slow-moving or still, warm water. The primary route of exposure is through the creation of an aerosol effect, most commonly from evaporative cooling towers or showerheads. A common source of Legionella in commercial buildings is from poorly placed or maintained evaporative cooling towers, which often release water in an aerosol which may enter nearby ventilation intakes. Outbreaks in medical facilities and nursing homes, where patients are immuno-suppressed and immuno-weak, are the most commonly reported cases of Legionellosis. More than one case has involved outdoor fountains in public attractions. The presence of Legionella in commercial building water supplies is highly under-reported, as healthy people require heavy exposure to acquire infection.

Legionella testing typically involves collecting water samples and surface swabs from evaporative cooling basins, shower heads, faucets/taps, and other locations where warm water collects. The samples are then cultured and colony forming units (cfu) of Legionella are quantified as cfu/Liter.

Legionella is a parasite of protozoans such as amoeba, and thus requires conditions suitable for both organisms. The bacterium forms a biofilm which is resistant to chemical and antimicrobial treatments, including chlorine. Remediation for Legionella outbreaks in commercial buildings vary, but often include very hot water flushes (160 °F; 70 °C), sterilisation of standing water in evaporative cooling basins, replacement of shower heads, and in some cases flushes of heavy metal salts. Preventative measures include adjusting normal hot water levels to allow for 120 °F (50 °C) at the tap, evaluating facility design layout, removing faucet aerators, and periodic testing in suspect areas.

Other bacteria

There are many bacteria of health significance found in indoor air and on indoor surfaces. The role of microbes in the indoor environment is increasingly studied using modern gene-based analysis of environmental samples. Currently efforts are under way to link microbial ecologists and indoor air scientists to forge new methods for analysis and to better interpret the results. [22]

Bacteria (26 2 27) Airborne microbes Bacteria (26 2 27) Airborne microbes.jpg
Bacteria (26 2 27) Airborne microbes

"There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora as there are human cells in the body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora." [23] A large fraction of the bacteria found in indoor air and dust are shed from humans. Among the most important bacteria known to occur in indoor air are Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Asbestos fibers

Many common building materials used before 1975 contain asbestos, such as some floor tiles, ceiling tiles, shingles, fireproofing, heating systems, pipe wrap, taping muds, mastics, and other insulation materials. Normally, significant releases of asbestos fiber do not occur unless the building materials are disturbed, such as by cutting, sanding, drilling, or building remodelling. Removal of asbestos-containing materials is not always optimal because the fibers can be spread into the air during the removal process. A management program for intact asbestos-containing materials is often recommended instead.

When asbestos-containing material is damaged or disintegrates, microscopic fibers are dispersed into the air. Inhalation of asbestos fibers over long exposure times is associated with increased incidence of lung cancer, in particular the specific form mesothelioma. The risk of lung cancer from inhaling asbestos fibers is significantly greater to smokers, however there is no confirmed connection to damage caused by asbestosis . The symptoms of the disease do not usually appear until about 20 to 30 years after the first exposure to asbestos.

Asbestos is found in older homes and buildings, but occurs most commonly in schools, hospitals and industrial settings. Although all asbestos is hazardous, products that are friable, eg. sprayed coatings and insulation, pose a significantly higher hazard as they are more likely to release fibers to the air. The US Federal Government and some states have set standards for acceptable levels of asbestos fibers in indoor air. There are particularly stringent regulations applicable to schools.[ citation needed ]

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a relatively easy to measure surrogate for indoor pollutants emitted by humans, and correlates with human metabolic activity. Carbon dioxide at levels that are unusually high indoors may cause occupants to grow drowsy, to get headaches, or to function at lower activity levels. Outdoor CO2 levels are usually 350–450 ppm whereas the maximum indoor CO2 level considered acceptable is 1000 ppm. [24] Humans are the main indoor source of carbon dioxide in most buildings. Indoor CO2 levels are an indicator of the adequacy of outdoor air ventilation relative to indoor occupant density and metabolic activity.

To eliminate most complaints, the total indoor CO2 level should be reduced to a difference of less than 600 ppm above outdoor levels.[ citation needed ] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) considers that indoor air concentrations of carbon dioxide that exceed 1,000 ppm are a marker suggesting inadequate ventilation. [25] The UK standards for schools say that carbon dioxide in all teaching and learning spaces, when measured at seated head height and averaged over the whole day should not exceed 1,500 ppm. The whole day refers to normal school hours (i.e. 9:00am to 3:30pm) and includes unoccupied periods such as lunch breaks. In Hong Kong, the EPD established indoor air quality objectives for office buildings and public places in which a carbon dioxide level below 1,000 ppm is considered to be good. [26] European standards limit carbon dioxide to 3,500 ppm. OSHA limits carbon dioxide concentration in the workplace to 5,000 ppm for prolonged periods, and 35,000 ppm for 15 minutes. These higher limits are concerned with avoiding loss of consciousness (fainting), and do not address impaired cognitive performance and energy, which begin to occur at lower concentrations of carbon dioxide. Given the well established roles of oxygen sensing pathways in cancer and the acidosis independent role of carbon dioxide in modulating immune and inflammation linking pathways, it has been suggested that the effects of long-term indoor inspired elevated carbon dioxide levels on the modulation of carcinogenesis be investigated. [27]

Carbon dioxide concentrations increase as a result of human occupancy, but lag in time behind cumulative occupancy and intake of fresh air. The lower the air exchange rate, the slower the buildup of carbon dioxide to quasi "steady state" concentrations on which the NIOSH and UK guidance are based. Therefore, measurements of carbon dioxide for purposes of assessing the adequacy of ventilation need to be made after an extended period of steady occupancy and ventilation – in schools at least 2 hours, and in offices at least 3 hours – for concentrations to be a reasonable indicator of ventilation adequacy. Portable instruments used to measure carbon dioxide should be calibrated frequently, and outdoor measurements used for calculations should be made close in time to indoor measurements. Corrections for temperature effects on measurements made outdoors may also be necessary.

CO2 levels in an enclosed office room can increase to over 1,000 ppm within 45 minutes. Edaphic Scientific CO2 Levels for HVAC and IAQ.jpg
CO2 levels in an enclosed office room can increase to over 1,000 ppm within 45 minutes.

Carbon dioxide concentrations in closed or confined rooms can increase to 1,000 ppm within 45 minutes of enclosure. For example, in a 3.5-by-4-metre (11 ft × 13 ft) sized office, atmospheric carbon dioxide increased from 500 ppm to over 1,000 ppm within 45 minutes of ventilation cessation and closure of windows and doors

Ozone

Ozone is produced by ultraviolet light from the Sun hitting the Earth's atmosphere (especially in the ozone layer), lightning, certain high-voltage electric devices (such as air ionizers), and as a by-product of other types of pollution.

Ozone exists in greater concentrations at altitudes commonly flown by passenger jets. Reactions between ozone and onboard substances, including skin oils and cosmetics, can produce toxic chemicals as by-products. Ozone itself is also irritating to lung tissue and harmful to human health. Larger jets have ozone filters to reduce the cabin concentration to safer and more comfortable levels. [28]

Outdoor air used for ventilation may have sufficient ozone to react with common indoor pollutants as well as skin oils and other common indoor air chemicals or surfaces. Particular concern is warranted when using "green" cleaning products based on citrus or terpene extracts, because these chemicals react very quickly with ozone to form toxic and irritating chemicals[ citation needed ] as well as fine and ultrafine particles.[ citation needed ] Ventilation with outdoor air containing elevated ozone concentrations may complicate remediation attempts. [29]

Ozone is on the list of six criteria air pollutant list. The Clean Air Act of 1990 required the United States Environmental Protection Agency to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six common indoor air pollutants harmful to human health. [30] There are also multiple other organizations that have put forth air standards such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and the World Health Organization (WHO). The OSHA standard for Ozone concentration within a space is 0.1 ppm. [31] While the NAAQS and the EPA standard for ozone concentration is limited to 0.07 ppm. [32] The type of ozone being regulated is ground-level ozone that is within the breathing range of most building occupants

Particulates

Atmospheric particulate matter, also known as particulates, can be found indoors and can affect the health of occupants. Authorities have established standards for the maximum concentration of particulates to ensure indoor air quality. [26]

Prompt cognitive deficits

In 2015, experimental studies reported the detection of significant episodic (situational) cognitive impairment from impurities in the air breathed by test subjects who were not informed about changes in the air quality. Researchers at the Harvard University and SUNY Upstate Medical University and Syracuse University measured the cognitive performance of 24 participants in three different controlled laboratory atmospheres that simulated those found in "conventional" and "green" buildings, as well as green buildings with enhanced ventilation. Performance was evaluated objectively using the widely used Strategic Management Simulation software simulation tool, which is a well-validated assessment test for executive decision-making in an unconstrained situation allowing initiative and improvisation. Significant deficits were observed in the performance scores achieved in increasing concentrations of either VOCs or carbon dioxide, while keeping other factors constant. The highest impurity levels reached are not uncommon in some classroom or office environments. [33] [34]

Effect of indoor plants

Spider plants (Chlorophytum comosum) absorb some airborne contaminants Spider Plant Blades.JPG
Spider plants (Chlorophytum comosum) absorb some airborne contaminants

Houseplants together with the medium in which they are grown can reduce components of indoor air pollution, particularly volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. Plants remove CO2 and release oxygen and water, although the quantitative impact for house plants is small. Most of the effect is attributed to the growing medium alone, but even this effect has finite limits associated with the type and quantity of medium and the flow of air through the medium. [35] The effect of house plants on VOC concentrations was investigated in one study, done in a static chamber, by NASA for possible use in space colonies. [36] The results showed that the removal of the challenge chemicals was roughly equivalent to that provided by the ventilation that occurred in a very energy efficient dwelling with a very low ventilation rate, an air exchange rate of about 1/10 per hour. Therefore, air leakage in most homes, and in non-residential buildings too, will generally remove the chemicals faster than the researchers reported for the plants tested by NASA. The most effective household plants reportedly included aloe vera, English ivy, and Boston fern for removing chemicals and biological compounds.

Plants also appear to reduce airborne microbes and molds, and to increase humidity. [37] However, the increased humidity can itself lead to increased levels of mold and even VOCs. [38]

When carbon dioxide concentrations are elevated indoors relative to outdoor concentrations, it is only an indicator that ventilation is inadequate to remove metabolic products associated with human occupancy. Plants require carbon dioxide to grow and release oxygen when they consume carbon dioxide. A study published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology considered uptake rates of ketones and aldehydes by the peace lily (Spathiphyllum clevelandii) and golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) Akira Tani and C. Nicholas Hewitt found "Longer-term fumigation results revealed that the total uptake amounts were 30–100 times as much as the amounts dissolved in the leaf, suggesting that volatile organic carbons are metabolized in the leaf and/or translocated through the petiole." [39] It is worth noting the researchers sealed the plants in Teflon bags. "No VOC loss was detected from the bag when the plants were absent. However, when the plants were in the bag, the levels of aldehydes and ketones both decreased slowly but continuously, indicating removal by the plants." [40] Studies done in sealed bags do not faithfully reproduce the conditions in the indoor environments of interest. Dynamic conditions with outdoor air ventilation and the processes related to the surfaces of the building itself and its contents as well as the occupants need to be studied.

While results do indicate house plants may be effective at removing some VOCs from air supplies, a review of studies between 1989 and 2006 on the performance of houseplants as air cleaners, presented at the Healthy Buildings 2009 conference in Syracuse, New York, concluded "...indoor plants have little, if any, benefit for removing indoor air of VOC in residential and commercial buildings." [41] This conclusion was based on a trial involving an unknown quantity of indoor plants kept in an uncontrolled ventilated air environment of an arbitrary office building in Arlington, Virginia.

Since extremely high humidity is associated with increased mold growth, allergic responses, and respiratory responses, the presence of additional moisture from houseplants may not be desirable in all indoor settings if watering is done inappropriately. [42]

HVAC design

Environmentally sustainable design concepts also include aspects related to the commercial and residential heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. Among several considerations, one of the topics attended to is the issue of indoor air quality throughout the design and construction stages of a building's life.

One technique to reduce energy consumption while maintaining adequate air quality, is demand-controlled ventilation. Instead of setting throughput at a fixed air replacement rate, carbon dioxide sensors are used to control the rate dynamically, based on the emissions of actual building occupants.

For the past several years, there have been many debates among indoor air quality specialists about the proper definition of indoor air quality and specifically what constitutes "acceptable" indoor air quality.

One way of quantitatively ensuring the health of indoor air is by the frequency of effective turnover of interior air by replacement with outside air. In the UK, for example, classrooms are required to have 2.5 outdoor air changes per hour. In halls, gym, dining, and physiotherapy spaces, the ventilation should be sufficient to limit carbon dioxide to 1,500 ppm. In the USA, and according to ASHRAE Standards, ventilation in classrooms is based on the amount of outdoor air per occupant plus the amount of outdoor air per unit of floor area, not air changes per hour. Since carbon dioxide indoors comes from occupants and outdoor air, the adequacy of ventilation per occupant is indicated by the concentration indoors minus the concentration outdoors. The value of 615 ppm above the outdoor concentration indicates approximately 15 cubic feet per minute of outdoor air per adult occupant doing sedentary office work where outdoor air contains 385 ppm, the current global average atmospheric CO2 concentration. In classrooms, the requirements in the ASHRAE standard 62.1, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, would typically result in about 3 air changes per hour, depending on the occupant density. Of course the occupants are not the only source of pollutants, so outdoor air ventilation may need to be higher when unusual or strong sources of pollution exist indoors. When outdoor air is polluted, then bringing in more outdoor air can actually worsen the overall quality of the indoor air and exacerbate some occupant symptoms related to outdoor air pollution. Generally, outdoor country air is better than indoor city air. Exhaust gas leakages can occur from furnace metal exhaust pipes that lead to the chimney when there are leaks in the pipe and the pipe gas flow area diameter has been reduced.

The use of air filters can trap some of the air pollutants. The Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy section suggests that "[Air] Filtration should have a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 13 as determined by ASHRAE 52.2-1999."[ citation needed ] Air filters are used to reduce the amount of dust that reaches the wet coils. Dust can serve as food to grow molds on the wet coils and ducts and can reduce the efficiency of the coils.

Moisture management and humidity control requires operating HVAC systems as designed. Moisture management and humidity control may conflict with efforts to try to optimize the operation to conserve energy. For example, moisture management and humidity control requires systems to be set to supply make-up air at lower temperatures (design levels), instead of the higher temperatures sometimes used to conserve energy in cooling-dominated climate conditions. However, for most of the US and many parts of Europe and Japan, during the majority of hours of the year, outdoor air temperatures are cool enough that the air does not need further cooling to provide thermal comfort indoors. However, high humidity outdoors creates the need for careful attention to humidity levels indoors. High humidities give rise to mold growth and moisture indoors is associated with a higher prevalence of occupant respiratory problems.

The "dew point temperature" is an absolute measure of the moisture in air. Some facilities are being designed with the design dew points in the lower 50s °F, and some in the upper and lower 40s °F. Some facilities are being designed using desiccant wheels with gas-fired heaters to dry out the wheel enough to get the required dew points. On those systems, after the moisture is removed from the make-up air, a cooling coil is used to lower the temperature to the desired level.

Commercial buildings, and sometimes residential, are often kept under slightly positive air pressure relative to the outdoors to reduce infiltration. Limiting infiltration helps with moisture management and humidity control.

Dilution of indoor pollutants with outdoor air is effective to the extent that outdoor air is free of harmful pollutants. Ozone in outdoor air occurs indoors at reduced concentrations because ozone is highly reactive with many chemicals found indoors. The products of the reactions between ozone and many common indoor pollutants include organic compounds that may be more odorous, irritating, or toxic than those from which they are formed. These products of ozone chemistry include formaldehyde, higher molecular weight aldehydes, acidic aerosols, and fine and ultrafine particles, among others. The higher the outdoor ventilation rate, the higher the indoor ozone concentration and the more likely the reactions will occur, but even at low levels, the reactions will take place. This suggests that ozone should be removed from ventilation air, especially in areas where outdoor ozone levels are frequently high. Recent research has shown that mortality and morbidity increase in the general population during periods of higher outdoor ozone and that the threshold for this effect is around 20 parts per billion (ppb).

Building ecology

It is common to assume that buildings are simply inanimate physical entities, relatively stable over time. This implies that there is little interaction between the triad of the building, what is in it (occupants and contents), and what is around it (the larger environment). We commonly see the overwhelming majority of the mass of material in a building as relatively unchanged physical material over time. In fact, the true nature of buildings can be viewed as the result of a complex set of dynamic interactions among their physical, chemical, and biological dimensions. Buildings can be described and understood as complex systems. Research applying the approaches ecologists use to the understanding of ecosystems can help increase our understanding. “Building ecology “ is proposed here as the application of those approaches to the built environment considering the dynamic system of buildings, their occupants, and the larger environment.

Buildings constantly evolve as a result of the changes in the environment around them as well as the occupants, materials, and activities within them. The various surfaces and the air inside a building are constantly interacting, and this interaction results in changes in each. For example, we may see a window as changing slightly over time as it becomes dirty, then is cleaned, accumulates dirt again, is cleaned again, and so on through its life. In fact, the “dirt” we see may be evolving as a result of the interactions among the moisture, chemicals, and biological materials found there.

Buildings are designed or intended to respond actively to some of these changes in and around them with heating, cooling, ventilating, air cleaning or illuminating systems. We clean, sanitize, and maintain surfaces to enhance their appearance, performance, or longevity. In other cases, such changes subtly or even dramatically alter buildings in ways that may be important to their own integrity or their impact on building occupants through the evolution of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that define them at any time. We may find it useful to combine the tools of the physical sciences with those of the biological sciences and, especially, some of the approaches used by scientists studying ecosystems, in order to gain an enhanced understanding of the environments in which we spend the majority of our time, our buildings.

Building ecology was first described by Hal Levin in an article in the April 1981 issue of Progressive Architecture magazine.

Institutional programs

The topic of IAQ has become popular due to the greater awareness of health problems caused by mold and triggers to asthma and allergies. In the US, awareness has also been increased by the involvement of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, who have developed an "IAQ Tools for Schools" program to help improve the indoor environmental conditions in educational institutions (see external link below). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducts Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs) in workplaces at the request of employees, authorised representative of employees, or employers, to determine whether any substance normally found in the place of employment has potentially toxic effects, including indoor air quality. [43]

A variety of scientists work in the field of indoor air quality including chemists, physicists, mechanical engineers, biologists, bacteriologists and computer scientists. Some of these professionals are certified by organisations such as the American Industrial Hygiene Association, the American Indoor Air Quality Council and the Indoor Environmental Air Quality Council. Of note, a new European scientific network is now addressing indoor air pollution under COST support (CA17136). Their findings are routinely updated on their website.


On the international level, the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ), formed in 1991, organises two major conferences, the Indoor Air and the Healthy Buildings series. [44] ISIAQ's journal Indoor Air is published 6 times a year and contains peer-reviewed scientific papers with an emphasis on interdisciplinary studies including exposure measurements, modeling, and health outcomes. [45]

See also

Notes

  1. KMC Controls. "What's Your IQ on IAQ and IEQ". Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  2. Bruce, N; Perez-Padilla, R; Albalak, R (2000). "Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 78 (9): 1078–92. PMC   2560841 . PMID   11019457.
  3. Duflo E, Greenstone M, Hanna R (2008). "Indoor air pollution, health and economic well-being". S.A.P.I.EN.S. 1 (1).
  4. Ezzati M, Kammen DM (November 2002). "The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in developing countries: knowledge, gaps, and data needs". Environ. Health Perspect. 110 (11): 1057–68. doi:10.1289/ehp.021101057. PMC   1241060 . PMID   12417475.
  5. http://archive.epi.yale.edu/the-metric/considering-smoking-air-pollution-problem-environmental-health
  6. Health, CDC's Office on Smoking and (2018-05-09). "Smoking and Tobacco Use; Fact Sheet; Secondhand Smoke". Smoking and Tobacco Use. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  7. "U.S. EPA Indoor Environment Division, Radon". Epa.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  8. C.Michael Hogan and Sjaak Slanina. 2010, Air pollution. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and Cutler Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  9. "Radon Mitigation Methods". Radon Solution—Raising Radon Awareness. Archived from the original on 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2008-12-02.
  10. "Basic radon facts" (PDF). US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 18 September 2018.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. "CDC – Mold – General Information – Facts About Mold and Dampness". 2018-12-04.
  12. "U.S. EPA IAQ – Organic chemicals". Epa.gov. 2010-08-05. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  13. Logue, J. M.; McKone, T. E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B. C. (1 April 2011). "Hazard assessment of chemical air contaminants measured in residences". Indoor Air. 21 (2): 92–109. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00683.x. PMID   21392118.
  14. "About VOCs". web.archive.org. 2013-01-21. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  15. "Emicode". Eurofins.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  16. "M1". Eurofins.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  17. "Blue Angel". Eurofins.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  18. "Indoor Air Comfort". Indoor Air Comfort. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  19. "CDPH Section 01350". Eurofins.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  20. 1 2 "Smelly Moldy Houses".
  21. Meruva NK, Penn JM, Farthing DE (November 2004). "Rapid identification of microbial VOCs from tobacco molds using closed-loop stripping and gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry". J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 31 (10): 482–8. doi:10.1007/s10295-004-0175-0. PMID   15517467.
  22. Microbiology of the Indoor Environment, microbe.net
  23. Sears, CL (2005). "A dynamic partnership: celebrating our gut flora". Anaerobe. 11 (5): 247–51. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2005.05.001. PMID   16701579.
  24. "Sick Classrooms Caused by Rising CO2 Levels". 13 January 2014.
  25. Indoor Environmental Quality: Building Ventilation. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Accessed 2008-10-08.
  26. 1 2 "Hong Kong Government Initiatives to Improve Indoor Air Quality". APAC Green Products Limited. Archived from the original on 2016-01-08.
  27. Apte S, (2016) Residential Ventilation and Carcinogenesis , J. Excipients and Food Chemicals, 7(3), 77–84 CC-BY icon.svg This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0) license.
  28. Study: Bad In-Flight Air Exacerbated by Passengers Talk of the Nation, National Public Radio. September 21, 2007.
  29. "Outdoor ozone and building related symptoms in the BASE study" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-09. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  30. "Criteria Air Pollutants". 2014-04-09.
  31. "Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) regulations for ozone. | Occupational Safety and Health Administration". www.osha.gov. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  32. US EPA, REG 01. "Eight-hour Average Ozone Concentrations | Ground-level Ozone | New England | US EPA". www3.epa.gov. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  33. "New Study Demonstrates Indoor Building Environment Has Significant, Positive Impact on Cognitive Function". New York Times. 26 October 2015.
  34. Allen, Joseph G.; MacNaughton, Piers; Satish, Usha; Santanam, Suresh; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D. (2015). "Associations of Cognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments". Environmental Health Perspectives . 124 (6): 805–12. doi:10.1289/ehp.1510037. PMC   4892924 . PMID   26502459.
  35. Levin, Hal (1992). "Can House Plants Solve IAQ Problems"
  36. Wolverton BC, Johnson A, Bounds K. (1989). Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Pollution Abatement. NASA.
  37. BC Wolverton, JD Wolverton. (1996). Interior plants: their influence on airborne microbes inside energy-efficient buildings. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences.
  38. US EPA, OAR (2013-07-16). "Mold". US EPA. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  39. Tani, Akira; Hewitt, C. Nicholas (2009-11-01). "Uptake of Aldehydes and Ketones at Typical Indoor Concentrations by Houseplants". Environmental Science & Technology. 43 (21): 8338–8343. doi:10.1021/es9020316. ISSN   0013-936X.
  40. "S Down. Spectroscopynow.com (2009) "Houseplants as air fresheners"". Spectroscopynow.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  41. "Critical Review: How Well Do House Plants Perform as Indoor Air Cleaners? – BuildingEcology.com – Hal Levin, Editor" . Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  42. Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 2004. "Damp Indoor Spaces and Health" Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. National Academy Press
  43. "NIOSH Topic Area – Indoor Environmental Quality". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  44. "Isiaq.Org". Isiaq.Org. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
  45. "Indoor Air: International Journal of Indoor Environment and Health – Journal Information". Blackwellpublishing.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02.

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References

Monographs

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