Nelumbo nucifera

Last updated

Nelumbo nucifera
Sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Nelumbonaceae
Genus: Nelumbo
Species:
N. nucifera
Binomial name
Nelumbo nucifera
Synonyms
  • Nelumbium speciosum Willd.
  • Nelumbo komarovii Grossh.
  • Nymphaea nelumbo
British 19th Century, East Indian Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), late 19th century, National Gallery of Art, NGA 52325 British 19th Century, East Indian Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), late 19th century, NGA 52325.jpg
British 19th Century, East Indian Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), late 19th century, National Gallery of Art, NGA 52325

Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, [1] or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. It is sometimes colloquially called a water lily, though this more often refers to members of the family nymphaeaceae . [2]

Contents

Lotus plants are adapted to grow in the flood plains of slow-moving rivers and delta areas. Stands of lotus drop hundreds of thousands of seeds every year to the bottom of the pond. While some sprout immediately, and most are eaten by wildlife, the remaining seeds can remain dormant for an extensive period of time as the pond silts in and dries out. During flood conditions, sediments containing these seeds are broken open, and the dormant seeds rehydrate and begin a new lotus colony.

Under favorable circumstances, the seeds of this aquatic perennial may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from seeds 1,300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China. [3] Therefore, the Chinese regard the plant as a symbol of longevity.

It has a very wide native distribution, ranging from central and northern India (at altitudes up to 1,400 m or 4,600 ft in the southern Himalayas [4] ), through northern Indochina and East Asia (north to the Amur region; the Russian populations have sometimes been referred to as "Nelumbo komarovii"), with isolated locations at the Caspian Sea. [5] Today the species also occurs in southern India, Sri Lanka, virtually all of Southeast Asia, New Guinea and northern and eastern Australia, but this is probably the result of human translocations. [5] It has a very long history (c. 3,000 years) of being cultivated for its edible seeds, [5] and it is commonly cultivated in water gardens. [4] It is the national flower of India and Vietnam.

Classification

The lotus is often confused with the true water lilies of genus Nymphaea , in particular N. caerulea , the "blue lotus". In fact, several older systems, such as the Bentham & Hooker system (which is widely used in the Indian subcontinent) refer to the lotus by its old synonym of Nymphaea nelumbo.[ citation needed ]

While all modern plant taxonomy systems agree that this species belongs in the genus Nelumbo , the systems disagree as to which family Nelumbo should be placed in, or whether the genus should belong in its own unique family and order. According to the APG IV system, N. nucifera, N. lutea , and their extinct relatives belong in Proteales with the protea flowers [6] due to genetic comparisons. Older systems, such as the Cronquist system, place N. nucifera and its relatives in the order Nymphaeles based on anatomical similarities. [7]

Botany

Lotus plant Nelumbo nucifera1romainguy.jpg
Lotus plant
Carpellary receptacle of Lotus Lotus flower core - carpellary receptacle 09.jpg
Carpellary receptacle of Lotus

The roots of lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on the water's surface or are held well above it. The flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves. The leaf stalks (petioles) can be up to 200 cm (6 ft 7 in) long, allowing the plant to grow in water to that depth, [8] and a horizontal spread of 1 m (3 ft 3 in). [9] The leaves may be as large as 80 cm (31 in) in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. [10]

Researchers report that the lotus has the remarkable ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers to within a narrow range just as humans and other warmblooded animals do. [11] Roger S. Seymour and Paul Schultze-Motel, physiologists at the University of Adelaide in Australia, found that lotus flowers blooming in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens maintained a temperature of 30–35 °C (86–95 °F), even when the air temperature dropped to 10 °C (50 °F). They suspect the flowers may be doing this to attract coldblooded insect pollinators. Studies published in the journals Nature and Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences were in 1996 and 1998 important contributions in the field of thermoregulation, heat-producing, in plants. Two other species known to be able to regulate their temperature include Symplocarpus foetidus and Philodendron selloum .[ citation needed ]

Lotus seeds can remain viable after long periods of dormancy. In 1994, a seed from a sacred lotus, dated at roughly 1,300 years old ± 270 years, was successfully germinated. [12] [13]

The traditional Sacred Lotus is only distantly related to Nymphaea caerulea, but possesses similar chemistry. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and aporphine.[ citation needed ]

The genome of the sacred lotus was sequenced in May 2013. [14] [15] [16]

Cultivation

The Sacred Lotus grows in water up to 2.5 m (8 ft) deep. The minimum water depth is about 30 cm (12 in). In colder climates, such a low water level, which heats up more quickly, is helpful for better growth and flowering. Lotus germinates at temperatures above 13 °C (55 °F). [17] Most varieties are not cold-hardy. [18] In the growing season from April to September (northern hemisphere), the average daytime temperature needed is 23 to 27 °C (73 to 81 °F). [19] In regions with low light levels in winter, the sacred lotus has a period of dormancy. The tubers are not cold resistant, but can resist temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) if they are covered with an insulating cover of water or soil. [20] During winter time, the roots have to be stored at a frost free place. [21] [22]

Planting

The sacred lotus requires a nutrient-rich loamy soil. [18] In the beginning of the summer period (from March until May in the northern hemisphere), [23] a small part of rhizome with at least one eye is either planted in ponds [24] or directly into a flooded field. [25] [26] There are several other propagation ways via seeds or buds. [20] Furthermore, tissue culture is a promising propagation method for the future to produce high volumes of uniform, true-to-type, disease free materials. [27]

First step of the cultivation is to plough the dry field. One round of manure is applied after ten days, before flooding the field. To support a quick initial growth, the water level is held relatively low [26] and is increased when plants grow. Then a maximum of approximately 4000 rhizome pieces per hectare (10000 per acre) [27] are used to plant directly into the mud 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in) below the soil surface. [28]

Harvest

Lotus bud LotusBud0048a.jpg
Lotus bud
Lotus bud in advanced stage of bloom A budding lotus flower.jpg
Lotus bud in advanced stage of bloom

The stolon is ready to harvest two to three months after planting. It must be harvested before flowering. Harvesting the stolon is done by manual labour. For this step, the field is not drained. By pulling and shaking the young leaves in the shallow water, the stolon is pulled out of the water. [26]

Three months after planting, the first leaves and flowers can be harvested. Flowers can be picked every two days during summer and every three days during the colder season. Four months after planting, the production of flowers has its climax. The harvest of flowers is usually done by hand during three to four months. [26]

Seeds and seed pods can be harvested when they turn black four to eight months after planting. After sun drying for two to three days, they are processed by mechanical tools to separate seed coats and embryos. [26] [20]

The rhizomes mature to a suitable stage for eating in approximately six to nine months. [28] Early varieties are harvested in July until September and late varieties from October until March, after the ponds or fields are drained. [20] [21] [26] [28] [29] The large, starch rich rhizomes are easy to dig out of the drained soil. [26] In small scale production, they are harvested by hand using fork like tools. [20] In Japan and on bigger farms the manual labour harvesting is fully replaced by machines. [17]

Varieties and cultivars

Lotus varieties have been classified according to their use into three types: rhizome lotus, seed lotus and flower lotus. Varieties that show more than one of these characteristics are classified by the strongest feature. [27] Regarding production area in China, rhizome lotus has the largest area with 200,000 ha (490,000 acres), followed by seed lotus with 20,000 ha (49,000 acres). [30]

Rhizome lotus

Rhizome lotus cultivars produce a higher yield of and higher quality rhizomes than that of seed or flower lotus cultivars. Furthermore, this group grows the tallest and produces very few to no flowers. [30] [27]

Cultivars can be classified by harvest time or by the depth of rhizomes into these types:

  • Pre-mature (early) cultivars are harvested before the end of July, serotinous (late) cultivars from September on and mid-serotinous or mid-matutinal cultivars are in between these harvest times. Using pre-mature cultivars, rhizomes can be harvested earlier and therefore be sold for a higher price. [30]
  • Ad littoral, deep, and intermediate cultivars are distinguished according to the depth in which the rhizomes grow underground. Adlittoral cultivars range from 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) depth and are often pre-mature. They develop faster due to higher temperature in surface soil layers. When harvested in July, adlittorals have higher yields than deeper growing cultivars, but not necessarily when harvested in September. Rhizomes of adlittoral cultivars are crisp and good for frying purposes. Deep cultivars grow more than 40 cm (16 in) deep. They are often serotinous and can harvest high yield. Their rhizomes are starch-rich. [30]

The main popular Nelumbo nucifera cultivars in China are Elian 1, Elian 4, Elian 5, 9217, Xin 1 and 00–01. Average yield of these cultivars is 7.5–15 t/ha (3.3-6.7 tons/acre) of harvest in July and 30–45 t/ha (13-20 tons/acre) of harvest in September. [30] In Australia, the cultivar grown for the fresh rhizome market is Quangdong and in Japan the common rhizome cultivars are Tenno and Bitchu. [27]

Seed lotus

Nelumbo nucifera seed head Nelumbo nucifera5.jpg
Nelumbo nucifera seed head

The characteristics of seed lotus cultivars are a large number of carpels and seed sets as well as large seeds with better nutritional properties. Roots of these varieties are thin, fibrous and do not form good rhizomes. [27] The main popular cultivars for seed production in China are Cunsanlian, Xianglian 1, Zilian 2, Jianlian, Ganlian 62 and Taikong 36. Average yield of these cultivars in China is 1.05–1.9 t/ha (0.5–0.8 tons/acre) of dry seeds and weight of thousand seeds between 1,020 to 1,800 g (36 to 63 oz). [30] Green Jade and Vietnam-Red are recommended cultivars for seed production in Australia. [27]

Flower lotus

Flower lotus cultivars are used exclusively for ornamental purpose, produce a large number of flowers and the lowest plant height. [30]

Seed production of flower lotus is poor regarding yield and quality. Flower types differ in the number of petals (single petals, double petals or multi-petals) and their colours range from single colour in white, yellow, pink, red to bi-colour, most often of white petals with pink tip or highlights. [27]

Farming

About 70% of lotus for the human consumption is produced in China. In 2005, the cultivation area in China was estimated at 300,000 hectares (740,000 acres). [20] A majority of lotus production takes place in managed farming systems in ponds or flooded fields like rice. [30]

The most widely used system is crop rotation with rice and vegetables. This system is applicable if the propagule (small piece of rhizome) can be planted early in the year. The rhizomes are harvested in July, after which rice can be planted into the same field. Rice is then harvested in October. From November until March, the field stays either free, or a terricolous vegetable, such as cabbage or spinach, is planted. Alternatively, the vegetable can also be planted after the harvest of lotus. [30]

Another alternative way is to not harvest the lotus rhizome, although it is ripe. A terricolous vegetable is planted between the rhizomes into the drained field. The rhizomes are then harvested next March. [30]

A third way is to plant lotus in ponds or fields and raise aquatic animals such as fish, shrimp or crab in the same field. [30] A more efficient use of the water for both, the aquatic animal and the lotus production, has been identified with this planting pattern. [31]

Use

Lotus effect on nelumbo nucifera hybrid Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Water Drops 2654px.jpg
Lotus effect on nelumbo nucifera hybrid

Human consumption

Rhizomes

Lotus rhizomes Lotus root.jpg
Lotus rhizomes
Boiled, sliced lotus roots used in various Asian cuisines JaRenkonLotus11R.jpg
Boiled, sliced lotus roots used in various Asian cuisines

The rhizomes of lotus (Chinese: 蓮藕 lián-ǒu) are consumed as a vegetable in Asian countries, extensively in China, Japan, and India: sold whole or in cut pieces, fresh, frozen, or canned. They are fried or cooked mostly in soups, soaked in syrup or pickled in vinegar (with sugar, chili and garlic). [32] [33] Lotus rhizomes have a crunchy texture with sweet-tangy flavours and are a classic dish at many banquets, where they are deep-fried, stir-fried, or stuffed with meats or preserved fruits. [32] Salads with prawns, sesame oil or coriander leaves are also popular. Unfortunately, fresh lotus root slices are limited by a fast browning rate. [34] [35] Lotus root tea is consumed in Korea.

Lotus root is a popular vegetable in Sri Lanka, where it is often cooked in coconut milk gravy. In India, lotus root (also known as kamal kakdi) is cooked as a dry curry or sabzi. [36]

Japan is one of the primary users of the rhizomes, representing about 1% of all vegetables consumed. Japan grows its own lotus but still must import 18,000 tons of lotus rhizome each year, of which China provides 15,000 tons yearly. [37]

Rhizomes contain high amounts of starch (31.2%) without characteristic taste or odor. The texture is comparable to a raw potato. [38] The binding and disintegration properties of isolated Nelumbo starch have been compared with maize and potato starch; Nelumbo starch is shown to be superior as an adjuvant in the preparation of tablets. [39] When dried, N. nucifera is also made into flour, another popular use of this vegetable. [32] [33]

Pips

Lotus pip tea is consumed in Korea.

Seeds

Fresh lotus seeds ready to eat Lotus fruit seeds.jpg
Fresh lotus seeds ready to eat

Fresh lotus seeds (simplified Chinese : 莲子 ; traditional Chinese : 蓮子 ; pinyin :liánzĭ; Cantonese Yale :lìhnjí) are nutritious but also vulnerable to microbial contamination, especially fungal infections. Therefore, mostly dry lotus seed-based products are found on the market. Traditional sun baking combining with charcoal processing dries the seeds but results in loss of nutrients. Freeze-dried lotus seeds have a longer shelf life and maintain original nutrients, while no differences in flavour are found after rehydration compared to fresh lotus seeds. [40] [41]

Dry stored lotus seeds are sensitive to moisture and mold infestation; researchers continue to explore new ways to preserve fresh lotus seeds, for example radiation processing. [42]

Lotus seeds can be processed into moon cake, lotus seed noodles and food in forms of paste, fermented milk, rice wine, ice cream, popcorn (phool makhana) and others, with lotus seeds as the main raw material. Traditional Eastern medicine claims that fresh lotus seed wine has thirst quenching, spleen healing and anti-diarrheal advantages after drinking, attributed to unspecified bioactive compounds. [43] [44] Lotus seed tea is consumed in Korea, and lotus embryo tea is consumed in China and Vietnam. [44]

Stems

Young lotus stems are used as a salad ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine. And as vegetable ingredient for some soup and curry in Thailand, such as "Keang som sai bua"(Thai: แกงส้มสายบัว, Lotus stem sour soup) and "Keang kati sai bua"(Thai: แกงกะทิสายบัว, Lotus stem in coconut milk curry)

In north and eastern regions of India, the stalk of the flower is used to prepare a soup called "kamal gatte ki sabji" (Hindi: कमल गट्टे की सब्जी) and starter called "kamal kakdi pakode" (Hindi: कमल ककडी पकौडे).In South Indian states, the lotus stem is sliced, marinated with salt to dry, and the dried slices are fried and used as a side dish. In Kerala (Malayalam: "താമര") and Tamil Nadu, this end product is called "Thamara Vathal".

Leaves

Vietnamese-style green young rice (com) wrapped in lotus leaves, traditionally consumed with ripe bananas and tea during autumn at the beginning of the rice harvest Co trung thu.JPG
Vietnamese-style green young rice (cốm) wrapped in lotus leaves, traditionally consumed with ripe bananas and tea during autumn at the beginning of the rice harvest

In China and Korea, lotus leaf tea (Korean: 연잎차 yeon'ip-cha) is made from the leaves of the lotus. It is also used as a wrap for steaming rice and sticky rice and other steamed dishes in Southeast Asian cuisine, such as lo mai gai in Chinese cuisine or kao hor bai bua (Thai: ข้าวห่อใบบัว), fried rice wrapped in lotus leaf in Thai cuisine.

Vietnamese also use lotus leaves to wrap green young rice cốm which is eaten as a prized delicate treat in autumn. The leaves impart a unique scent to the soft moist rice.

Flowers

Lotus flower tea Yeonkkot-cha.jpg
Lotus flower tea

In Korea, lotus flower tea (연꽃차 yeon'kkot-cha) is made from the dried petals of the white lotus.

The stamens can be dried and made into a fragrant herbal tea (Chinese : 蓮花 ; pinyin :liánhuā cha; Cantonese Yale :lìhnfāa chah), or used to impart a scent to tea leaves (particularly in Vietnam). This Vietnamese lotus tea is called trà sen, chè sen, or chè ướp sen.

Risks

The petals, leaves and rhizome can also all be eaten raw, but there is a risk of parasite transmission (e.g., Fasciolopsis buski ): it is therefore recommended that they be cooked before eating.

Use in water treatment

Nelumbo nucifera shows high potential for usage in wastewater treatment removing polluting compounds [45] and heavy metals. [46] [47] [48] It is able to grow in variable water conditions [49] and in low light intensity. [45] Various studies show the successful use of N. nucifera to counteract water eutrophication. [45] [50] The leaves of the floating lotus reduce sunlight reaching the lower part of the water. This suppresses algae growth in N. nucifera aquatic systems and thus, the oxygen content is up to 20% higher than in other aquatic plant systems. [45] Due to intense agricultural practices, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution are major problems in aquatic systems. N. nucifera is able to assimilate a higher content of phosphorus than aquatic plants currently used for water remediation (such as water hyacinth). It also assimilates nitrogen ("denitrification") and creates a habitat for bacterial growth in the water body. [45] Through rhizofiltration, heavy metals – including arsenic, copper and cadmium – can be removed efficiently from the water. [46] [47] The results observed are impressive showing 96% of copper and 85% cadmium metals removed after a seven-day incubation period. [47] The accumulation of heavy metals doesn't show morphological symptoms of metal toxicity; [48] however, the rhizome quality for human consumption needs further study.

Storage and commercialization

Currently most rhizomes are consumed fresh and it is not common to store them due to their poor shelf life performance. [51] This limits export possibilities for low-income production countries in Asia. Rhizomes quickly lose water, oxidation occurs and nutrient composition changes within a short time after harvest. Optimal storage temperatures range between 5 to 8 °C (41 to 46 °F). [51] There are three different approaches to storing rhizomes. By stacking the rhizomes, they are storable and remain fresh for about three weeks. Special stacking with silver sand[ clarification needed ] and soil results in five to six layers that prevent water loss, thus the rhizome stays fresh for up to two months. [51] However the method is not suitable for commercialization but rather for home use. Hydrogen sulfide fumigation reduces enzymatic browning and therefore ensures rhizome quality. [47] Dipping the rhizomes in a salt solution prevents oxidation and bacterial reproduction, which allows storage for up to five months and a greater export ability. This treatment is related to high cost and inefficient cleaning process before eating the rhizomes.[ clarification needed ] [51]

Use in bioengineering

Nelumbo nucifera contains some thermal-stable proteins that might be useful in protein bio engineering processes. The proteins are characterized by seed longevity used for cell protection and repair under stress. [52] There are also several indications that compounds of N. nucifera are used in drug fabrication in human health research for multiple purposes. [53]

Other uses

Lotus thread is used to weave a special robe for the Buddha at Inle lake, Myanmar. IMG lotus-thread.JPG
Lotus thread is used to weave a special robe for the Buddha at Inle lake, Myanmar.

The distinctive dried seed heads, which resemble the spouts of watering cans, are widely sold throughout the world for decorative purposes and for dried flower arranging.

In Asia, the petals are sometimes used for garnish, while the large leaves are used as a wrap for food, not frequently eaten (for example, as a wrapper for zongzi ).

A unique fabric called lotus silk, from the lotus plant fibers, is produced only at Inle lake, Myanmar and in Siem Reap, Cambodia. This thread is used for weaving special robes for Buddha images called kya thingan (lotus robe).

Chemical composition

The flavonol miquelianin, as well as the alkaloids (+)-(1R)-coclaurine and (−)-(1S)-norcoclaurine, can be found in the leaves of N. nucifera. [54] The plant also contains nuciferine, neferine and many other benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with medicinal properties. [55] [56]

Health properties and nutrients

Traditional medicine

Lotus root, cooked, no salt
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 278 kJ (66 kcal)
16.02 g
Sugars 0.50 g
Dietary fiber 3.1 g
Fat
0.07 g
1.58 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Thiamine (B1)
11%
0.127 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
1%
0.01 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.3 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
6%
0.302 mg
Vitamin B6
17%
0.218 mg
Folate (B9)
2%
8 μg
Choline
5%
25.4 mg
Vitamin C
33%
27.4 mg
Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
3%
26 mg
Iron
7%
0.9 mg
Magnesium
6%
22 mg
Manganese
10%
0.22 mg
Phosphorus
11%
78 mg
Potassium
8%
363 mg
Sodium
3%
45 mg
Zinc
3%
0.33 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water81.42 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

All parts of Nelumbo nucifera are edible, with the rhizome and seeds being the main consumption parts. Traditionally rhizomes, leaves, and seeds have been used as folk medicines, Ayurveda, Chinese traditional medicine, and oriental medicine. [57] [58] While leaves are used for hematemesis, epistaxis, and hematuria, the flowers are used for lowering blood sugar levels, [59] diarrhea, cholera, fever, and hyperdipsia. [57] [58] Rhizomes are promoted have purported diuretic, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. [57] [58] [60] [61] In Chinese medicine, seeds are still used as Lian Zi Xi. [62]

Lotus rhizomes and seeds and their processing by-products are widely consumed in Asia, Americas, and Oceania for high content of physiologically active substances. [61] Especially in China, lotus seeds are popular with a cultural history going back about 3000 years. As early as the Han Dynasty, lotus seeds were already recorded as sweet, astringent, nourishing the heart and kidney in "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic". [63] Nowadays there are 22 varieties for the four known Chinese lines, which are found particularly in Jianning (still called "the town of Jianlian lotus seeds in China") and Guangchang ("the town of white lotus seeds in China"). [64]

These days the perennial aquatic herb is gaining popularity because of its nutraceutical and historical importance [61] [44] It will be of economic value if the different parts of lotus can be developed as functional food. [58] [44] Because of the special role in human health and richness in nutrients and bioactive substances, the Chinese Ministry of Health approved the use of N. nucifera as both "food and medicine". [65]

Rhizomes

The rhizomes are 60–14 cm (23.6–5.5 in) long, 0.5–2.5 cm (0.20–0.98 in) in diameter, yellowish white to yellowish brown, smooth and with nodes and internodes. [66]

The lotus root is used to add seasoning to food. Lotus root is a moderate calorie root vegetable (100 g of root-stem provides about 74 calories) and is composed of several vitamins, minerals, and nutrients: 83.80% water, 0.11% fat, 1.56% reducing sugar, 0.41% sucrose, 2.70% crude protein, 9.25% starch, 0.80% fiber, 0.10% ash and 0.06% calcium. [67] 100 g of root provides 44 mg of vitamin C or 73% of daily recommended values (RDA).

Lotus rhizome and its extracts have shown diuretic, psychopharmacological, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, antipyretic and antioxidant activities. [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [ medical citation needed ]

Seeds

Lotus seeds are mostly oval or spherical, with sizes varying according to varieties. They are generally 1.2–1.8 cm long, with diameter ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 cm and a weight of 1.1–1.4 g. After lotus seeds have been decorticated and peeled, they are edible and rich in nutrients, and can be dried for storage. Their nutritional values can differ due to culture environments and varieties. [73]

Not only do these seeds contain proteins of high quality and are rich in variety of essential amino acids including high contents of albumin (42%) and globulin (27%), they also contain unsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorus and other trace elements. [74] [75] They also provide water-soluble polysaccharides, alkaloids, flavonoids, superoxide dismutase and other bioactive components. [76]

Lotus seed also contain particularly large amounts of vitamins, including VB1, VB2, VB6 and Vitamin E. [77] [78]

The functional components (polyphenols, protein, polysaccharides) in N. nucifera seeds can help combatting high blood pressure, diabetes and gallstones. [43] Lotus seed's water-soluble polysaccharides have also been shown to promote lymphocyte transformation and enhance the immune function. [79]

After lotus seed germination, crude protein and fat levels in the endosperm significantly increase. It is therefore an important method to enhance its nutritional quality. [80] [44]

Cultural and religious significance

An Indian lotus motif on a Hindu temple. Nelumbo nucifera is also the national flower of India. Lotus, a typical Hindu temple motive, in red sandstone, Qutb complex.jpg
An Indian lotus motif on a Hindu temple. Nelumbo nucifera is also the national flower of India.

Nelumbo nucifera is the species of lotus that has historical cultural and spiritual significance. It's a sacred flower in both Hinduism and Buddhism, [81] representing the path to spiritual awakening and enlightenment. It was also an important symbol in ancient Egypt, where it represented the path from death to rebirth to the afterlife. [82]

In Asian art a lotus throne is a stylized lotus flower used as the seat or base for a figure. It is the normal pedestal for divine figures in Buddhist art and Hindu art, and often seen in Jain art. Originating in Indian art, it followed Indian religions to East Asia in particular. Lotus flowers are also often held by figures. [83] [84] [85] [86] [87]

See also

Related Research Articles

Celery Species of edible plant

Celery is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery seed is also used as a spice and its extracts have been used in herbal medicine.

Onion Vegetable (Allium cepa)

The onion, also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. The shallot is a botanical variety of the onion. Until 2010, the shallot was classified as a separate species.

Coconut Species of plant in the palm family

The coconut tree is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos. The term "coconut" can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The name comes from the old Portuguese word coco, meaning "head" or "skull", after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. They are ubiquitous in coastal tropical regions and are a cultural icon of the tropics.

Ginger Species of plant

Ginger is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice and a folk medicine. It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual pseudostems about one meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades. The inflorescences bear flowers having pale yellow petals with purple edges, and arise directly from the rhizome on separate shoots.

<i>Canna</i> (plant) Genus of flowering plants in the family Cannaceae

Canna or canna lily is the only genus of flowering plants in the family Cannaceae, consisting of 10 species. Cannas are not true lilies, but have been assigned by the APG II system of 2003 to the order Zingiberales in the monocot clade Commelinids, together with their closest relatives, the gingers, spiral gingers, bananas, arrowroots, heliconias, and birds of paradise.

Persimmon Edible fruit

The persimmon is the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros. The most widely cultivated of these is the Oriental persimmon, Diospyros kaki. Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae, and a number of non-persimmon species of the genus are grown for ebony timber. In 2019, China produced 75% of the world total of persimmons.

<i>Nymphaea</i> Genus of aquatic plants

Nymphaea is a genus of hardy and tender aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution. Many species are cultivated as ornamental plants, and many cultivars have been bred. Some taxa occur as introduced species where they are not native, and some are weeds. Plants of the genus are known commonly as water lilies, or waterlilies in the United Kingdom. The genus name is from the Greek νυμφαία, nymphaia and the Latin nymphaea, which mean "water lily" and were inspired by the nymphs of Greek and Latin mythology.

<i>Nelumbo</i> Genus of aquatic flowering plants known as "lotus."

Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers. Members are commonly called lotus, though "lotus" is a name also applied to various other plants and plant groups, including the unrelated genus Lotus. Members outwardly resemble those in the family Nymphaeaceae, but Nelumbo is actually very distant to Nymphaeaceae. "Nelumbo" is derived from the Sinhalese word: Sinhala: නෙළුම් neḷum, the name for the lotus Nelumbo nucifera.

<i>Nelumbo lutea</i> Species of aquatic plant

Nelumbo lutea is a species of flowering plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. Common names include American lotus, yellow lotus, water-chinquapin, and volée. It is native to North America. The botanical name Nelumbo lutea Willd. is the currently recognized name for this species, which has been classified under the former names Nelumbium luteum and Nelumbo pentapetala, among others.

<i>Iris pseudacorus</i> Species of flowering plant in the iris family Iridaceae

Iris pseudacorus, the yellow flag, yellow iris, or water flag, is a species of flowering plant in the family Iridaceae. It is native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa. Its specific epithet pseudacorus means "false acorus", referring to the similarity of its leaves to those of Acorus calamus, as they have a prominently veined mid-rib and sword-like shape. However, the two plants are not closely related.

<i>Moringa oleifera</i> Species of flowering tree

Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree of the family Moringaceae, native to the Indian subcontinent. Common names include moringa, drumstick tree, horseradish tree, and ben oil tree or benzolive tree.

<i>Euryale ferox</i> Species of flowering plant

Euryale ferox, commonly known as prickly waterlily or Gorgon Plant, is a species of water lily found in southern and eastern Asia, and the only extant member of the genus Euryale. The edible seeds, called fox nuts or makhana when dried, are a food in Asia.

Lotus seed

A lotus seed or lotus nut is the seed of plants in the genus Nelumbo, particularly the species Nelumbo nucifera. The seeds are used in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. Mostly sold in dried, shelled form, the seeds contain rich contents of protein, B vitamins, and dietary minerals.

Carrot Root vegetable, usually orange in color

The carrot is a root vegetable, most commonly observed as orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist, all of which are domesticated forms of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and Southwestern Asia. The plant probably originated in Persia and was originally cultivated for its leaves and seeds. The most commonly eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the stems and leaves are also eaten. The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot.

Oldest viable seed

There are several candidates for the oldest viable seed:

<i>Corchorus olitorius</i> Species of flowering plant

Jute mallow or nalta jute is a species of shrub in the family Malvaceae. Together with C. capsularis it is the primary source of jute fiber. The leaves and young fruits are used as a vegetable, the dried leaves are used for tea and as a soup thickener, and the seeds are edible.

<i>Nymphaea nouchali</i> Species of aquatic plant

Nymphaea nouchali, often known by its synonym Nymphaea stellata, or by common names blue lotus, star lotus, red water lily, blue water lily, blue star water lily or manel flower is a water lily of genus Nymphaea. It is native to southern and eastern parts of Asia, and is the national flower of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. In Sanskrit it is utpala. This species is usually considered to include the blue Egyptian lotus N. nouchali var. caerulea. In the past, taxonomic confusion has occurred, with the name Nymphaea nouchali incorrectly applied to Nymphaea pubescens.

Jingtang Lotus Roots

The Jingtang Lotus Root (京塘莲藕) is a pink-flowering aquatic plant. It most likely originated in Jingtang, Huadu District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, where it was cultivated for its vegetative parts and seeds. The most commonly eaten component of the plant is its taproot, although its green leaves are eaten as well. This plant is an aquatic perennial. Under favorable circumstances, its seeds may remain fertile for many years. The oldest lotus germination recorded involved 1,300-year-old seeds which were recovered from a dry lake bed in northeastern China.

References

  1. "Sacred Lotus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. Janice Glimn-Lacy, Peter B. Kaufman, Botany Illustrated: Introduction to Plants, Major Groups, Flowering Plant Families, p. 79, 2006, Springer, google books
  3. Shen-Miller, J.; Schopf, J. W.; Harbottle, G.; Cao, R.-j.; Ouyang, S.; Zhou, K.-s.; Southon, J. R.; Liu, G.-h. (2002). "Long-living lotus: Germination and soil -irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring". American Journal of Botany. 89 (2): 236–47. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.236. PMID   21669732.
  4. 1 2 Pulok K. Mukherjee; Debajyoti Mukherjee; Amal K. Maji; S. Rai; Michael Heinrich (2010). "The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)– phytochemical and therapeutic profile". Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 61 (4): 407–422. doi: 10.1211/jpp.61.04.0001 . PMID   19298686. S2CID   85342386.
  5. 1 2 3 Yi Zhang; Xu Lu; Shaoxiao Zeng; Xuhui Huang; Zebin Guo; Yafeng Zheng; Yuting Tian; Baodong Zheng (2015). "Nutritional composition, physiological functions and processing of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds: a review". Phytochem Rev. 14 (3): 321–334. doi:10.1007/s11101-015-9401-9. S2CID   16527010.
  6. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi: 10.1111/boj.12385 . ISSN   0024-4074.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. Texas A and M University Bioinformatics Working Group : Cronquist System
  8. "Nelumbo nucifera". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  9. "Nelumbo nucifera - Gaertn". Plants for a Future . Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  10. "Nelumbo nucifera | sacred lotus". Royal Horticultural Society. 1999. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  11. Yoon, Carol Kaesuk (1996-10-01). "Heat of Lotus Attracts Insects And Scientists". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
  12. Shen-Miller; Mudgett, M. B.; William Schopf, J.; Clarke, S.; Berger, R.; et al. (1995). "Exceptional seed longevity and robust growth: Ancient sacred lotus from China". American Journal of Botany . 82 (11): 1367–1380. doi:10.2307/2445863. JSTOR   2445863.
  13. Shen-Miller, J. (2002). "Long-living lotus: germination and soil gamma-irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring". American Journal of Botany . 89 (2): 236–247. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.236. PMID   21669732. Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been cultivated as a crop in Asia for thousands of years. An ≈1300-yr-old lotus fruit, recovered from an originally cultivated but now dry lakebed in northeastern China, is the oldest germinated and directly 14C-dated fruit known. In 1996, we traveled to the dry lake at Xipaozi Village, China, the source of the old viable fruits.
  14. Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Liu, Yanling; Yang, Mei; Han, Yuepeng; et al. (2013). "Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)". Genome Biology. 14 (5): R41. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r41. PMC   4053705 . PMID   23663246.
  15. "Sacred Lotus Genome Sequence Enlightens Scientists". Science Daily. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  16. Wolpert, Stuart (10 May 2013). "Scientists sequence genome of 'sacred lotus,' which likely holds anti-aging secrets". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  17. 1 2 Sou, S. Y.; Fujishige, N. (1995). "Cultivation comparison of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) between China and Japan". Journal of Zhejiang Agricultural Sciences. 4: 187–189.
  18. 1 2 Dictionary of Gardening. Huxley, Anthony, 1920-1992., Griffiths, Mark, 1963-, Royal Horticultural Society. London: Macmillan Press. 1992. ISBN   978-0333474945. OCLC   25202760.CS1 maint: others (link)
  19. Phillips, Roger (1995). Vegetables . Rix, Martyn. London: Macmillan. ISBN   978-0333626405. OCLC   32465255.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tian, Daike (2008). Container production and post-harvest handling of Lotus (Nelumbo) and Micropropagation of herbaceous Peony (Paeonia). Auburn: Auburn University.
  21. 1 2 Masuda, Junichiro; Urakawa, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi (2006-01-01). "Short Photoperiod Induces Dormancy in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)". Annals of Botany. 97 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1093/aob/mcj008. PMC   2000761 . PMID   16287906.
  22. "Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. | Plants of the World Online". Kew Science. Retrieved 2017-11-19.
  23. Tian, Daike; Tilt, Ken M.; Sibley, Jeff L.; Woods, Floyd M.; Dane, Fenny (2009-06-01). "Response of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) to Planting Time and Disbudding". HortScience. 44 (3): 656–659. doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI.44.3.656 .
  24. Kubitzki, Klaus; Rohwer, Jens G.; Bittrich, Volker (2011-01-28). Flowering plants, dicotyledons : magnoliid, hamamelid, and caryophyllid families. Kubitzki, Klaus, 1933-, Rohwer, J. G. (Jens G.), 1958-, Bittrich, V. (Volker), 1954-. Berlin. ISBN   9783642081415. OCLC   861705944.
  25. Lim, T. K. (2016). "Nelumbo nucifera". Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. Springer, Cham. pp. 55–109. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-26062-4_5. ISBN   978-3319260617.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 La-ongsri, Woranuch; Trisonthi, Chusie; Balslev, Henrik (2009-08-01). "Management and use of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. in Thai wetlands". Wetlands Ecology and Management. 17 (4): 279–289. doi:10.1007/s11273-008-9106-6. ISSN   0923-4861. S2CID   25530088.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V., Nguyen, Q. (2001). Exporting lotus to Asia : an agronomic and physiological study : a report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Hicks, D., Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (Australia). Asian Foods Research and Development. Barton, A.C.T.: RIRDC. ISBN   978-0642582546. OCLC   52647644.
  28. 1 2 3 Kay, Daisy E. (1987). Root crops (2nd ed.). London: Tropical Development and Research Institute. ISBN   978-0859542005. OCLC   19298279.
  29. Deni., Bown (1995). Encyclopedia of herbs & their uses . Herb Society of America. (1st American ed.). London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN   978-0789401847. OCLC   32166152.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Guo, H. B. (2009-05-01). "Cultivation of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) and its utilization in China". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 56 (3): 323–330. doi:10.1007/s10722-008-9366-2. ISSN   0925-9864. S2CID   19718393.
  31. Assessing lotus for wastewater bioremediation. Seymour, Evizel., Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (Australia). Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corp. 2009. ISBN   978-1741518887. OCLC   682913738.CS1 maint: others (link)
  32. 1 2 3 YU, Xin; et al. (2002). "Progress in the Research on Post-harvest Physiology and Storage Techniques of Nelumbo nucifera gaertn [J]". Guangzhou Food Science and Technology. 3: 019.
  33. 1 2 Tian, N., et al. "Isolation and preparation of flavonoids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by preparative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography." Se pu= Chinese journal of chromatography 25.1 (2007): 88-92.
  34. Su, X.; Jiang, Y.; Li, Y.; Lin, W. (2003). "Effects of 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) on browning and quality of fresh-cut lotus". Food Science. 24: 142–145.
  35. M.A. Rojas-Graüa, M.S. Tapiab, O. Martín-Bellosoa. Using polysaccharide-based edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut Fuji apples. LWT Food Science and Technology, 41 (2008), pp. 139-147
  36. "9 Nutritious Lotus Root Recipes To Try". Honest Food Talks. 12 December 2020.
  37. Tsuchiya, T.; Nohara, S. (1989). "Growth and life span of the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. in lake Kasumigaura, Japan". Aquatic Botany. 36 (1): 87–95. doi:10.1016/0304-3770(89)90094-6.
  38. Mukherjee PK. et al. Isolation, estimation and characterization of starch from rhizomes of Nelumbo nuciferaGaertn (Fam. Nymphaeaceae). Ind Drugs 1995; 32: 392–397.
  39. Mukherjee PK. et al. Pharmaceutical application of starch isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Fam. Nymphaeaceae). Ind J Pharm Sci 1996; 58: 59–66.
  40. He, J; Cheng, W; Chen, X; Wen, S; Zhang, G; Xiong, G; Ye, L; Chen, Y (2006). "Study on the vacuum sublimation freezing-drying of lotus seeds". Hubei Agric Sci. 45: 240–244.
  41. Tian, Y; Zhang, Y; Zeng, S; Zheng, Y; Chen, F; Guo, Z; Lin, Y; Zheng, B (2012b). "Optimization of microwave vacuum drying of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds by response surface methodology". Food Sci Technol Int. 18 (5): 477–488. doi:10.1177/1082013211433071. PMID   23144241. S2CID   42335541.
  42. Bhat, R; Sridhar, KR; Karim, AA; Young, CC; Arun, AB (2009). "Influence of c-radiation on the nutritional and functional qualities of lotus seed flour". J Agric Food Chem. 57 (20): 9524–9531. doi:10.1021/jf902287e. PMID   19778060.
  43. 1 2 Wu C, Xia Y, Tang X (2013) Optimization of fermentation process for lotus rice-wine production by response surface methodology. Mod Food Sci Technol 29:1675–1679
  44. 1 2 3 4 5 Zhang, Yi; Lu, Xu; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Huang, Xuhui; Guo, Zebin; Zheng, Yafeng; Tian, Yuting; Zheng, Baodong (2015). "Nutritional composition, physiological functions and processing of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds: A review". Phytochemistry Reviews. 14 (3): 321. doi:10.1007/s11101-015-9401-9. S2CID   16527010.
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 Thongchai Kanabkaew; Udomphon Puetpaiboon (2004). "Aquatic plants for domestic wastewater Treatment: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) systems" (PDF). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 26.
  46. 1 2 H.M. Anawar; A. Garcia-Sanchez; M. Tari Kul Alam; M. Majibur Rahman (2008). "Phytofiltration of water polluted with arsenic and heavy metals". International Journal of Environment and Pollution. 33. doi:10.1504/IJEP.2008.0194 (inactive 31 May 2021).CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link)
  47. 1 2 3 4 Virendra Mishra (2009). "Accumulation of Cadmium and Copper from Aqueous Solutions using Indian Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)". AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 38 (2): 110–112. doi:10.1579/0044-7447-38.2.110. PMID   19431942. S2CID   43473128.
  48. 1 2 Gallego, S. M.; M. P. Benavides; M. L. Tomaro (1996). "Effect of heavy metal ion excess on sunflower leaves: evidence for involvement of oxidative stress". Plant Science. 121 (2): 151–159. doi:10.1016/s0168-9452(96)04528-1.
  49. "Lotus care sheet".
  50. Liu, C.-Q. (December 2013). "Ecological restoration using Trapa bispinosa and Nelumbo nucifera on eutrophic water body in Baizangdian Lake". Wetland Science. 11 (4): 510–514.
  51. 1 2 3 4 Guo, H.B. (2009). "Cultivation of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. spp. nucifera) and ist utilization in China". Genet Resour Crop Evol. 56 (3): 323–330. doi:10.1007/s10722-008-9366-2. S2CID   19718393.
  52. Shen-Miller, J.; Lindner, Petra; Xie, Yongming; Villa, Sarah; Wooding, Kerry; Clarke, Steven G.; Loo, Rachel R. O.; Loo, Joseph A. (2013-09-01). "Thermal-stable proteins of fruit of long-living Sacred Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn var. China Antique". Tropical Plant Biology. 6 (2–3): 69. doi:10.1007/s12042-013-9124-2. ISSN   1935-9756. PMC   3869599 . PMID   24363819.
  53. Zi Xi, Lian (2011). "Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: a possible molecular mechanism". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 650 (1): 163–169. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.025. PMID   20969858.
  54. Kashiwada, Y.; Aoshima, A.; Ikeshiro, Y.; Chen, Y. P.; Furukawa, H.; Itoigawa, M.; Fujioka, T.; Mihashi, K.; Cosentino, L. M.; Morris-Natschke, S. L.; Lee, K. H. (2005). "Anti-HIV benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera, and structure–activity correlations with related alkaloids". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (2): 443–448. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.10.020. PMID   15598565.
  55. Menendez-Perdomo, I. M. and P. J. Facchini (2018). "Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids Biosynthesis in Sacred Lotus." Molecules 23(11) doi:10.3390/molecules23112899 PMID   30404216
  56. Menendez-Perdomo, I. M. and P. J. Facchini (2020). "Isolation and characterization of two O-methyltransferases involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)." J Biol Chem 295(6): 1598-1612 doi:10.1074/jbc.RA119.011547 PMID   31914404
  57. 1 2 3 Khare CP. Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other Traditional Usage, Botany, 1st edn. USA: Springer, 2004: 326–327.
  58. 1 2 3 4 Sridhar KR, Bhat R. Lotus: a potential nutraceutical source. J Agri Technol 2007; 3: 143–155.
  59. "Lotus: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning". www.webmd.com. Retrieved 2020-02-18.
  60. Mukherjee, Pulok K; Pal, M; Saha, Kakali; Saha, B. P; Das, J (1996). "Diuretic Activity of Extract of the Rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Fam. Nymphaeaceae)". Phytotherapy Research. 10 (5): 424. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199608)10:5<424::AID-PTR857>3.0.CO;2-3.
  61. 1 2 3 Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mukherjee, Debajyoti; Maji, Amal K; Rai, S; Heinrich, Michael (2009). "The sacred lotus(Nelumbo nucifera)- phytochemical and therapeutic profile". Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 61 (4): 407–22. doi: 10.1211/jpp.61.04.0001 . PMID   19298686. S2CID   85342386.
  62. Ding, Hui; Shi, Jinghong; Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia; Zhao, Juhui; Dong, Lei (2011). "Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: A possible molecular mechanism". European Journal of Pharmacology. 650 (1): 163–169. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.025. PMID   20969858.
  63. Li, Z (2008). "Nutrient value and processing of lotus seed". Acad Period Agric Prod Process. 2008: 42–43.
  64. Zheng, B; Zheng, J; Zeng, S (2003). "Analysis of the nutritional compositionin chinese main lotus seed varieties". Acta Nutr Sin. 25: 153–156.
  65. Wu, J.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, T.; Yi, J.; Qin, L.; Rahman, K.; Lin, W. (2007). "Evaluation of the quality of lotus seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn from outer space mutation". Food Chemistry. 105 (2): 540–547. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.04.011.
  66. Mukherjee, PK.; et al. (1998). "Pharmacognostical profiles of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn". Ancient Sci Life. 17: 273–279.
  67. Mukherjee, PK; et al. (1996). "Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract". Ind J Exp Biol. 34 (3): 275–276. PMID   8781041.
  68. Mukherjee, PK; Das, J; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, BP (1996). "Diuretic activity of the rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Fam. Nymphaeaceae)". Phytother Res. 10 (5): 424–425. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099-1573(199608)10:5<424::aid-ptr857>3.3.co;2-v.
  69. Mukherjee, PK; Saha, K; Balasubramanian, R; Pal, M; Saha, BP (1996). "Studies on psychopharmacological effects of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Rhizome extract". J Ethnopharmacol. 54 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(96)01455-9. PMID   8953419.
  70. Mukherjee, K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B (1997). "Effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract on blood sugar level in rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 58 (207–213): 207–13. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(97)00107-4. PMID   9421256.
  71. Huralikuppi, JC; Christopher, AB; Stephen, P (1991). "Antidiabetic effect of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn): Part I Preliminary studies in rabbits". Phytother Res. 5 (2): 54–58. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650050203. S2CID   57700188.
  72. Mukherjee, P. K.; Das, J.; Saha, K.; Giri, S. N.; Pal, M.; Saha, B. P. (1996). "Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract". Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 34 (3): 275–6. PMID   8781041.
  73. Wang, J; Zhang, G (2010). "The yield and chemical composition of lotus seed on different culture conditions". Hubei J TCM. 32: 75–76.
  74. Shad, MA; Nawaz, H; Siddique, F; Zahra, J; Mushtaq, A (2013). "Nutritional and functional characterization of seed kernel of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera): application of response surface methodology". Food Sci Technol Res. 19 (2): 163–172. doi: 10.3136/fstr.19.163 .
  75. Tang, P; Jiang, Z; Mei, C; Jiang, H (1998). "The composition, solubility and quality of lotus seed". J Beijing Norm Univ (Nat Sci). 34: 532–537.
  76. Zheng, B; Zheng, J; Zeng, C (2004). "Study on three functional components of Chinese main lotus seed varieties". Acta Nutr Sin. 26: 158–160.
  77. Zheng B, Zheng J, Zeng S (2003) Analysis of the nutritional composition in Chinese main lotus seed varieties. Acta Nutr Sin 25:153–156
  78. Wu J, Zheng Y, Chen T, Yi J, Qin L, Rahman K, Lin W (2007) Evaluation of the quality of lotus seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. from outer space mutation. Food Chem 105:540–547
  79. Sung J, Sung J, Shin H (2011) Cytoprotective effects of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner) seed extracts on oxidative damaged mouse embryonic fibroblast cell. Food Sci Biotechnol 20:1533–1537
  80. Xia Y (2012) Effect of germination on chemical and functional properties of lotus seeds. Food Sci 33:91–98
  81. "Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus)". Kew. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  82. Stanton, Kristen M. (June 21, 2021). "Lotus Flower Meaning & Symbolism". UniGuide.
  83. Jansen, Eva Rudy, The Book of Hindu Imagery: The Gods and their Symbols, p. 18, 1993, Binkey Kok Publications, ISBN   9074597076, 9789074597074, google books
  84. Krishan, Yuvrajmm, Tadikonda, Kalpana K., The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development, pp. 65, 78, 1996, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN   8121505658, 9788121505659, google books
  85. Moore, Albert C., Klein, Charlotte, Iconography of Religions: An Introduction, p. 148, 1977, Chris Robertson, ISBN   0800604881, 9780800604882, google books
  86. Rodrigues, H, "The Sacred Lotus Symbol", Mahavidya, 2016
  87. Shakti, M. Gupta (1971). Plant Myths and Traditions in India. Netherlands: Brill Publishers. pp. 65–67.