Gateway to Malnad
|Established||1 November 1956|
|Talukas||Shimoga, Sagara, Shikaripura, Soraba, Hosanagara, Bhadravathi, Thirthahalli|
|• Superintendent of Police||Shantharaju. K .M, IPS|
|• Deputy Commissioner||K.B. Sivakumar, IAS|
|• Total||8,495 km2 (3,280 sq mi)|
|• Density||207/km2 (540/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
Shimoga district, officially known as Shivamogga district,is a district in the Karnataka state of India. A major part of Shimoga district lies in the Malnad region or the Sahyadri. Shimoga city is its administrative centre. Jog Falls view point is a major tourist attraction. As of 2011 Shimoga district has a population of 1,752,753. There are seven taluks: Soraba, Sagara, Hosanagar, Shimoga, Shikaripura, Thirthahalli, and Bhadravathi. Channagiri and Honnali were part of Shimoga district until 1997 when it became part of the newly formed Davanagere district.
Shivamogga was previously known as Mandli.There are legends about how the name Shivamogga has evolved. According to one, the name Shivamogga is related to the Hindu God Shiva. Shiva-Mukha (Face of Shiva), Shivana-Moogu (Nose of Shiva) or Shivana-Mogge (Flowers to be offered to Shiva) can be the origins of the name "Shivamogga". Another legend indicates that the name Shimoga is derived from the word Sihi-Moge which means sweet pot. According to this legend, Shivamogga once had the ashram of the sage Durvasa. He used to boil sweet herbs in an earthen pot. Some cowherds, found this pot and after tasting the sweet beverage named this place Sihi-Moge.
During Treta yuga, Lord Rama killed Maricha, who was in the disguise of a deer at Mrugavadhe near Thirthahalli.The Shimoga region formed a part of the Mauryan empire during the 3rd century. The district came into the control of Satavahanas. The Satakarni inscription has been found in the Shikaripur taluk. After the fall of the Shatavahana empire around 200 CE, the area came under the control of the Kadambas of Banavasi around 345 CE. The Kadambas were the earliest kingdom to give administrative status to the Kannada language. Later the Kadambas became feudatories of the Badami Chalukyas around 540 CE.
In the 8th century Rashtrakutas ruled this district.The Kalyani Chalukyas overthrew the Rashtrakutas, and the district came into their rule. Balligavi was a prominent city during their rule. In the 12th century, with the weakening of the Kalyani Chalukyas, the Hoysalas annexed this area. After the fall of the Hoysalas, the entire region came under the Vijayanagar Empire. When the Vijayanagar empire was defeated in 1565 CE in the battle of Tallikota, the Keladi Nayakas who were originally feudatory of the Vijayanagar empire took control, declared sovereignty, and ruled as an independent kingdom for about two centuries. In 1763 Haider Ali captured the capital of Keladi Nayakas and as a result the district came into the rule of the Kingdom of Mysore and remained a part of it till India acquired independence from the British.
Shimoga district is a part of the Malnad region of Karnataka and is also known as the 'Gateway to Malnad' or 'Malenaada Hebbagilu' in Kannada. The district is landlocked and bounded by Haveri, Davanagere, Chikmagalur, Udupi and Uttara Kannada districts. The district ranks 9th in terms of the total area among the districts of Karnataka. It is spread over an area of 8465 km2.
Shimoga lies between the latitudes 13°27' and 14°39' N and between the longitudes 74°38' and 76°04' E at a mean altitude of 640 metres above sea level.The peak Kodachadri hill at an altitude of 1343 metres above sea level is the highest point in this district. Rivers Kali, Gangavati, Sharavati and Tadadi originate in this district. The two major rivers that flow through this district are Tunga and Bhadra which meet at Koodli near Shimoga city to gain the name of Tungabhadra, which later joins River Krishna.
As the district lies in the tropical region, rainy season occurs from June to October. In the years 1901–1970, Shimoga received an average annual rainfall of 1813.9 mm with an average of 86 days in the year being rainy days. The average annual temperature of Shimoga district is around 26 °C. The average temperature has increased substantially over the years. In some regions of the district, the day temperature can reach 40 °C during summer. This has led to water crisis and other problems.
The plain land of the district is suitable for agriculture.
Foundry, agriculture and animal husbandry are the major contributors to the economy of Shimoga district. The crops cultivated in this district are paddy, arecanut, cotton, maize, oil seeds, cashewnut, pepper, chili, ginger, Ragi.Karnataka is the largest producer of arecanut in India, the majority of which is cultivated in the Shimoga district. The farmers have cultivated crops like Vanilla and Jatropha that has yielded high monetary benefits. Spices like, clove, pepper, cinnamon, cardamom are grown along with areaca plants. This multi cropping can help in maximum utilisation of land space and improve soil fertility. As spices have high commercial value it provides additional income to farmers.
Iron, agriculture, Textiles and engineering are the major industries in Shimoga district. As of 2000 [update] , there were about 9800 industrial units in Shimoga District (small, medium and large), with more than 41,000 employees.Foundry activity has a long history there and Pearlite Liners (P) Led., one of the oldest industries of Karnataka (earlier known as Bharath Foundry), is the largest private-sector employer in the district.
Major investments are made in food; beverages, engineering, and mechanical goods. Other rural industries in this district are carpentry, blacksmith, leather, pottery, beekeeping, stone cutting, handlooms, agarbathi, and sandalwood carving.
Karnataka government has created industrial regions to encourage industrialisation of the district: KIADB Nidige Industrial area in Bhadravathi taluk; Machinahaali Industrial Area. Mandli-Kallur Industrial area in Shimoga taluk; Shimoga Industrial estate in Shimoga; Kallahalli Industrial estate in Shimoga. KIADB Devakathikoppa Industrial Area. KSSIDC Siddlipura Industrial Area. Major industries in Shimoga district are VISL and MPM.
Shimoga district is divided into seven taluks: Soraba, Bhadravathi, Thirthahalli, Sagara, Shikaripura, Shimoga and Hosanagara.
The district administration is headed by the deputy commissioner who has the additional role of a district magistrate. Assistant commissioners, tahsildars, shirastedars, revenue inspectors and village accountants help the deputy commissioner in the administration of the district. The headquarters is Shimoga city.
The Shimoga Lok Sabha constituency comprises the entire Shimoga district and also covers parts of Nalluru and Ubrani hoblis of Channagiri taluk of Davanagere district. As of 2005 it had 1,286,181 voters: Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes account for 2.2 lakhs; Lingayats account for two lakhs; Deevaru (Idiga)account for 1.8 lakh; (Madivala) account for 1.2 lakh;Muslims account for 1.6 lakh; Brahmins and Vokkaligas account for 1.25 lakh each.Seven members are elected to the Legislative assembly of the state of Karnataka. The assembly constituencies in Shimoga district are:
According to the 2011 census Shimoga district has a population of 1,752,753, 207 inhabitants per square kilometre (540/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 6.88%. Shimoga has a sex ratio of 995 females per 1000 males and a literacy rate of 80.5%.which is roughly equal to population of the nation Gambia and the state of Nebraska of the United States. The district ranks 275th in India out of a total of 640 districts. The district has a population density of
Shimoga taluk has the highest population with Hosanagara taluk having the lowest. The district has a sex ratio of 977 females to 1000 males. Shimoga Taluk having 991 females to 1000 males has the lowest sex-ratio.
|Taluk name||Number of households||Population||Males||Females|
Hindus constitute 85.45% of the population with Muslims making up 12.25% of the population; the remaining part of the population is made up by Christians, Buddhists and other religious groups.Kannada is the dominant language in this district.
Ballegavi, also known as 'Dakshina kedara' was the capital of Banavasi rulers during the 12th century CE. There are many temples in Ballegavi, some constructed as per Late Chalukyan architecture: Kedareshvara temple, Tripurantakeshvara temple, and Prabhudeva temple.They are known for architecture and sculpture. Shivappa Naik palace is located in Shimoga on the banks of river Tunga; it was constructed by Shivappa nayaka of Keladi. The Lakshminarsimha temple in Bhadravathi was built as per Hoysala architecture. Keladi and Ikkeri were the capital cities during the time of Keladi Nayakas. There are three temples in Keldai: Rameshvara temple, Veerbhadreshvara temple, and Parvati temple. The Aghoreshvara temple is in Ikkeri. The Sacred Heart church, constructed in the 1990s, is second largest church of Asia.
Shimoga district has produced several Kannada writers and poets:
In December 2006, the 73rd Kannada Sahitya Sammelana took place in Shimoga. K.S.Nissar Ahmed was the president of the event.This was the third Kannada Sahiya Sammelana held at Shimoga: The first one was held in 1946 (president: Da.Ra.Bendre) and second one in 1976 (president: S.V.Ranganna).
Nilakanteshwara Natya Seva Sangha is located in a village called Heggodu in Sagara. It was established by K. V. Subbanna in 1958.Ninasam is a drama institute. The headquarters is in Heggodu. It has a library, rehearsal hall, guesthouse and theatre. Shivarama Karantha Rangamandira is an auditorium for Ninasam. It was opened in 1972. Ninasam started a Theatre-in-education project called Shalaranga with the help from the government of India during 1991-1993. Ford Foundation has volunteered in establishing a rural theatre and film culture project called Janaspandana. Ninasam conducts a summer workshop for youngsters. Ninasam chitrasamaja is an organisation to encourage film culture and to hold film festivals.
Gudigars are a clan of craftsmen who are specialised in carving intricate designs on wood, mainly sandalwood. They are concentrated in the Sagara and Soraba taluks. The articles they make are sold at government emporiums.Ashok Gudigar is one of the sculptors from this clan. A 41-foot Bahubali statue is one of his works. He has won the Vishwakarma award for his Chalukyan-style Ganesha sculpture. He has won the National award in 1992 for his Hoysala-styled Venugopala sculpture.
Dollu Kunitha and Yakshagana are some of the dance forms which are prevalent in this district. Yakshagana has a long history in the district and Dr. Kota Shivarama Karantha suggests that origin of the 'badaguthittu' form of Yakshagana took place in the region between Ikkeri of Shimoga district and Udupi.
Dasara is celebrated every year in Shimoga.Many cultural programmes are held during this time. A folk fair was organised in Shimoga in 2006. Marikamba festival is celebrated in Sagara once in 3 years.
The tele-serial Malgudi days which was based on a novel written by R K Narayan was shot in Agumbe.It was directed by the Kannada actor and director Shankar Nag. The film Kanoora heggadathi which was based on the novel written by Kuvempu was shot in Thirthahalli taluk. It was directed by Girish Karnad. B. V. Karanth composed music for this film. The film Samskara, based on the novel written by U. R. Anantha Murthy, was shot in a village in the Shimoga district.
Cinema personalities born in Shimoga district:
Rice is the staple food for majority of the people in Shimoga district. The food in this district is somewhat similar to Udupi cuisine. However, exclusive dishes specified to Malenadu are a part of Shimoga District.
The cooking in the Malnad region of Shimoga district includes items like midigayi-uppinakai (tender-mango pickle), sandige (similar to pappadum), avalakki (beaten rice) and akki rotti. Havyaka people have their own cuisine consisting of such varied items like genesale (sweet made of jaggery, rice and coconut), thotadevvu (sweet made of rice and sugarcane juice) and thambli (a curd preparation containing other ingredients like ginger, turmeric root, jasmine and rose sprouts).
The Malnad region is a biodiversity hotspot with a rich diversity of flora and fauna. The region has protected areas classified as wildlife sanctuaries to ensure the protection of these species:
Python, cobra, king cobra, rat snake, marsh crocodile are among the reptiles found in the sanctuary.
Birds include Hornbills, Kingfishers, Bulbuls, Parakeets, Doves, Pigeons, babblers, Flycatchers, munias, Swallows, Woodpeckers, Peafowl, Jungle fowl, Partridges.A tiger and lion safari at Tyavarekoppa was created in the northeastern part of the sanctuary in 1988.
Some of the bird species found here are Malabar whistling thrush; species of Bulbuls; Woodpeckers, Hornbills, pigeons, Drongos, Asian paradise flycatcher. The sanctuary has been recently adopted under a tiger-conservation project called Project Tiger which is an initiative from the Indian government.
Shimoga district has a literacy rate of 80.2%.The district has two engineering colleges, two medical colleges, an ayurvedic medical college, dental college, veterinary College and an agricultural college. There are 116 pre-university colleges in the district out of which 51 government pre-university colleges. There are 41 educational institutions managed by National education society. There are 1106 lower primary schools and 1185 higher primary schools.
There are 1106 lower primary schools, 1185 higher primary schools and 393 high schools in Shimoga district. There are 1323 anganawadis.National education society has 31 educational institutions including pre-university and first grade colleges. There are five CBSE schools, including Jnanadeepa school. National Residential school is another CBSE school in Thirthalli.Hongirana School Of Excellence is a CBSE School in Sagar, Karnataka. B G S Central School which is affiliated CBSE is at Karehalli Bhadravathi
Government High School, Jade
Government High School, Jade is one of the top three high schools in Soraba Taluk. This high school has the biggest playground and more than 500 students from Jade, and surrounding up to 10 km villages are studying in this school. GHS JADE have won several computation organised by Department Of Education, like sports, Prathiba Karanji in every year, In 2015 this high school started to offer English-medium classes for 8th, 9th and 10th students.
There are 116 pre-university colleges in the district.There are 51 government colleges, 3 bifurcated colleges, 47 unaided colleges and 15 aided colleges. In the 2012 second year pre-university examination, the district ranked 5th with 54.31% of passed candidates.
There are 8 Polytechnics in the district. Major polytechnics among them are Government Polytechnic - Bhadravathi, Government Women's Polytechnic - Gopala, Sahyadri Polytechnic, Sanjay Memorial Polytechnic-Sagara, DVS Polytechnic.
There are 12 colleges affiliated to Kuvempu University,5 B.Ed and B.P.Ed colleges and 3 constituent colleges. Sahyadri science college is located in Shimoga city. It was established in 1940 and was upgraded to first grade college in 1956. It offers two undergraduate courses: B.Sc. and B.C.A. There are two engineering colleges in the district: Jawaharlal Nehru national college of engineering and P.E.S. Institute of Technology and Management. Jawaharlal Nehru national college of engineering was established in 1980 by the National education society. The college offers 7 courses in B.E. PES institute of technology and management was established in 2007. The college offers 5 undergraduate programmes in B.E. National College of Pharmacy in the center of the city is one of the oldest college in Karnataka state and students across the nation has studied here. Shimoga Institute of Medical Sciences was started in 2005. It is on the premises of the McGann Hospital in Shimoga, established in memory of British Surgeon Dr. T.G.McGann. The college is affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka. There are 21 departments in the college. Bapuji Ayurvedic Medical college, established in 1996, is in Shimoga, which offers B.A.M.S. Ayurvedacharya degree. T.M.A.E. Society's Ayurved College, established in 1992, is located in Shimoga, which also offers B.A.M.S Ayuvedacharya degree. Both colleges are affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. Sharavathi Dental college, established in the year 1992, is in Shimoga and has been approved by DCI. It offers B.D.S. in Dental surgery. It is affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences.
Sahyadri science college offers two post graduate programmes: M.Sc.and MTA. Jawaharlal Nehru national college of engineering has 7 post-graduate programmes: Master of computer applications; Master of business administration; M.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering; M.Tech in Network & Internet Engineering; M.Tech in Design Engineering; M.Tech in Transportation Engineering and Management; M.Tech in Digital Electronics and Communication Systems. PES Shimoga offers post-graduation in business studies, Master of Business Administration. The Kuvempu University offers courses in Languages, Literature and Fine Arts; Social Sciences; Economic and Business studies; Physical Sciences; Chemical sciences; Bio Sciences; Earth and Environmental Science; Law; Education; M.Tech in Nanoscience and Technology.
Shimoga district has three cricket stadiums: Nehru stadium,Jawaharlal Nehru college of engineering cricket ground and PES Institute of Technology Cricket ground. The first match played on the Nehru stadium was in 1974. Since then 13 matches have been played out of which 3 are Ranji matches. The Ranji match between Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh was hosted on the Jawaharlal Nehru cricket ground.
Sagara has a very good cricket stadium called Gopalagowda Stadium, It is the only best leather pitch stadium in the district.
The work on an international cricket stadium has started near Navule.The VISL cricket stadium is located in Bhadravathi. Shivamogga Lions represents the Shimoga zone in the KPL. Shimoga, Hassan and Chickmagalur districts come under the Shimoga zone in the Karnataka premier league.
Gundappa Viswanath is a cricketer from Bhadravathi. He has played test cricket for India from 1969 to 1983 making 91 appearances.Bharat Chipli is a cricketer from Sagar who plays for Deccan Chargers. The 18th Junior National Athletic Championship was held in Shimoga.
State-level kho kho and volleyball competitions are held in the district.The volleyball tournaments are held on the Kuvempu University campus and Nehru stadium. VTU inter-collegiate cricket, football, volleyball and handball tournaments are held in the districts. The district football team has won inter-district football tournaments. Shimoga was the host for the CBSE National Handball Championship in 2009. City-level basketball tournaments are conducted in Sahyadri College premises. Other sports tournaments held in Shimoga are table tennis; badminton; kabaddi; chess. There are proposals to upgrade the Nehru stadium in Shimoga. The upgraded stadium would contain a swimming pool of international standards, an indoor stadium, basketball court and a synthetic track. There are proposals to build sports stadium at Thirthahalli, Shikaripura and Soraba.
Gambia1,797,860July 2011 est.
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Shimoga, officially known as Shivamogga, is a city and the district headquarters of Shimoga district in the central part of the state of Karnataka, India. The city lies on the banks of the Tunga River. Being the gateway for the hilly region of the Western Ghats, the city is popularly nicknamed as "Gateway of Malnad". The population of Shimoga city is 322,650 as per 2011 census. The city has been selected for the Smart Cities project, standing in the fourth position in the state and 25th in the country as of November 2020.
Malenadu is a region in the state of Karnataka in India. Malenadu covers the western and eastern slopes of the Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountain range, and is roughly 100 kilometers in width.
Kuppali Venkatappa Puttappa, popularly known by his pen name Kuvempukuu-VEM-poo, was an Indian poet, playwright, novelist and critic. He is widely regarded as the greatest Kannada poet of the 20th century. He was the first Kannada writer to receive the Jnanpith Award.
The Tungabhadra River is a river in India that starts and flows through the state of Karnataka during most of its course, before flowing along the border between Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and ultimately joining the Krishna River near Gundimalla village in Jogulamba Gadwal district of Telangana.
Jog Falls is a waterfall on the Sharavati river located in the Western Ghats near Sagar Taluk of Shivamogga District, Karnataka, India. It is the second highest plunge waterfall in India. It is a segmented waterfall which depends on rain and season becomes a plunge waterfall. The falls are major attractions for tourists and is ranked 36th in the list of free-falling waterfalls, 490th in the world by list of waterfalls by total height, 128th in the list of single-drop waterfalls in the World by the waterfall database.
Sharavati is a river which originates and flows entirely within the state of Karnataka in India. It is one of the few westward flowing rivers of India and a major part of the river basin lies in the Western Ghats. The famous Jog Falls, located about 24 km from Sagara, are formed by this river. The river itself and the region around it are rich in biodiversity and are home to many rare species of flora and fauna.
Agumbe is a settlement situated in the Thirthahalli taluka of Shimoga district, Karnataka, India. It is nestled in the thickly forested Malenadu region of the Western Ghats mountain range. Owing to its high rainfall, it has received the epithet of "The Cherrapunji of South India", after Cherrapunji, one of the rainiest places in India.
Bhadravati or Bhadravathi is an industrial city or Steel Town and taluk in the Shivamogga District of Karnataka state, India. It is situated at a distance of about 255 kilometres (158 mi) from the state capital Bengaluru and at about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the district headquarters, Shivamogga. The town is spread over an area of 67.0536 square kilometres (25.8895 sq mi) and has a population of 151,102 as per the census held in 2011.
Thirthahalli is a panchayat town located in the Shimoga district of the state of Karnataka, India. It lies on the bank of the river Tunga and is also the headquarters of the Thirthahalli Taluk of Shimoga district.
Hosanagar is a panchayat town in Shimoga district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is nested in western ghats of India. The World Cattle Conference with main emphasis on cow was held in month of April 2007 in Hosanagar. The different uses of cow were exhibited. Near Hosanagar there is a mutt named Sri Ramachandrapura Math, 6 km from the town.
Hebri is a Taluk in Udupi district of Karnataka, Hebri is at the foot of the Western Ghats of India in Karnataka state. This place is a main junction and a central point where roads leading to Mangalore, Brahmavar, Karkala, Kundapura, Agumbe and Udupi. The area's forests get high rainfall throughout the year. Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary is located nearby which covers the entire route till Agumbe and to western Ghats. This sanctuary houses some of the endangered species like the King Cobra.
Karnataka, the sixth largest state in India, has been ranked as the third most popular state in the country for tourism in 2014. It is home to 507 of the 3600 centrally protected monuments in India, the largest number after Uttar Pradesh. The State Directorate of Archaeology and Museums protects an additional 752 monuments and another 25,000 monuments are yet to receive protection. Tourism centres on the ancient sculptured temples, modern cities, the hill ranges, forests and beaches. Broadly, tourism in Karnataka can be divided into four geographical regions: North Karnataka, the Hill Stations, Coastal Karnataka and South Karnataka.
Kuppalli, also known as Kuppali (ಕುಪ್ಪಳ್ಳಿ), is a small village in Thirthahalli taluk of Shimoga district in the state of Karnataka in India. It is famous for being the childhood home of the renowned Kannada poet Kuvempu.
Guggari Shanthaveerappa Shivarudrappa, commonly known as G. S. Shivarudrappa, was an Indian Kannada poet, writer and researcher who was awarded the title of Rashtrakavi by the Government of Karnataka in 2006.
The state of Karnataka in India has a bittersweet relationship with rains. While its regions of Malnad and Coastal Karnataka receive copious amount of rainfall; its north Bayaluseemae region in the Deccan Plateau is one of the most arid regions in the country. Most of the rains received in the state is during the monsoon season. Being an agrarian economy with a large percentage of its citizens engaged in agriculture, the failure of rains can have a crippling effect on the economy of the state. Apart from the benefits in agriculture, the Government of Karnataka has tried to avail other benefits of rainfall using scientific methods. An example of this is the project, Rainwater Harvesting in Rural Karnataka which is initiated by the Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology and is one of the largest rainwater harvesting projects in the world. Agumbe in the Shimoga district, Amagaon in Belgaum District, Hulikal again in Shimoga district and Talakaveri in Madikeri are some of the known places with the highest annual rainfall in South India. Of this Amagaon has received over 10000 mm rain fall twice in 10 years.
Kuvempu University is a public state university in Shankaraghattta, Bhadravathi taluk, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. It was established in 1987 by the act of the Karnataka state legislature through amendment No. 28/1976 dated 29 January 1989 under the Karnataka State University Act 1976. The university offers undergraduate and graduate degree programs in wide range of disciplines. It was recognized by the UGC in 1994 and is a member of the Association of Indian Universities (AIU).
Hulikal is a village located in the Hosanagara taluk of the Shimoga district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is known for its heavy rainfall. The Hulikal village lies in western ghat region of Karnataka state. The range of ghat is known by the name Hulikal ghat or Balebare ghat. The road running between Hosangadi and Mastikatte through Hulikal ghati connects coastal district of Udupi with Shivamogga district. The Mani dam reservoir and Savehoklu reservoir are nearby. KPCL has its colony at Mastikatte near to Hulikal. The nearest airport is at Mangalore, situated 123 km south-west of Hulikal. It has an elevation of 600m.
Kattinahole ಕಟ್ಟಿನಹೊಳೆ is a small village in Hosanagara Taluk, Shimoga District of the Indian state of Karnataka. The local language of Kattinahole is Kannada.
Na D'Souza is a novelist and writer in Kannada language living in Sagara, Karnataka, India. He was selected as the President of 80th Kannada Sahitya Sammelana held in Madikeri in the year 2014.
Sagara is a city located in the Indian state of Karnataka and it is also a sub divisional and a taluk headquarters. Located in the Sahyadri Mountain range on the banks of river Varada, it is known for its proximity to Jog Falls and to the historical places of Ikkeri, Keladi and Varadamoola. The river Varada originates near Varada-moola. Sagara subdivision consists of Sagara, Soraba, Hosanagara and Shikaripur taluks.