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Cormorants and shags
Temporal range: 24–0  Ma
Late Oligocene - present
Microcarbo melanoleucos Austins Ferry 3.jpg
Little pied cormorant
Microcarbo melanoleucos
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Suliformes
Family: Phalacrocoracidae
Reichenbach, 1850




Australocorax Lambrecht, 1931
CompsohalieusB. Brewer & Ridgway, 1884
Cormoranus Baillon, 1834
Dilophalieus Coues, 1903
EcmelesGistel, 1848
EuleucocarboVoisin, 1973
HalietorHeine, 1860
Hydrocorax Vieillot, 1819 (non Brisson, 1760: preoccupied)
Hypoleucus Reichenbach, 1852
MiocoraxLambrecht, 1933
NesocarboVoisin, 1973
NotocarboSiegel-Causey, 1988
PallasicarboCoues, 1903
ParacoraxLambrecht, 1933
PliocarboTugarinov, 1940
StictocarboBonaparte, 1855
ViguacarboCoues, 1903
(see text)

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags. Several different classifications of the family have been proposed and the number of genera is disputed, but in 2021 the IOC adopted a consensus taxonomy of 7 genera. [1] [2] The great cormorant (P. carbo) and the common shag (G. aristotelis) are the only two species of the family commonly encountered on the British Isles [3] and "cormorant" and "shag" appellations have been later assigned to different species in the family somewhat haphazardly.

Cormorants and shags are medium-to-large birds, with body weight in the range of 0.35–5 kilograms (0.77–11.02 lb) and wing span of 45–100 centimetres (18–39 in). The majority of species have dark feathers. The bill is long, thin and hooked. Their feet have webbing between all four toes. All species are fish-eaters, catching the prey by diving from the surface. They are excellent divers, and under water they propel themselves with their feet with help from their wings; some cormorant species have been found to dive as deep as 45 metres (150 ft). They have relatively short wings due to their need for economical movement underwater, and consequently have the highest flight costs of any flying bird. [4]

Cormorants nest in colonies around the shore, on trees, islets or cliffs. They are coastal rather than oceanic birds, and some have colonised inland waters. The original ancestor of cormorants seems to have been a fresh-water bird.[ citation needed ] They range around the world, except for the central Pacific islands.


No consistent distinction exists between cormorants and shags. The names 'cormorant' and 'shag' were originally the common names of the two species of the family found in Great Britain, Phalacrocorax carbo (now referred to by ornithologists as the great cormorant) and Gulosus aristotelis (the European shag). "Shag" refers to the bird's crest, which the British forms of the great cormorant lack. As other species were encountered by English-speaking sailors and explorers elsewhere in the world, some were called cormorants and some shags, depending on whether they had crests or not. Sometimes the same species is called a cormorant in one part of the world and a shag in another, e.g., the great cormorant is called the black shag in New Zealand (the birds found in Australasia have a crest that is absent in European members of the species). Van Tets (1976) proposed to divide the family into two genera and attach the name "cormorant" to one and "shag" to the other, but this flies in the face of common usage and has not been widely adopted.

The scientific family name is Latinised Ancient Greek, from φαλακρός (phalakros, "bald") and κόραξ (korax, "raven"). [5] This is often thought to refer to the creamy white patch on the cheeks of adult great cormorants, or the ornamental white head plumes prominent in Mediterranean birds of this species, but is certainly not a unifying characteristic of cormorants. "Cormorant" is a contraction derived either directly from Latin corvus marinus, "sea raven" or through Brythonic Celtic. Cormoran is the Cornish name of the sea giant in the tale of Jack the Giant Killer. Indeed, "sea raven" or analogous terms were the usual terms for cormorants in Germanic languages until after the Middle Ages. The French explorer André Thévet commented in 1558, "... the beak [is] similar to that of a cormorant or other corvid," which demonstrates that the erroneous belief that the birds were related to ravens lasted at least to the 16th century.


Great cormorant with hooked bill Cormorant yawning.jpg
Great cormorant with hooked bill
Cormorant in Mainaguri Cormorant in Maynaguri.jpg
Cormorant in Mainaguri

Cormorants and shags are medium-to-large seabirds. They range in size from the pygmy cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus), at as little as 45 cm (18 in) and 340 g (12 oz), to the flightless cormorant (Nannopterum harrisi), at a maximum size 100 cm (39 in) and 5 kg (11 lb). The recently extinct spectacled cormorant (Urile perspicillatus) was rather larger, at an average size of 6.3 kg (14 lb). The majority, including nearly all Northern Hemisphere species, have mainly dark plumage, but some Southern Hemisphere species are black and white, and a few (e.g. the spotted shag of New Zealand) are quite colourful. Many species have areas of coloured skin on the face (the lores and the gular skin) which can be bright blue, orange, red or yellow, typically becoming more brightly coloured in the breeding season. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet have webbing between all four toes, as in their relatives.


Imperial shags in Beagle Channel Imperial Shags.jpg
Imperial shags in Beagle Channel

They are coastal rather than oceanic birds, and some have colonised inland waters – indeed, the original ancestor of cormorants seems to have been a fresh-water bird, judging from the habitat of the most ancient lineage. They range around the world, except for the central Pacific islands.


All are fish-eaters, dining on small eels, fish, and even water snakes. They dive from the surface, though many species make a characteristic half-jump as they dive, presumably to give themselves a more streamlined entry into the water. Under water they propel themselves with their feet, though some also propel themselves with their wings (see the picture, [6] commentary, [7] and existing reference video [8] ). Some cormorant species have been found, using depth gauges, to dive to depths of as much as 45 metres (150 ft).[ citation needed ]

Wing-drying behaviour Cormorant at Kanjia Lake, Bhubaneswar.JPG
Wing-drying behaviour

After fishing, cormorants go ashore, and are frequently seen holding their wings out in the sun. All cormorants have preen gland secretions that are used ostensibly to keep the feathers waterproof. Some sources [9] state that cormorants have waterproof feathers while others say that they have water-permeable feathers. [10] [11] Still others suggest that the outer plumage absorbs water but does not permit it to penetrate the layer of air next to the skin. [12] The wing drying action is seen even in the flightless cormorant but not in the Antarctic shags [13] or red-legged cormorants. Alternate functions suggested for the spread-wing posture include that it aids thermoregulation [14] or digestion, balances the bird, or indicates presence of fish. A detailed study of the great cormorant concludes that it is without doubt [15] to dry the plumage. [16] [17]

Cormorants are colonial nesters, using trees, rocky islets, or cliffs. The eggs are a chalky-blue colour. There is usually one brood a year. Parents regurgitate food to feed their young, whose deep, ungainly bills show a greater resemblance to those of the pelicans (to which they are related) than is obvious in the adults.


The cormorants are a group traditionally placed within the Pelecaniformes or, in the Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy, the expanded Ciconiiformes. This latter group is certainly not a natural one, and even after the tropicbirds have been recognised as quite distinct, the remaining Pelecaniformes seem not to be entirely monophyletic. Their relationships and delimitation – apart from being part of a "higher waterfowl" clade which is similar but not identical to Sibley and Ahlquist's "pan-Ciconiiformes" – remain mostly unresolved. Notwithstanding, all evidence agrees that the cormorants and shags are closer to the darters and Sulidae (gannets and boobies), and perhaps the pelicans or even penguins, than to all other living birds. [18]

In recent years, three preferred treatments of the cormorant family have emerged: either to leave all living cormorants in a single genus, Phalacrocorax, or to split off a few species such as the imperial shag complex (in Leucocarbo) and perhaps the flightless cormorant. Alternatively, the genus may be disassembled altogether and in the most extreme case be reduced to the great, white-breasted and Japanese cormorants. [19] In 2014, a landmark study proposed a 7 genera treatment, which was adopted by the IUCN Red List and BirdLife International, and later by the IOC in 2021, standardizing it. [1] [2]

Occipital crest or os nuchale in Phalacrocorax carbo Xiphoid phalacrocorax.jpg
Occipital crest or os nuchale in Phalacrocorax carbo

The cormorants and the darters have a unique bone on the back of the top of the skull known as the os nuchale or occipital style which was called a xiphoid process in early literature. This bony projection provides anchorage for the muscles that increase the force with which the lower mandible is closed. [20] [21] This bone and the highly developed muscles over it, the M. adductor mandibulae caput nuchale, are unique to the families Phalacrocoracidae and Anhingidae. [22] [23]

Several evolutionary groups are still recognizable. However, combining the available evidence suggests that there has also been a great deal of convergent evolution; for example the cliff shags are a convergent paraphyletic group. The proposed division into Phalacrocorax sensu stricto (or subfamily "Phalacrocoracinae") cormorants and Leucocarbo sensu lato (or "Leucocarboninae") shags [24] does have some degree of merit. [25] The resolution provided by the mtDNA 12S rRNA and ATPase subunits six and eight sequence data [25] is not sufficient to properly resolve several groups to satisfaction; in addition, many species remain unsampled, the fossil record has not been integrated in the data, and the effects of hybridisation – known in some Pacific species especially – on the DNA sequence data are unstudied.

List of genera

Cormorant (species unknown) begins its dive Cormorant diving for food in Morro Bay.jpg
Cormorant (species unknown) begins its dive
Immature Phalacrocorax atriceps albiventer Cormoran Shag.jpg
Immature Phalacrocorax atriceps albiventer
Phalacrocorax niger in Hyderabad, India Little Cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger) in Hyderabad W IMG 8389.jpg
Phalacrocorax niger in Hyderabad, India
Guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii) at Weltvogelpark Walsrode Guanokormoran (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii) - Weltvogelpark Walsrode 2012-01.jpg
Guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii) at Weltvogelpark Walsrode

As per the IOC, the IUCN Red List and BirdLife International, the family contains 7 genera: [1] [2]

Prior to 2021, the IOC classified all these species in just Microcarbo, Phalacrocorax, and Leucocarbo.

Some authorities such as the Clements Checklist have just two genera, Microcarbo with 5 species, and the rest in Phalacrocorax.

For details, see the article "List of cormorant species".

Evolution and fossil record

Cormorants have a very ancient body plan, with similar birds reaching back to the time of the dinosaurs. In fact, the earliest known modern bird, Gansus yumenensis , had essentially the same structure. The details of the evolution of the cormorant are mostly unknown. Even the technique of using the distribution and relationships of a species to figure out where it came from, biogeography, usually very informative, does not give very specific data for this probably rather ancient and widespread group. However, the closest living relatives of the cormorants and shags are the other families of the suborder Sulaedarters and gannets and boobies—which have a primarily Gondwanan distribution. Hence, at least the modern diversity of Sulae probably originated in the southern hemisphere.

While the Leucocarbonines are almost certainly of southern Pacific origin—possibly even the Antarctic which, at the time when cormorants evolved, was not yet ice-covered—all that can be said about the Phalacrocoracines is that they are most diverse in the regions bordering the Indian Ocean, but generally occur over a large area.

Similarly, the origin of the family is shrouded in uncertainties. Some Late Cretaceous fossils have been proposed to belong with the Phalacrocoracidae:
A scapula from the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary, about 70 mya (million years ago), was found in the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia; it is now in the PIN collection. [26] It is from a bird roughly the size of a spectacled cormorant, and quite similar to the corresponding bone in Phalacrocorax. A Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous, c. 66 mya) right femur, AMNH FR 25272 from the Lance Formation near Lance Creek, Wyoming, is sometimes suggested to be the second-oldest record of the Phalacrocoracidae; this was from a rather smaller bird, about the size of a long-tailed cormorant. [27] However, cormorants likely originated much later, and these are likely misidentifications. [28]

As the Early Oligocene Sula" ronzoni cannot be assigned to any of the suloid families—cormorants and shags, darters, and gannets and boobies—with certainty, the best interpretation is that the Phalacrocoracidae diverged from their closest ancestors in the Early Oligocene, perhaps some 30 million years ago, and that the Cretaceous fossils represent ancestral suloids, "pelecaniforms" or "higher waterbirds"; at least the last lineage is generally believed to have been already distinct and undergoing evolutionary radiation at the end of the Cretaceous. What can be said with near certainty is that AMNH FR 25272 is from a diving bird that used its feet for underwater locomotion; as this is liable to result in some degree of convergent evolution and the bone is missing indisputable neornithine features, it is not entirely certain that the bone is correctly referred to this group. [29]

Phylogenetic evidence indicates that the cormorants diverged from their closest relatives, the darters, during the Late Oligocene, indicating that most of the claims of Cretaceous or early Paleogene cormorant occurrences are likely misidentifications. [28]

During the late Paleogene, when the family presumably originated, much of Eurasia was covered by shallow seas, as the Indian Plate finally attached to the mainland. Lacking a detailed study, it may well be that the first "modern" cormorants were small species from eastern, south-eastern or southern Asia, possibly living in freshwater habitat, that dispersed due to tectonic events. Such a scenario would account for the present-day distribution of cormorants and shags and is not contradicted by the fossil record; as remarked above, a thorough review of the problem is not yet available.

Double-crested cormorant Doublecrestcorm14.jpg
Double-crested cormorant

Two distinct genera of prehistoric cormorants are widely accepted today, if Phalacrocorax is used for all living species:

The proposed genus Oligocorax appears to be paraphyletic – the European species have been separated in Nectornis, and the North American ones are placed in the expanded Phalacrocorax. A Late Oligocene fossil cormorant foot from Enspel, Germany, sometimes placed herein, would then be referable to Nectornis if it proves not to be too distinct. All these early European species might belong to the basal group of "microcormorants", as they conform with them in size and seem to have inhabited the same habitat: subtropical coastal or inland waters. Limicorallus, meanwhile, was initially believed to be a rail or a dabbling duck by some. There are also undescribed remains of apparent cormorants from the Quercy Phosphorites of Quercy (France), dating to some time between the Late Eocene and the mid-Oligocene.

Some other Paleogene remains are sometimes assigned to the Phalacrocoracidae, but these birds seem quite intermediate between cormorants and darters (and lack clear autapomorphies of either). Thus, they may be quite basal members of the Palacrocoracoidea. The taxa in question are:

The supposed Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene "Valenticarbo" is a nomen dubium and given its recent age probably not a separate genus.

The remaining species are, in accordance with the scheme used in this article, all placed in the modern genus Phalacrocorax:

The former "Phalacrocorax" (or "Oligocorax") mediterraneus is now considered to belong to the bathornithid Paracrax antiqua . [32] "P." subvolans was actually a darter (Anhinga).

In human culture

Cormorant fishing

A Chinese fisherman with his two cormorants Cormorant chinese.JPG
A Chinese fisherman with his two cormorants

Humans have used cormorants' fishing skills in various places in the world. Archaeological evidence suggests that cormorant fishing was practised in Ancient Egypt, Peru, Korea and India, but the strongest tradition has remained in China and Japan, where it reached commercial-scale level in some areas. [33] In Japan, cormorant fishing is called ukai (鵜飼). Traditional forms of ukai can be seen on the Nagara River in the city of Gifu, Gifu Prefecture, where cormorant fishing has continued uninterrupted for 1300 years, or in the city of Inuyama, Aichi. In Guilin, Guangxi, cormorants are famous for fishing on the shallow Li River. In Gifu, the Japanese cormorant (P. capillatus) is used; Chinese fishermen often employ great cormorants (P. carbo). [34] In Europe, a similar practice was also used on Doiran Lake in the region of Macedonia. [35]

In a common technique, a snare is tied near the base of the bird's throat, which allows the bird only to swallow small fish. When the bird captures and tries to swallow a large fish, the fish is caught in the bird's throat. When the bird returns to the fisherman's raft, the fisherman helps the bird to remove the fish from its throat. The method is not as common today, since more efficient methods of catching fish have been developed, but is still practised as a cultural tradition. [34] [33]

In folklore, literature, and art

Cormorants catching Fish. Hanging silk scroll by Yuhi, Middle Edo period, Japan, 1755 Yuhi Cormorants catching Fish.jpg
Cormorants catching Fish. Hanging silk scroll by Yūhi, Middle Edo period, Japan, 1755
Cormorant sculpture by Brian Fell on the Stone Jetty, Morecambe Cormorant sculpture, Morecambe 1.jpg
Cormorant sculpture by Brian Fell on the Stone Jetty, Morecambe

Cormorants feature in heraldry and medieval ornamentation, usually in their "wing-drying" pose, which was seen as representing the Christian cross, and symbolizing nobility and sacrifice. For John Milton in Paradise Lost , the cormorant symbolizes greed: perched atop the Tree of Life, Satan took the form of a cormorant as he spied on Adam and Eve during his first intrusion into Eden. [36]

In some Scandinavian areas, they are considered good omen; in particular, in Norwegian tradition spirits of those lost at sea come to visit their loved ones disguised as cormorants. [36] For example, the Norwegian municipalities of Røst, Loppa and Skjervøy have cormorants in their coat of arms. The symbolic liver bird of Liverpool is commonly thought to be a cross between an eagle and a cormorant.

In Homer's epic poem The Odyssey, Odysseus (Ulysses) is saved by a compassionate sea nymph who takes the form of a cormorant.

In 1853, a woman wearing a dress made of cormorant feathers was found on San Nicolas Island, off the southern coast of California. She had sewn the feather dress together using whale sinews. She is known as the Lone Woman of San Nicolas and was later baptised "Juana Maria" (her original name is lost). The woman had lived alone on the island for 18 years before being rescued. When removed from San Nicolas, she brought with her a green cormorant dress she made; this dress is reported to have been removed to the Vatican.[ citation needed ]

The bird has inspired numerous writers, including Amy Clampitt, who wrote a poem called "The Cormorant in its Element". The species she described may have been the pelagic cormorant, which is the only species in the temperate U.S. with the "slim head ... vermilion-strapped" and "big black feet" that she mentions.[ citation needed ]

A cormorant representing Blanche Ingram appears in the first of the fictional paintings by Jane in Charlotte Brontë's novel Jane Eyre .[ citation needed ]

In the Sherlock Holmes story "The Adventure of the Veiled Lodger", Dr. Watson warns that if there are further attempts to get at and destroy his private notes regarding his time with Holmes, "the whole story concerning the politician, the lighthouse, and the trained cormorant will be given to the public. There is at least one reader who will understand."

A cormorant is humorously mentioned as having had linseed oil rubbed into it by a wayward pupil during the "Growth and Learning" segment of the 1983 Monty Python movie Monty Python's The Meaning of Life .[ citation needed ]

The cormorant served as the hood ornament for the Packard automobile brand. [37]

Cormorants (and books about them written by a fictional ornithologist) are a recurring fascination of the protagonist in Jesse Ball's 2018 novel Census.

The Pokémon Cramorant, featured in the 8th generation of the video game series may take its name and design from a cormorant.

The cormorant was chosen as the emblem for the Ministry of Defence Joint Services Command and Staff College at Shrivenham. A bird famed for flight, sea fishing and land nesting was felt to be particularly appropriate for a college that unified leadership training and development for the Army, Navy and Royal Air Force.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

Darter Family of birds

The darters, anhingas, or snakebirds are mainly tropical waterbirds in the family Anhingidae, which contains a single genus, Anhinga. There are four living species, three of which are very common and widespread while the fourth is rarer and classified as near-threatened by the IUCN. The term snakebird is usually used without any additions to signify whichever of the completely allopatric species occurs in any one region. It refers to their long thin neck, which has a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged, or when mated pairs twist it during their bonding displays. "Darter" is used with a geographical term when referring to particular species. It alludes to their manner of procuring food, as they impale fishes with their thin, pointed beak. The American darter is more commonly known as the anhinga. It is sometimes called "water turkey" in the southern United States; though the anhinga is quite unrelated to the wild turkey, they are both large, blackish birds with long tails that are sometimes hunted for food.

Anatidae Biological family of water birds

The Anatidae are the biological family of water birds that includes ducks, geese, and swans. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on all the world's continents except Antarctica. These birds are adapted for swimming, floating on the water surface, and in some cases diving in at least shallow water. The family contains around 174 species in 43 genera.

<i>Phalacrocorax</i> Genus of birds

Phalacrocorax is a genus of fish-eating birds in the cormorant family Phalacrocoracidae. Members of this genus are also known as the Old World cormorants.

Pelagic cormorant Species of bird

The pelagic cormorant, also known as Baird's cormorant, is a small member of the cormorant family Phalacrocoracidae. Analogous to other smallish cormorants, it is also called the pelagic shag occasionally. This seabird lives along the coasts of the northern Pacific; during winter it can also be found in the open ocean. Pelagic cormorants have relatively short wings due to their need for economical movement underwater, and consequently have the highest flight costs of any bird.

Sulidae Family of birds

The bird family Sulidae comprises the gannets and boobies. Collectively called sulids, they are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish and similar prey. The 10 species in this family are often considered congeneric in older sources, placing all in the genus Sula. However, Sula and Morus (gannets) can be readily distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and DNA sequence characters. Abbott's booby (Papasula) is given its own genus, as it stands apart from both in these respects. It appears to be a distinct and ancient lineage, maybe closer to the gannets than to the true boobies.

Great cormorant Species of bird

The great cormorant, known as the black shag in New Zealand and formerly also known as the great black cormorant across the Northern Hemisphere, the black cormorant in Australia, and the large cormorant in India, is a widespread member of the cormorant family of seabirds. The genus name is Latinised Ancient Greek, from φαλακρός and κόραξ, and carbo is Latin for "charcoal".

European shag Species of bird

The European shag or common shag is a species of cormorant. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Gulosus. It breeds around the rocky coasts of western and southern Europe, southwest Asia and north Africa, mainly wintering in its breeding range except for the northernmost birds. In Britain this seabird is usually referred to as simply the shag. The scientific genus name is Latinised Ancient Greek, from φαλακρός and κόραξ. The species name aristotelis commemorates the Greek philosopher Aristotle.

Little cormorant Species of bird

The little cormorant is a member of the cormorant family of seabirds. Slightly smaller than the Indian cormorant it lacks a peaked head and has a shorter beak. It is widely distributed across the Indian Subcontinent and extends east to Java, where it is sometimes called the Javanese cormorant. It forages singly or sometimes in loose groups in lowland freshwater bodies, including small ponds, large lakes, streams and sometimes coastal estuaries. Like other cormorants, it is often found perched on a waterside rock with its wings spread out after coming out of the water. The entire body is black in the breeding season but the plumage is brownish, and the throat has a small whitish patch in the non-breeding season. These birds breed gregariously in trees, often joining other waterbirds at heronries.

Plotopteridae Family of sea birds

Plotopteridae is the name of an extinct family of flightless seabirds from the order Suliformes. Related to the gannets and boobies, they exhibited remarkable convergent evolution with the penguins, particularly with the now extinct giant penguins. That they lived in the North Pacific, the other side of the world from the penguins, has led to them being described at times as the Northern Hemisphere's penguins, though they were not closely related. More recent studies have shown, however, that the shoulder-girdle, forelimb and sternum of plotopterids differ significantly from those of penguins, so comparisons in terms of function may not be entirely accurate. On the other hand, there is a theory that this group may have a common ancestor with penguins due to the similarity of brain morphology, and the actual classification is not clear.

Otago shag Species of bird

The Otago shag,, together with the Foveaux shag formerly known as the Stewart Island shag and in its dark phase as the bronze shag, is a species of shag now found only in coastal Otago, New Zealand.

Rock shag Species of bird

The rock shag, also known as the Magellanic cormorant, is a marine cormorant found around the southernmost coasts of South America. Its breeding range is from around Valdivia, Chile, south to Cape Horn and Tierra del Fuego, and north to Punta Tombo in Argentina. In winter it is seen further north, with individuals reaching as far as Santiago, Chile on the west coast and Uruguay on the east. The birds also breed around the coasts of the Falkland Islands.

Black-faced cormorant Species of bird

The black-faced cormorant, also known as the black-faced shag, is a medium-sized member of the cormorant family. Upperparts, including facial skin and bill, are black, with white underparts. It is endemic to coastal regions of southern Australia.

Imperial shag Species of bird

The imperial shag or imperial cormorant is a black and white cormorant native to southern South America, primarily in rocky coastal regions, but locally also at large inland lakes. Some taxonomic authorities, including the International Ornithologists' Union, place it in the genus Leucocarbo, others in the genus Phalacrocorax. It is also known as the blue-eyed shag, blue-eyed cormorant and by many other names, and is one of a larger group of cormorants called blue-eyed shags. The taxonomy is very complex, and several former subspecies are often considered separate species.

Blue-eyed shag Genus of birds

Leucocarbo is a genus of birds in the family Phalacrocoracidae with the members commonly known as blue-eyed shags. This is a group of closely related cormorant taxa. Many have a blue, purple or red ring around the eye ; other shared features are white underparts and pink feet.

Red-legged cormorant Species of bird

The red-legged cormorant also known as the red-legged shag, red-footed cormorant, red-footed shag, Gaimard's cormorant and grey cormorant, is a species of cormorant resident to the coastline of South America. It is the only member of the genus Poikilocarbo. It is non-colonial unlike most seabirds. The red-legged cormorant has not been observed wing-spreading, which is unusual among cormorant species.

Chatham shag Species of bird

The Chatham shag, also known as the Chatham Island shag, is a species of bird in the cormorant and shag family, Phalacrocoracidae. It is endemic to the Chatham Islands of New Zealand. For a long time the species was placed in the genus Phalacrocorax; today it is mostly placed with the other blue-eyed shags of New Zealand and Antarctica in the genus Leucocarbo. Its closest relative is the Otago shag of South Island.

Kerguelen shag Species of bird

The Kerguelen shag is a species of cormorant endemic to the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean, one of the most isolated places on Earth. Many authorities consider it a subspecies of the imperial shag.

Suliformes Order of birds

The order Suliformes is an order recognised by the International Ornithologist's Union. In regard to the recent evidence that the traditional Pelecaniformes is polyphyletic, it has been suggested that the group be split up to reflect the true evolutionary relationships, a 2017 study indicated that they are most closely related to Otidiformes (bustards) and Ciconiiformes (storks).

Antarctic shag Species of bird

The Antarctic shag, sometimes referred to as the imperial cormorant, king cormorant, imperial shag, blue-eyed shag or Antarctic cormorant, is the only species of the cormorant family found in the Antarctic. It is sometimes considered conspecific with the Imperial shag.

Foveaux shag Species of bird

The Foveaux shag, together with the Otago shag formerly known as the Stewart Island shag and in its dark phase as the bronze shag, is a species of shag endemic to Stewart Island/Rakiura and Foveaux Strait, from which it takes its name.


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  3. "Cormorants and shags". RSPB . Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  4. Elliott, KH; Ricklefs, RE; Gaston, AJ; Hatch, SA; Speakman, JR; Davoren, GK (2013). "High flight costs and low dive costs support the biomechanical hypothesis for flightlessness in penguins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (23): 9380–9384. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1304838110 . PMC   3677478 . PMID   23690614.
  5. Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p.  301. ISBN   978-1-4081-2501-4.
  6. "".
  7. "Birds diving beyond 50ft down and going horizontally there?!". Northwest Dive Club.
  8. Cormorants Deep Sea Dive Caught on Camera. Wildlife Conservation Society. 2011-12-14.
  9. Cramp S, Simmons KEL (1977) Handbook of the Birds of the Western Palearctic Volume 1, Oxford University Press ISBN   0-19-857358-8
  10. Rijke AM (1968). "The water repellency and feather structure of cormorants, Phalacrocoracidae". J. Exp. Biol. 48: 185–189. doi:10.1242/jeb.48.1.185.
  11. Marchant S. M.; Higgins, P. J. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Vol 1A. Oxford University Press.
  12. Hennemann, W. W., III (1984). "Spread-winged behaviour of double-crested and flightless cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and P. harrisi: wing drying or thermoregulation?". Ibis. 126 (2): 230–239. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1984.tb08002.x.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. Cook, Timothee R; Guillaume Leblanc (2007). "Why is wing-spreading behaviour absent in blue-eyed shags?" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 74 (3): 649–652. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.11.024. S2CID   53201673.
  14. Curry-Lindahl, K (1970). "Spread-wing postures in Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes" (PDF). Auk. 87 (2): 371–372. doi:10.2307/4083936. JSTOR   4083936.
  15. Sellers, R. M. (1995). "Wing-spreading behavior of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo" (PDF). Ardea. 83: 27–36.
  16. Nelson, J. Bryan (2005). Pelicans, Cormorants and Their Relatives: Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae . Oxford University Press. pp.  162–163. ISBN   0-19-857727-3.
  17. Bernstein, N. P; S J Maxson (1982). "Absence of Wing-spreading Behavior in the Antarctic Blue-eyed Shag (Phalacrocorax Atriceps Bransfieldensis)" (PDF). The Auk. 99 (3): 588–589.
  18. Kennedy et al. (2000), Mayr (2005)
  19. See Siegel-Causey (1988), Orta (1992) and Kennedy et al. (2000) for a review of classification schemes.
  20. Yarrell, William (1828). "On the xiphoid bone and its muscles in the Corvorant (Pelecanus carbo)". The Zoological Journal. 4: 234–237.
  21. Garrod, A. H. (2009). "1. Notes on the Anatomy of Plotus anhinga". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 44: 335–345. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1876.tb02572.x.
  22. Burger, A E (2015). "Functional Anatomy of the Feeding Apparatus of Four South African Cormorants". Zoologica Africana. 13: 81–102. doi:10.1080/00445096.1978.11447608.
  23. Shufeldt, R.W. (1915). "Comparative osteology of Harris's Flightless Cormorant (Nannopterum harrisi)". Emu. 15 (2): 86–114. doi:10.1071/MU915086.
  24. van Tets (1976), Siegel-Causey (1988)
  25. 1 2 Kennedy et al. (2000)
  26. Kurochkin (1995)
  27. Hope (2002)
  28. 1 2 Kuhl, Heiner; Frankl-Vilches, Carolina; Bakker, Antje; Mayr, Gerald; Nikolaus, Gerhard; Boerno, Stefan T; Klages, Sven; Timmermann, Bernd; Gahr, Manfred (2021-01-04). "An Unbiased Molecular Approach Using 3′-UTRs Resolves the Avian Family-Level Tree of Life". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 38 (1): 108–127. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msaa191 . ISSN   0737-4038. PMC   7783168 . PMID   32781465.
  29. Hope (2002) and see Hesperornithes
  30. A proximal ulna, Specimen PB 311, Pierce Brodkorb collection. Initially assigned to P. idahensis. However, it is far too large, being from a very big species possibly larger than a great cormorant: Murray (1970)
  31. At least part of a coracoid is known. Does not appear to belong to the true cormorants. May have been closer in habitus to North Pacific shags, but not closely related[ verification needed ] to these: Howard (1932).
  32. Cracraft (1971)
  33. 1 2 Richard J. King (1 October 2013). The Devil's Cormorant: A Natural History. University of New Hampshire Press. pp. 9–. ISBN   978-1-61168-225-0.
  34. 1 2 "Cormorant Fishing "UKAI"". May 2001. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  35. "About Dojran lake" . Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  36. 1 2 Arin Murphy-Hiscock (18 January 2012). Birds - A Spiritual Field Guide: Explore the Symbology and Significance of These Divine Winged Messengers. Adams Media. pp. 48–49. ISBN   978-1-4405-2688-6.
  37. John Gunnell (January 2004). Standard Guide to 1950s American Cars . Krause Publications. p.  192. ISBN   0-87349-868-2.


Further reading