List of plants used in herbalism

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This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism .


Phytochemicals possibly involved in biological functions are the basis of herbalism, and may be grouped as:

For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation, and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. Secondary metabolites and pigments may have therapeutic actions in humans, and can be refined to produce drugs; examples are quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove. [1]

In Europe, apothecaries stocked herbal ingredients as traditional medicines. In the Latin names for plants created by Linnaeus, the word officinalis indicates that a plant was used in this way. For example, the marsh mallow has the classification Althaea officinalis, as it was traditionally used as an emollient to soothe ulcers. [2] Pharmacognosy is the study of plant sources of phytochemicals.

Some modern prescription drugs are based on plant extracts rather than whole plants. The phytochemicals may be synthesized, compounded or otherwise transformed to make pharmaceuticals. Examples of such derivatives include aspirin, which is chemically related to the salicylic acid found in white willow. The opium poppy is a major industrial source of opiates, including morphine. Few traditional remedies, however, have translated into modern drugs, although there is continuing research into the efficacy and possible adaptation of traditional herbal treatments.


Scientific nameCommon nameDescriptionPicture
Acacia senegal Gum arabic A natural gum sourced from hardened sap of various species of acacia tree used in ancient birth control as well as a binder and emulsifier for medicinal compounds. [3] [4] Khair.JPG
Achillea millefolium Common yarrowPurported to be a diaphoretic, astringent, [5] tonic, stimulant and mild aromatic. Achillea millefolium20100626 087.jpg
Actaea racemosa Black cohosh Historically used for arthritis and muscle pain, used more recently for conditions related to menopause and menstruation. [6] Actaea racemosa 002.JPG
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse chestnut Its seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers have been used medicinally for many centuries for treating joint pain, bladder and gastrointestinal problems, fever, leg cramps, and other conditions. It may be useful for treating chronic venous insufficiency. The raw plant materials are toxic unless processed. [7] Aesculus hippocastanum (1).jpg
Ageratina altissima White snakerootRoot tea has been used to treat diarrhea, kidney stones, and fever. A root poultice can be used on snakebites. The smoke from burning leaves is used to revive unconscious people. [8] [ unreliable medical source? ] The plant contains the toxin tremetol which causes milk sickness, a sometimes fatal condition. [9] Ageratina altissima 002.JPG
Alcea rosea Common hollyhockBelieved to be an emollient and laxative. It is used to control inflammation, to stop bedwetting and as a mouthwash in cases of bleeding gums. [10] Alcea rosea purple.jpg
Alisma plantago-aquatica Water-plantainUsed for the urinary tract. [11] Alisma plantago-aquatica20090812 251.jpg
Allium sativum Garlic Purported use to lower blood cholesterol and high blood pressure. [12] GarlicBasket.jpg
Aloe vera Aloe vera Leaves are widely used to heal burns, wounds and other skin ailments. [13] Aloe Vera.jpg
Althaea officinalis Marsh-mallow Used historically as both a food and a medicine. [2] Althaea officinalis Prague 2011 2.jpg
Amorphophallus konjac Konjac Significant dietary source of glucomannan, [14] which is purported for use in treating obesity, constipation, [15] and reducing cholesterol. [16] Amorphophallus konjac (fruit) 01.JPG
Anemone hepatica Common hepaticaHistorically used to treat liver diseases, it is still used in alternative medicine today. Other modern applications by herbalists include treatments for pimples, bronchitis and gout. [17] Common Hepatica - Anemone hepatica (13214136064).jpg
Angelica archangelica Garden angelicaRoots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea or tincture for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, nervous system, and also against fever, infections, and flu. [18] Coulon-Angelique.jpg
Angelica sinensis Dong quai Used for thousands of years in Asia, primarily in women's health. [19]
Apium graveolens Celery Seed is used only occasionally in tradition medicine. Modern usage is primarily as a diuretic. [20] Apium graveolens 002.JPG
Arctium lappa Burdock Used traditionally as a diuretic and to lower blood sugar [21] and, in traditional Chinese medicine as a treatment for sore throat and symptoms of the common cold. [22] [ unreliable source? ] ArctiumLappa4.jpg
Arnica montana Arnica Used as an anti-inflammatory [23] and for osteoarthritis. [24] The US Food and Drug Administration has classified Arnica montana as an unsafe herb because of its toxicity. [25] It should not be taken orally or applied to broken skin where absorption can occur. [25] Arnica montana (flower head).jpg
Astragalus propinquus Astragalus Long used in traditional Chinese medicine. [26] Astragalus membranaceus.jpg
Atropa belladonna BelladonnaAlthough toxic, was used historically in Italy by women to enlarge their pupils, as well as a sedative, among other uses. The name itself means "beautiful woman" in Italian. [27] Flickr - don macauley - Deadly Nightshade.jpg


Azadirachta indica Neem Used in India to treat worms, malaria, rheumatism and skin infections among many other things. Its many uses have led to neem being called "the village dispensary" in India. [28] Tender Neem leaves in Karnataka, India.JPG


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Bellis perennis DaisyFlowers have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea (or the leaves as a salad) for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. [18] Marienblumchen Ende Marz 2014 (153).JPG
Berberis vulgaris Barberry Long history of medicinal use, dating back to the Middle Ages particularly among Native Americans. Uses have included skin ailments, scurvy and gastro-intestinal ailments. [29] Berberis thunb frt.jpg
Borago officinalis Borage Used in hyperactive gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, [30] such as gastrointestinal (colic, cramps, diarrhea), airways (asthma, bronchitis), cardiovascular, (cardiotonic, antihypertensive and blood purifier), urinary (diuretic and kidney/bladder disorders). [31] Borage starflower Rohtopurasruoho 02.jpg
Broussonetia kurzii SalaeKnown as Salae in Thailand where this species is valued as a medicinal plant. [32]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Calendula officinalis Marigold Also named calendula, has a long history of use in treating wounds and soothing skin. [33] [ self-published source? ] 2006-10-22Calendula03.jpg
Cannabis Hemp, Cannabis, Marijuana, Indian hemp, GanjaUsed worldwide since ancient times as treatment for various conditions and ailments including pain, inflammation, gastrointestinal issues such as IBS, muscle relaxation, anxiety, Alzheimer's and dementia, ADHD, autism, cancer, cerebral palsy, recurring headaches, Crohn's disease, depression, epilepsy, glaucoma, insomnia, and neuropathy among others. [34] Cannabis 20160411 093402 (26092404540).jpg
Capsicum annuum Cayenne Type of chili that has been used as both food and medicine for thousands of years. Uses have included reducing pain and swelling, lowering triglyceride and cholesterol levels and fighting viruses and harmful bacteria, due to high levels of Vitamin C. [35] [36] [37] Capsicum annuum 10 - Kew.jpg
Capsicum frutescens Chili Its active ingredient, capsaicine, is the basic of commercial pain-relief ointments in Western medicine. The low incidence of heart attack in Thais may be related to capsaicine's fibronolytic action (dissolving blood clots). [38] Tabasco peppers.JPG
Carica papaya Papaya Used for treating wounds and stomach troubles. [39] Carica papaya 005.JPG
Cassia occidentalis Coffee senna Used in a wide variety of roles in traditional medicine, including in particular as a broad-spectrum internal and external antimicrobial, for liver disorders, for intestinal worms and other parasites and as an immune-system stimulant. [40] [41] Senna occidentalis.jpg
Catha edulis Khat Mild stimulant used for thousands of years in Yemen, and is banned today in many countries. Contains the amphetamine-like substance cathinone.[ citation needed ] Catha edulis.jpg
Cayaponia espelina São Caetano melonIt is a diuretic and aid in the treatment of diarrhea and syphilis. [42] Cayaponia espelina fruit.jpg
Centaurea cyanus CornflowerIn herbalism, a decoction of cornflower is effective in treating conjunctivitis and as a wash for tired eyes. [43] CentaureaCyanus-bloem-kl.jpg
Chrysopogon zizanioides VetiverUsed for skin care. [44] Ramacham.jpg
Cinchona spec.Cinchona Genus of about 38 species of trees whose bark is a source of alkaloids, including quinine. Its use as a febrifuge was first popularized in the 17th century by Peruvian Jesuits. [45] Cinchona.pubescens01.jpg
Citrus × aurantium Bitter orange Used in traditional Chinese medicine and by indigenous peoples of the Amazon for nausea, indigestion and constipation. [46] Bitter orange - Citrus aurantium 06.JPG
Citrus limon Lemon Along with other citruses, it has a long history of use in Chinese and Indian traditional medicine. [47] In contemporary use, honey and lemon is common for treating coughs and sore throat. P1030323.JPG
Citrus trifoliata Trifoliate orange, bitter orangeFruits of Citrus trifoliata are widely used in Oriental medicine as a treatment for allergic inflammation. [48] 20151019Citrus trifoliata5.jpg
Cissampelos pareira VelvetleafUsed for a wide variety of conditions. [49] Diploclisia glaucescens Wynaad.jpg
Cnicus benedictus Blessed thistle Used during the Middle Ages to treat bubonic plague. In modern times, herbal teas made from blessed thistle are used for loss of appetite, indigestion and other purposes. [50] Cnicus benedictus flor.jpg
Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus laevigata Hawthorn Fruit has been used for centuries purportedly for heart disease, digestive and kidney related problems. [51] Crataegus, various species, fruit.jpg
Curcuma longa Turmeric Spice that lends its distinctive yellow color to Indian curries, has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to aid digestion and liver function, relieve arthritis pain, and regulate menstruation. [52] Native Turmeric Cooktown.jpg
Cypripedium parviflorum Yellow lady's slipperThe Cypripedium species have been used in native remedies for dermatitis, tooth aches, anxiety, headaches, as an antispasmodic, stimulant and sedative. However, the preferred species for use are Cyp. parviflorum and Cyp.acaule, used as topical applications or tea. [53] Cypripedium parviflorum Orchi 016.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Digitalis lanata Digitalis or foxgloveIt came into use in treating cardiac disease in late 18th century England in spite of its high toxicity. a Its use has been almost entirely replaced by the pharmaceutical derivative Digoxin, which has a shorter half-life in the body, and whose toxicity is therefore more easily managed. [54] Digoxin is used as an antiarrhythmic agent and inotrope. [55] Digitalis lanata. Wooly Foxglove (30755195067).jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Echinacea purpurea Purple coneflower This plant and other species of Echinacea have been used for at least 400 years by Native Americans to treat infections and wounds, and as a general "cure-all" (panacea). It is currently used for symptoms associated with cold and flu. [56] Echinacea purpurea 003.JPG
Echinopsis pachanoi San Pedro cactus The San Pedro cactus contains the entheogen mescaline and has a long history of being used in Andean traditional medicine. [57] Starr 070320-5799 Echinopsis pachanoi.jpg
Ephedra sinica Ephedra It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years. [58] [59] Native Americans and Mormon pioneers drank a tea brewed from other Ephedra species, called "Mormon tea" and "Indian tea". It contains the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which are used as breathing aids (bronchodilators and decongestants). [60] Ephedra sinica alexlomas.jpg
Equisetum arvense Horsetail Dates back to ancient Roman and Greek medicine, when it was used to stop bleeding, heal ulcers and wounds, and treat tuberculosis and kidney problems. [61] Equisetum arvense foliage.jpg
Eriodictyon crassifolium Yerba SantaUsed by the Chumash people to keep airways open for proper breathing. [62] The US Forest Service profile [63] for Eriodictyon crassifolium provides information on species distribution; taxonomic relationships; ecological and evolutionary considerations for restoration; growth form and distinguishing traits; habitat characteristics; projected future suitable habitat; growth, reproduction and dispersal; biological interactions; ecological genetics; seed characteristics, germination requirements and processing; and plant uses including agriculture, restoration, and traditional products, plus an extensive bibliography. It is part of Riverside-Corona Resource Conservation District's resource materials collection on native plant recommendations for southern California ecoregions. Eriodictyoncrassifolium1.jpg
Erythroxylum coca Coca Used as coca tea or chewed, traditionally as a stimulant to overcome fatigue, hunger, thirst, and altitude sickness. [64] Also used as an anesthetic and analgesic. [65] Erythroxylum coca 001.JPG
Eschscholzia californica Californian poppyUsed as an herbal remedy: an aqueous extract of the plant has sedative and anxiolytic actions. [66] LeamingtonSpa Platform2 Eschscholzia3.jpg
Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus Leaves were widely used in traditional medicine as a febrifuge. [67] Eucalyptus oil is commonly used in over-the-counter cough and cold medications, as well as for an analgesic. [68] Eucalyptus flowers, Barcelona, Spain (15345095225).jpg
Euonymus atropurpureus WahooPlant is a purgative and might affect the heart. [69]
Euphorbia hirta Asthma-plant Used traditionally in Asia to treat bronchitic asthma and laryngeal spasm. [70] [71] It is used in the Philippines for dengue fever. [72] Euphorbia hirta 2782.jpg
Euphrasia Eyebright Used for eye problems, mental depression, oxygenation and radiation poisoning. [73] Augentrost.jpg
Euterpe oleracea Açai Although açai berries are a longstanding food source for indigenous people of the Amazon, there is no evidence that they have effectiveness for any health-related purpose. [74]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ferula assa-foetida Asafoetida Might be useful for IBS, high cholesterol, and breathing problems. [75]
Frangula alnus Alder buckthornBark (and to a lesser extent the fruit) has been used as a laxative, due to its 3 – 7% anthraquinone content. Bark for medicinal use is dried and stored for a year before use, as fresh bark is violently purgative; even dried bark can be dangerous if taken in excess. [76] Frangula-alnus-fruits.JPG
Fumaria officinalis FumitoryTraditionally thought to be good for the eyes and to remove skin blemishes. In modern times herbalists use it to treat skin diseases and conjunctivitis, as well as to cleanse the kidneys. However, Howard (1987) warns that fumitory is poisonous and should only be used under the direction of a medical herbalist. [77] FUMARIA OFFICINALIS - AGUDA - IB-074 (Fumaria).JPG


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Galanthus Snowdrop It contains an active substance called galantamine, which is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Galantamine (or galanthamine) can be helpful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, though it is not a cure. [78] The Washbrook Lane Snowdrops.jpg
Geranium robertianum Robert geraniumIn traditional herbalism, it was used as a remedy for toothache and nosebleeds [79] and as a vulnerary (used for or useful in healing wounds). [80] Geranium Robertianum - Detail - Blossom.jpg
Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo The leaf extract has been used to treat asthma, bronchitis, fatigue, Alzheimer's and tinnitus. [81] Ginkgo biloba 010.JPG
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivyIt has been used as a "lung herb". [82] Other traditional uses include as an expectorant, astringent, and to treat bronchitis. [83] The essential oil of the plant has been used for centuries as a general tonic for colds and coughs, and to relieve congestion of the mucous membranes. 20150412Glechoma hederacea1.jpg
Glycyrrhiza glabra Licorice root Purported uses include stomach ulcers, bronchitis, and sore throat. [84]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Hamamelis virginiana Common witch-hazelIt produces a specific kind of tannins called hamamelitannins . One of those substances displays a specific cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells. [85] Witch Hazel.jpg
Hippophae rhamnoides Sea buckthorn The leaves are used as herbal medicine to alleviate cough and fever, pain, and general gastrointestinal disorders as well as to cure dermatologic disorders. Similarly, the fruit juice and oils can be used in the treatment of liver disease, gastrointestinal disorders, chronic wounds or other dermatological disorders. [86] Common sea-buckthorn - Sanddorn (9049824936).jpg
Hoodia gordonii Hoodia The plant is traditionally used by Kalahari San (Bushmen) to reduce hunger and thirst. It is marketed as an appetite suppressant. [87] Hoodia gordonii 2007-06-02.jpg
Hydrastis canadensis Goldenseal Although used traditionally by Native Americans to treat skin diseases and ulcers, there is no scientific evidence to support the use of goldenseal for treating any disease. [88] Hydrastis.jpg
Hypericum perforatum St. John's wort Widely used within herbalism for depression. Evaluated for use as an antidepressant, but with ambiguous results. [89] [90] Saint John's wort flowers.jpg
Hyssopus officinalis Hyssop It is purported for digestive and intestinal problems, and for respiratory problems. [91] Hyssopus officinalis 2c.JPG


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ilex paraguariensis Yerba mateMate contains compounds that may improve mood. [92] Ilexparaguariensis.jpg
Illicium verum Star anise It is the major source of the chemical compound shikimic acid, a primary precursor in the pharmaceutical synthesis of anti-influenza drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu). [93] Illicium verum in HDR.jpg
Inula helenium Elecampane It is used in herbal medicine as an expectorant and for water retention. [94] Composite1.JPG


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Jasminum officinale JasmineIt is purported as either an antiseptic or anti-inflammatory agent. [95] Jasminum officinale Enfoque 2010-7-11 TorrelaMata.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Knautia arvensis Field scabiousThe whole plant is astringent and mildly diuretic. [96] Knautia arvensis20110703 116.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Larrea tridentata Chaparral The leaves and twigs are used by Native Americans to make a herbal tea used for a variety of conditions. Chaparral has also been shown to have high liver toxicity, and has led to kidney failure, and is not recommended for any use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or American Cancer Society. [97] [98] Larrea tridentata Furnace Creek.jpg
Laurus nobilis Bay laurel Aqueous extracts of bay laurel can be used as astringents and even as a reasonable salve for open wounds. [99] Gardenology-IMG 4930 hunt10mar.jpg
Lavandula angustifolia Lavender It was traditionally used as an antiseptic and for mental health purposes. It was also used in ancient Egypt in mummifying bodies. There is little scientific evidence that use of lavender affects health. [100] Lavande off FR 2012.jpg
Lawsonia inermis Henna Lawsonia inermis (Mehndi) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 0524.jpg
Leucojum aestivum Summer snowflake Leucojum aestivum 2010.jpg
Linum usitatissimum Flaxseed The plant is most commonly used as a laxative. Flaxseed oil is used for different conditions, including arthritis. [101] Lin (Everest) Cl J Weber04 (23715892009).jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Magnolia officinalis Magnolia-barkThe bark contains magnolol and honokiol, two polyphenolic compounds. Magnolia au Jardin Jungle Karlostachys.jpg
Malva sylvestris MallowThe seeds are used internally in a decoction or herbal tea [102] as a demulcent and diuretic, and the leaves made into poultices as an emollient for external applications. Malva sylvestris 1.jpg
Matricaria recutita and Anthemis nobilis Chamomile It has been used over history for a variety of conditions, including sleeplessness and anxiety. [103] MATRICARIA RECUTITA - TORA - IB-418 (Camamilla).JPG
Medicago sativa Alfalfa The leaves are purported to lower cholesterol, and treat kidney and urinary tract ailments, although there is insufficient scientific evidence for its efficacy. [104] Medicago-sativa-flowers.jpg
Melaleuca alternifolia Tea tree oil It has been used over history by Australian aboriginal people. Modern usage is primarily as an antibacterial or antifungal agent, but there is insufficient scientific evidence for such effects. [105] Melaleuca alternifolia (Maria Serena).jpg
Melissa officinalis Lemon balm It is purported as a sleep aid and digestive aid. [106] Melissa officinalis J2.jpg
Mentha x piperita Peppermint Its oil, from a cross between water mint and spearmint, has a history of purported use for various conditions, including nausea, indigestion, and symptoms of the common cold. [107] Mentha-piperita.JPG
Mitragyna speciosa Kratom Kratom leaves are chewed to relieve musculoskeletal pain and increase energy, appetite, and sexual desire in ways similar to khat and coca. [108] Mitragyna speciosa111.JPG
Momordica charantia Bitter melon 012 bitter melon.jpg
Morinda citrifolia Noni It is purported for joint pain and skin conditions. [109] P Morc D5915.JPG
Moringa oleifera Drumstick treeIt is used for food and traditional medicine.[ citation needed ] DrumstickFlower.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Nasturtium officinale Watercress Flowers of Watercress (Nasturtium officinale).jpg
Nelumbo nucifera Lotus Insufficient evidence for any biological effect. [110] Nelumbo nucifera1.jpg
Nigella sativa Nigella, black-caraway, black-cumin, and kalonjiOne meta-analysis of clinical trials concluded that N. sativa has a short-term benefit on lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure. [111] Nigella sativa.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ocimum tenuiflorum Tulsi or holy basilIt is used for a variety of purposes in traditional medicine; tulsi is taken in many forms: as herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf or mixed with ghee. Essential oil extracted from Karpoora tulasi is mostly used for medicinal purposes and in herbal cosmetics. [112] Ocimum tenuiflorum2.jpg
Oenothera Evening primrose Its oil has been used since the 1930s for eczema, and more recently as an anti-inflammatory, but there is insufficient evidence for it having any effect. [113]
Origanum vulgare Oregano Origanum-vulgare.JPG


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Panax spec. Ginseng Asian ginseng may affect glucose metabolism and lower blood sugar levels, but the poor quality of research prevents conclusions about such effects. [114] Ginsengpflanze.jpg
Papaver somniferum Opium poppy The plant is the plant source of morphine, used for pain relief. Morphine made from the refined and modified sap is used for pain control in people with severe cancer. [115] Opium poppy.jpg
Passiflora Passion flower

Passiflora Krishnakamal Karnataka India.jpg
Peganum harmala Syrian Rue (common name Harmal) Peganum harmala 20140604.jpg
Pelargonium sidoides Umckaloabo, or South African Geranium Possibly useful for treating respiratory infections. [116] Pelargonium sidoides Leaves 3264px.jpg
Piper methysticum Kava The plant has been used for centuries in the South Pacific to make a ceremonial drink with sedative and anesthetic properties, with potential for causing liver injury. [117] Starr 070515-7054 Piper methysticum.jpg
Piscidia erythrina / Piscidia piscipula Jamaica dogwood The plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety, despite serious safety concerns. [118] A 2006 study suggested medicinal potential. [119]
Plantago lanceolata PlantainIt is used frequently in herbal teas and other herbal remedies. [120] A tea from the leaves is used as a highly effective cough medicine. In the traditional Austrian medicine Plantago lanceolata leaves have been used internally (as syrup or tea) or externally (fresh leaves) for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, skin, insect bites, and infections. [18] 20120610Plantago lanceolata1.jpg
Platycodon grandiflorus Platycodon, balloon flowerThe extracts and purified platycoside compounds (saponins) from the roots may exhibit neuroprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, improved insulin resistance, and cholesterol-lowering properties. [121] Platycodon grandiflorus.jpg
Polemonium reptans Abscess rootIt is used to reduce fever, inflammation, and cough. [122] Jacob's Ladder Polemonium reptens Flower Buds 2628px.jpg
Psidium guajava Guava It has a rich history of use in traditional medicine. It is traditionally used to treat diarrhea; however, evidence of its effectiveness is very limited. [123] [124] Psidium guajava at Kadavoor.jpg
Ptelea trifoliata Wafer AshThe root bark is used for the digestive system. [125] Also known as hoptree. Ptelea trifoliata 20050808 006.jpg
Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort Used since the Middle Ages to treat and/or heal various ailments of the lungs and chest.[ citation needed ] Pulmonaria officinalis 800.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Quassia amara Amargo, bitter-woodA 2012 study found a topical gel with 4% Quassia extract to be a safe and effective cure of rosacea. [126] Quassia amara11.JPG


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Reichardia tingitana False sowthistleUses in folk medicine have been recorded in the Middle East, its leaves being used to treat ailments such as constipation, colic and inflamed eyes. [127] Cluster of Reichardia tingitana flowers in Qatar.jpg
Rosa majalis Cinnamon roseIt yields edible hip fruits rich in vitamin C, which are used in medicine [128] and to produce rose hip syrup. Rosa majalis20140910 02.jpg
Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary It has been used medicinally from ancient times.[ citation needed ] Shinasahi142211.jpg
Ruellia tuberosa Minnieroot, fever root, snapdragon rootIn folk medicine and Ayurvedic medicine it has been used as a diuretic, anti-diabetic, antipyretic, analgesic, antihypertensive, gastroprotective, and to treat gonorrhea. [129] Ruellia tuberosa (Wayside Tuberose) in Hyderabad W IMG 9012.jpg
Rumex crispus Curly dock or yellow dockIn Western herbalism the root is often used for treating anemia, due to its high level of iron. [130] The plant will help with skin conditions if taken internally or applied externally to things like itching, scrofula, and sores. It is also used for respiratory conditions, specifically those with a tickling cough that is worse when exposed to cold air. It mentions also passing pains, excessive itching, and that it helps enlarged lymphs. [131] Polygonaceae - Rumex crispus-1 (8303634985).jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Salix alba White willow Plant source of salicylic acid, white willow is like the chemical known as aspirin, although more likely to cause stomach upset as a side effect than aspirin itself which can cause the lining of the stomach to be destroyed. Used from ancient times for the same uses as aspirin. [132] Salix alba leaves.jpg
Salvia officinalis SageShown to improve cognitive function in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. [133] [134] Salvia officinalis 001.JPG
Sambucus nigra Elderberry The berries and leaves have traditionally been used to treat pain, swelling, infections, coughs, and skin conditions and, more recently, flu, common cold, fevers, constipation, and sinus infections. [135] Sambucus-berries.jpg
Santalum album Indian sandalwood Sandalwood oil has been widely used in folk medicine for treatment of common colds, bronchitis, skin disorders, heart ailments, general weakness, fever, infection of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints and other maladies. [136] Santalum album leaves and flowers 06.JPG
Santolina chamaecyparissus Cotton lavenderMost commonly, the flowers and leaves are made into a decoction used to expel intestinal parasites.[ citation needed ] Santolina chamaecyparissus flowers.jpg
Saraca indica Ashoka tree The plant is used in Ayurvedic traditions to treat gynecological disorders. The bark is also used to combat oedema or swelling. [137] 7344 qsbg11mar.jpg
Satureja hortensis Summer savory Its extracts show antibacterial and antifungal effects on several species including some of the antibiotic resistant strains. [138] [139] [140] Satureja hortensis Prague 2011 1.jpg
Sceletium tortuosum KannaAfrican treatment for depression. Suggested to be an SSRI or have similar effects, but unknown mechanism of activity.[ citation needed ] Kanna flower.jpg
Senna auriculata Avaram sennaThe root is used in decoctions against fevers, diabetes, diseases of urinary system and constipation. The leaves have laxative properties. The dried flowers and flower buds are used as a substitute for tea in case of diabetes patients. The powdered seed is also applied to the eye, in case of chronic purulent conjunctivitis.[ citation needed ] (Senna auriculata) at kambalakonda 01.JPG
Sesuvium portulacastrum Shoreline purslaneThe plant extract showed antibacterial and anticandidal activities and moderate antifungal activity. [141] Starr 080602-5547 Sesuvium portulacastrum.jpg
Silybum marianum Milk thistle It has been used for thousands of years for a variety of medicinal purposes, in particular liver problems. [142] Milk thistle flowerhead.jpg
Stachytarpheta cayennensis Blue snakeweedExtracts of the plant are used to ease the symptoms of malaria. The boiled juice or a tea made from the leaves or the whole plant is taken to relieve fever and other symptoms. It is also used for dysentery, pain, and liver disorders. [143] A tea of the leaves is taken to help control diabetes in Peru and other areas. [144] Laboratory tests indicate that the plant has anti-inflammatory properties. [145] Blue Snakeweed (2095033321).jpg
Stellaria media Common chickweedIt has been used as a remedy to treat itchy skin conditions and pulmonary diseases. [146] 17th century herbalist John Gerard recommended it as a remedy for mange. Modern herbalists prescribe it for iron-deficiency anemia (for its high iron content), as well as for skin diseases, bronchitis, rheumatic pains, arthritis and period pain. [147] Kaldari Stellaria media 01.jpg
Strobilanthes callosus KarvyThe plant is anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, [148] and anti-rheumatic. [149] Strobilanthes callosus.jpg
Symphytum officinale Comfrey It has been used as a vulnerary and to reduce inflammation. [150] It was also used internally in the past, for stomach and other ailments, but its toxicity has led a number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Australia, and the United Kingdom, to severely restrict or ban the use of comfrey. [151] Symphytum officinale (4970747322).jpg
Syzygium aromaticum Clove The plant is used for upset stomach and as an expectorant, among other purposes. The oil is used topically to treat toothache. [152] Cloves.JPG


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Tanacetum parthenium Feverfew The plant has been used for centuries for fevers, headaches, stomach aches, toothaches, insect bites and other conditions. [153] Feverfew.jpg
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion It was most commonly used historically to treat liver diseases, kidney diseases, and spleen problems. [154] Slunicka Vysociny.JPG
Teucrium scordium Water germanderIt has been used for asthma, diarrhea, fever, intestinal parasites, hemorrhoids, and wounds. [155] Teucrium scordium2 eF.jpg
Thymus vulgaris Thyme The plant is used to treat bronchitis and cough. It serves as an antispasmodic and expectorant in this role. It has also been used in many other medicinal roles in Asian and Ayurvedic medicine, although it has not been shown to be effective in non-respiratory medicinal roles. [156] Mouche sur du thym en fleurs a Grez-Doiceau 002.jpg
Tilia cordata Small-leaved lindenIn the countries of Central, Southern and Western Europe, linden flowers are a traditional herbal remedy made into an herbal tea called tisane. [157] Tilia cordata (2560923908).jpg
Tradescantia zebrina InchplantIt is used in southeast Mexico in the region of Tabasco as a cold herbal tea, which is named Matali. [158] Skin irritation may result from repeated contact with or prolonged handling of the plant, particularly from the clear, watery sap (a characteristic unique to T. zebrina as compared with other types). Gardenology-IMG 7927 hunt10aug.jpg
Trema orientalis Charcoal-treeThe leaves and the bark are used to treat coughs, sore throats, asthma, bronchitis, gonorrhea, yellow fever, toothache, and as an antidote to general poisoning. [159] Kharagola (Marathi- khrgol) (537093835).jpg
Trifolium pratense Red clover The plant is an ingredient in some recipes for essiac tea. Research has found no benefit for any human health conditions. [160] Kleebluete.jpg
Trigonella foenum-graecum Fenugreek It has long been used to treat symptoms of menopause, and digestive ailments. More recently, it has been used to treat diabetes, loss of appetite and other conditions. [161] Aesthetic bunch of fenugreek greens.jpg
Triticum aestivum Wheatgrass It may contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. [162] Ble tendre hiver (GHAYTA) AO-5-cliche Jean Weber (5) (24000515671).jpg
Turnera subulata White buttercupIt is used for skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory ailments.[ citation needed ] BangbangNuevaVizcayajf9987 14.JPG


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Uncaria tomentosa Cat's claw It has a long history of use in South America to prevent and treat disease. [163]
Urtica dioica Common nettle, stinging nettleIt has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally (as tea or fresh leaves) to treat disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, locomotor system, skin, cardiovascular system, hemorrhage, influenza, rheumatism, and gout. [18] 20120623Urtica dioica3.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Vaccinium spec. Blueberries They are of current medical interest as an antioxidant [164] [165] and for urinary tract ailments. [166] Vaccinium.jpg
Vaccinium macrocarpon Cranberry It was used historically as a vulnerary and for urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems. Modern usage has concentrated on urinary tract related problems. [167] Cranberry bog.jpg
Vaccinium myrtillus Bilberry It is used to treat diarrhea, scurvy, and other conditions. [168] Bilberry.jpg
Valeriana officinalis Valerian It has been used since at least ancient Greece and Rome for sleep disorders and anxiety. [169] Valeriana officinalis02.JPG
Verbascum thapsus Common mulleinIt contains glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide and potential anti-tumoral action. These compounds are concentrated in the flowers. [170] 20150930Verbascum thapsus2.jpg
Verbena officinalis Verbena It is used for sore throats and respiratory tract diseases. [171] 20140807Verbena officinalis2.jpg
Vernonia amygdalina Bitter leaf The plant is used by both primates and indigenous peoples in Africa to treat intestinal ailments such as dysentery. [172] [173] Vernonia amygdalina 02.jpg
Veronica officinalis VeronicaThe plant is used for sinus and ear infections. [174] Veronica officinalis 5499177.jpg
Viburnum tinus LaurustinusV. tinus has medicinal properties. The active ingredients are viburnin (a substance or more probably a mixture of compounds) and tannins. Tannins can cause stomach upset. The leaves when infused have antipyretic properties. The fruits have been used as purgatives against constipation. The tincture has been used lately in herbal medicine as a remedy for depression. The plant also contains iridoid glucosides. [175] Viburnum February 2008-1.jpg
Viola tricolor Wild pansyIt is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small peptides have proven to be useful in drug development due to their size and structure giving rise to high stability. Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic. [176] This feature means that it could be used to treat cancers. [177] [176] Viola tricolor, Schenley Park, 2015-10-01, 01.jpg
Viscum album European mistletoe It has been used to treat seizures, headaches, and other conditions. [178] Viscum album fruit.jpg
Vitex agnus-castus Chasteberry It has been used for over thousands of years for menstrual problems, and to stimulate lactation. [179] Vitex agnus-castus.JPG
Vitis vinifera Grape The leaves and fruit have been used medicinally since the ancient Greeks. [180] Grape vines 2015 02.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Withania somnifera AshwagandhaThe plant's long, brown, tuberous roots are used in traditional medicine. In Ayurveda, the berries and leaves are applied externally to tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and ulcers. [181] Withania somnifera 06.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Xanthoparmelia scabrosa Sexy footpath lichenIt is a lichen used for sexual dysfunction. [182] Xanthoparmelia scabrosa imported from iNaturalist photo 1939417 on 7 June 2020.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Youngia japonica Japanese hawkweedThe plant is antitussive and febrifuge. It is also used in the treatment of boils and snakebites. [183] Youngja japonica2.jpg


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Zingiber officinale Ginger Ginger is effective for the relief of nausea. [184] [185] Ginger Plant vs.jpg


See also


Related Research Articles

Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine despite lacking biological plausibility, testability, repeatability, or evidence from clinical trials. Unlike modern medicine, which employs the scientific method to test plausible therapies by way of responsible and ethical clinical trials, producing repeatable evidence of either effect or of no effect, alternative therapies reside outside of medical science and do not originate from using the scientific method, but instead rely on testimonials, anecdotes, religion, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural "energies", pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or other unscientific sources. Frequently used terms for relevant practices are New Age medicine, pseudo-medicine, unorthodox medicine, holistic medicine, fringe medicine, and unconventional medicine, with little distinction from quackery.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peppermint</span> Hybrid flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae

Peppermint is a hybrid species of mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint. Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, the plant is now widely spread and cultivated in many regions of the world. It is occasionally found in the wild with its parent species.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Valerian (herb)</span> Species of flowering plant in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae

Valerian is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia. In the summer when the mature plant may have a height of 1.5 metres, it bears sweetly scented pink or white flowers that attract many fly species, especially hoverflies of the genus Eristalis. It is consumed as food by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the grey pug.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chamomile</span> Common name for several daisy-like plants

Chamomile or camomile is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae. Two of the species, Matricaria chamomilla and Chamaemelum nobile, are commonly used to make herbal infusions for beverages. There is insufficient scientific evidence that consuming chamomile in foods or beverages has any beneficial effects on health.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ayurveda</span> Alternative medicine with roots in India

Ayurveda is an alternative medicine system with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. The theory and practice of Ayurveda is pseudoscientific. Ayurveda is heavily practiced in India and Nepal, where around 80% of the population report using it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Goldenseal</span> Species of flowering plant

Goldenseal, also called orangeroot or yellow puccoon, is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to North America. It may be distinguished by its thick, yellow knotted rootstock. The stem is purplish and hairy above ground and yellow below ground where it connects to the yellow rhizome. Goldenseal reproduces both clonally through the rhizome and sexually, with clonal division more frequent than asexual reproduction. It takes between 4 and 5 years for a plant to reach sexual maturity, i.e. the point at which it produces flowers. Plants in the first stage, when the seed erupts and cotyledons emerge, can remain in this state one or more years. The second vegetative stage occurs during years two and three and is characterized by the development of a single leaf and absence of a well developed stem. Finally, the third stage is reproductive, at which point flowering and fruiting occurs. This last stage takes between 4 and 5 years to develop.

<i>Actaea racemosa</i> Species of plant

Actaea racemosa, the black cohosh, black bugbane, black snakeroot, rattle-top, or fairy candle, is a species of flowering plant of the family Ranunculaceae. It is native to eastern North America from the extreme south of Ontario to central Georgia, and west to Missouri and Arkansas. It grows in a variety of woodland habitats, and is often found in small woodland openings. The roots and rhizomes were used in traditional medicine by Native Americans. Its extracts are manufactured as herbal medicines or dietary supplements. Most dietary supplements containing black cohosh are not well-studied or recommended for safe and effective use in treating menopause symptoms or any disease. In contrast, some herbal medicinal products containing black cohosh extract hold a marketing authorization in several states of the European Union and are well-studied and recommended for safe and effective use for the relief of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and profuse sweating attacks. Such differentiation between the product types seems to be important.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chinese herbology</span> Traditional Chinese herbal therapy

Chinese herbology is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). A Nature editorial described TCM as "fraught with pseudoscience", and said that the most obvious reason why it has not delivered many cures is that the majority of its treatments have no logical mechanism of action.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Herbal medicine</span> Study and use of supposed medicinal properties of plants

Herbal medicine is the study of pharmacognosy and the use of medicinal plants, which are a basis of traditional medicine. With worldwide research into pharmacology, some herbal medicines have been translated into modern remedies, such as the anti-malarial group of drugs called artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua, a herb that was known in Chinese medicine to treat fever. There is limited scientific evidence for the safety and efficacy of many plants used in 21st century herbalism, which generally does not provide standards for purity or dosage. The scope of herbal medicine sometimes include fungal and bee products, as well as minerals, shells and certain animal parts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ginseng</span> Root of a plant used in herbal preparations

Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng, South China ginseng, and American ginseng, typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin. Ginseng is most commonly used in the cuisines and medicines of China and Korea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Traditional medicine</span> Formalized folk medicine

Traditional medicine comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within the folk beliefs of various societies, including indigenous peoples, before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness". Traditional medicine is often contrasted with scientific medicine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medicinal plants</span> Plants or derivatives used to treat medical conditions in humans or animals

Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesize hundreds of chemical compounds for various functions, including defense and protection against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Traditional Korean medicine</span> Traditional medicine practiced in Korea

Traditional Korean medicine refers to the forms of traditional medicine practiced in Korea.

<i>Tanacetum parthenium</i> Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae

Tanacetum parthenium, known as feverfew, is a flowering plant in the daisy family, Asteraceae. It may be grown as an ornament, and may be identified by its synonyms, Chrysanthemum parthenium and Pyrethrum parthenium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kampo</span> System of Chinese medicine in Japan

Kampo or Kanpō medicine, often known simply as Kanpō, is the study of traditional Chinese medicine in Japan following its introduction, beginning in the 7th century. It was adapted and modified to suit Japanese culture and traditions. Traditional Japanese medicine uses most of the Chinese methods, including acupuncture, moxibustion, traditional Chinese herbology, and traditional food therapy.

<i>Astragalus mongholicus</i> Species of plant

Astragalus mongholicus, synonyms including Astragalus propinquus and Astragalus membranaceus, commonly known as Mongolian milkvetch in English; 'Хунчир' in Mongolian; huáng qí, běi qí or huáng huā huáng qí, in Mongolia, is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Mongolian medicine. It is a perennial plant and it is not listed as being threatened.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Traditional African medicine</span> Traditional medical practices in Africa

Traditional African medicine is a range of traditional medicine disciplines involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically including diviners, midwives, and herbalists. Practitioners of traditional African medicine claim, largely without evidence, to be able to cure a variety of diverse conditions including cancer, psychiatric disorders, high blood pressure, cholera, most venereal diseases, epilepsy, asthma, eczema, fever, anxiety, depression, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary tract infections, gout, and healing of wounds and burns and even Ebola.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Herbal tonic</span>

In herbal medicine, an herbal tonic is used to help restore, tone and invigorate systems in the body or to promote general health and well-being. An herbal tonic is a solution or other preparation made from a specially selected assortment of plants known as herbs. They are steeped in water and drunk either hot or cool. Herbal tonics are believed to have healing properties ranging from relieving muscle and joint pain and extend as far as inhibiting some cancers.

The history of herbalism is closely tied with the history of medicine from prehistoric times up until the development of the germ theory of disease in the 19th century. Modern medicine from the 19th century to today has been based on evidence gathered using the scientific method. Evidence-based use of pharmaceutical drugs, often derived from medicinal plants, has largely replaced herbal treatments in modern health care. However, many people continue to employ various forms of traditional or alternative medicine. These systems often have a significant herbal component. The history of herbalism also overlaps with food history, as many of the herbs and spices historically used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds, and use of spices with antimicrobial activity in cooking is part of an ancient response to the threat of food-borne pathogens.

Alternative medicine describes any practice which aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine, but which lacks biological plausibility and is untested or untestable. Complementary medicine (CM), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), integrated medicine or integrative medicine (IM), and holistic medicine are among many rebrandings of the same phenomenon.


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